Página 7 dos resultados de 806 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

O Trabalho de professores/as em um espaço de privação de liberdade

Nakayama, Andréa Rettig
Fonte: Florianópolis, SC Publicador: Florianópolis, SC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 228 p.| il., tabs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Educação, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação, Florianópolis, 2011; O presente trabalho de pesquisa tem como problemática as necessidades de formação continuada dos docentes que atuam na Escola Supletiva da Penitenciária, situada no Complexo Penitenciário do município de Florianópolis. Desse modo, no sentido de problematizar quais as necessidades de atuação e de formação continuada de docentes que atuam nesses espaços, a pesquisa tem como objetivos: apresentar estudos teóricos e documentais de aprofundamento dos conceitos de formação de professores, práticas pedagógicas e educação escolar de jovens e adultos em espaços de privação de liberdade, as necessidades de formação continuada específicas dos/as docentes que trabalham na Escola Supletiva da Penitenciária de Florianópolis. Como procedimento metodológico priorizou-se a pesquisa qualitativa de caráter exploratório, mediante a análise documental acerca de textos legais e de orientação que versam sobre os espaços de privação de liberdade, estudos bibliográficos para a discussão teórica das categorias docência nos espaços de privação de liberdade...

Neighborhood Factors Affecting Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chicago

Thomas, James C.; Torrone, Elizabeth A.; Browning, Christopher R.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
High rates of gonorrhea have been shown to be associated with high rates of incarceration in the prior year. One hypothesized chain of events is that there is a negative effect of incarceration on neighborhood social characteristics, which in turn affect behaviors facilitating transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study examined whether neighborhood characteristics were associated with the incidence of STDs and homicide rates as a proxy for incarceration rates. Data were from the 1995 Program on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, the Chicago Health Department, and the Chicago Police Department. Neighborhood gonorrhea rates increased by 192.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 131.6, 252.9) cases per 100,000 population with a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile of social disorder. This rate difference was a value greater than the median neighborhood gonorrhea rate. Similar increases were observed for other neighborhood measures and for Chlamydia infection. We hypothesize that high rates of incarceration may play a role in undermining neighborhood social cohesion and control. Using homicide rates as a proxy for incarceration, a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile of 1995 neighborhood homicide rates yielded a gonorrhea rate increase of 164.6 (95% CI 124.4...

Examining the Temporal Relationship Between Criminal Justice Involvement and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Drug-Involved Men

Epperson, Matthew W.; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Gilbert, Louisa
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
Although criminal justice involvement has repeatedly been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection prevalence and sexual risk behaviors, few studies have examined whether arrest or incarceration uniquely contributes to sexually risky behavior. We examined the temporal relationship between criminal justice involvement and subsequent sexual HIV risk among men in methadone maintenance treatment in New York City. A random sample of 356 men was interviewed at baseline (time 1), 6-month (time 2), and 12-month (time 3) follow-ups. Propensity score matching, negative binomial, and multiple logistic regression were used to isolate and test the effect of time 2 arrest and incarceration on time 3 sexual risk behaviors. Incidence of time 2 criminal justice involvement was 20.1% for arrest and 9.4% for incarceration in the prior 6 months. Men who were arrested at time 2 demonstrated increased number (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.62; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11, 2.37) and proportion (IRR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.72) of unprotected vaginal sex acts at time 3. Men incarcerated at time 2 displayed increased number (IRR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.23, 3.48) and proportion (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.06...

From Handcuffs to Hallucinations: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Prior Incarcerations in an Urban, Predominantly African American Sample of Hospitalized Patients with First-Episode Psychosis

Ramsay, Claire E.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Broussard, Beth; Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Abedi, Glen R.; Compton, Michael T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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17.51%
High rates of incarceration and criminal justice system recidivism among individuals with serious mental illnesses have long been topics of concern, but few studies have examined rates of prior incarceration at the point of first treatment contact. In a sample of 109 urban, low-income, predominantly African American patients hospitalized for first-episode psychosis, 57.8% reported a history of incarceration. Among those who reported having ever been incarcerated, 58.1% had more than one past incarceration, and the mean number of incarcerations was 2.9±3.4. Patients with a history of incarceration had completed fewer years of education, had poorer premorbid academic functioning, reported an earlier age at initiation of cannabis use, and were more likely to have cannabis and alcohol dependence or abuse. Incarceration was also associated with a greater number of psychosocial problems and more severe positive and general psychopathology symptoms. These findings of excessively high rates of past incarceration among urban, predominantly African American, first-episode psychosis patients—along with the associations between past incarceration and diverse adverse psychosocial and clinical characteristics—serve as a call to action for early psychosis researchers...

Problem Gambling Inside and Out: The Assessment of Community and Institutional Problem Gambling in the Canadian Correctional System

Turner, Nigel E.; Preston, Denise L.; McAvoy, Steven; Gillam, Laura
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
This paper reports on the results of a multi-site survey of gambling behaviour and gambling problems amongst offenders in correctional institutions in Ontario, Canada, conducted between 2008 and 2011. A total of 422 (completion rate 61.5 %) incarcerated offenders (381 male and 41 female) took part in the study including 301 federal offenders and 121 provincial offenders. Based on the Problem Gambling Severity Index of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI/PGSI) the prevalence rate of severe problem gambling was 8.9 prior to incarceration and 4.4 % during incarceration. These numbers are substantially higher than rates found among the general public. Thirty-four percent of the sample reported gambling in prison. Half of those who suffered from gambling problems before incarceration continued to have gambling problems during incarceration. People with problems related to slot machines prior to incarceration reported fewer gambling problems during incarceration compared to other problem gamblers.

Understanding the Revolving Door: Individual and Structural-Level Predictors of Recidivism Among Individuals with HIV Leaving Jail

Fu, Jeannia J.; Herme, Maua; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Zelenev, Alexei; Althoff, Amy; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Avery, Ann K.; Porterfield, Jeff; Jordan, Alison O.; Simon-Levine, Dominique; Lyman, Martha; Altice, Frederick L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
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Incarceration, particularly when recurrent, can significantly compromise the health of individuals living with HIV. Despite this, the occurrence of recidivism among individuals with HIV has been little examined, particularly among those leaving jail, who may be at especially high risk for return to the criminal justice system. We evaluated individual- and structural-level predictors of recidivism and time to re-incarceration in a cohort of 798 individuals with HIV leaving jail. Nearly a third of the sample experienced at least one re-incarceration event in the 6 months following jail release. Having ever been diagnosed with a major psychiatric disorder, prior homelessness, having longer lifetime incarceration history, having been charged with a violent offense for the index incarceration and not having health insurance in the 30 days following jail release were predictive of recidivism and associated with shorter time to re-incarceration. Health interventions for individuals with HIV who are involved in the criminal justice system should also target recidivism as a predisposing factor for poor health outcomes. The factors found to be associated with recidivism in this study may be potential targets for intervention and need to be further explored. Reducing criminal justice involvement should be a key component of efforts to promote more sustainable improvements in health and well-being among individuals living with HIV.

Elevated Sexual Risk Behaviors among Post-Incarcerated Young African American Males in the South

Ricks, JaNelle M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Terrell, Ivy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
The dramatic racial disparities in the rates of HIV/STIs among African Americans make understanding broader structural factors that increase the risk for HIV/STIs crucial. The current study of young 564 African American men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics investigated whether those who had ever been incarcerated reported recent sexual behaviors relatively more risky than their counterparts who had never been incarcerated. Participants were recruited from clinics treating STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15–23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past two months) sexual activity were eligible. Linear mixed-effects models and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models were used to assess associations between baseline incarceration history and sexual risk behavior over a 6-month follow-up period. Mean age was 19.6 years (SD=1.87). At baseline, 240 (42.6%) men reported history of incarceration. Incarceration history predicted several risk behaviors over a 6-month follow-up period. Compared to those with no incarceration history, men previously incarcerated reported a desire to conceive a pregnancy (β=.40, p=.02), were less likely to have used a condom at last sex act (OR=.91...

Culture-Based Justice Architecture : Building Community Wellbeing through Deeper Cultural Engagement

Kirke, Philip James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Law and the culture of law find their expression in the many facets of the law's institutions. One of the most visible of these is the architecture of the places in which the legal process is enacted. Through architecture it is possible to communicate widely variant cultural perspectives on the rule of law. In contemporary Australia, an advanced and successful democracy, Aboriginal families continue to experience grossly disproportionate incarceration rates in the justice and correctional institutional systems, often in demonstrably inappropriate environments. Most commentators agree that a significant contributing factor to overrepresentation in these institutions is the high degree of cultural loss that Aboriginal Australia has suffered, and continues to suffer. This paper argues that part of the solution lies in an acknowledgment of and engagement with Aboriginal culture where it persists as an evident and potentially viable feature of Aboriginal communities. Anthropologists, sociologists, Aboriginal advocates and linguists have furnished tools necessary to implement a culturally literate understanding in the endeavors of law reformers...

Wicked Bad Habits: Governing Women in the Carceral-Therapeutic State in Massachusetts

Sue, Kimberly Lauren
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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26.81%
In this dissertation, I focus on the social response of criminalization and incarceration to the problem of heroin use among women in Massachusetts in the ongoing era of the United States' "War on Drugs." Based on fieldwork conducted between 2010-2014, I argue that the convergence of therapeutic ideals with the prison system creates a means of governing and regulating these women's lives via what I call the "carceral therapeutic state." I examine various facets of treatment programs in the state women's prison, MCI-Framingham, and a local Boston jail, Suffolk County House of Corrections, including drug treatment, trauma treatment and work readiness programs. I consider how and why these programs in prisons and jails have become means to centralize and solidify the criminal justice system as the predominant site of addiction and mental health treatment for poor women on drugs.; Anthropology

The effect of incarceration during pregnancy on birth outcomes.

Martin, S L; Rieger, R H; Kupper, L L; Meyer, R E; Qaqish, B F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of incarceration during pregnancy on infant birth weight. METHODS: North Carolina prison records were matched to North Carolina birth certificates and health services records to identify 94 women who were incarcerated during one pregnancy but not incarcerated during another pregnancy. Paired analyses examined differences between the pregnancies in terms of the women's characteristics and use of health services. A generalized estimating equations analysis modeled infant birth weight as a function of the number of days that a woman was incarcerated during pregnancy, accounting for the correlation between the birth weights of two infants born to the same mother and several potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: Since the women were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated during the second of the pair of pregnancies, as a group they were significantly older and had more children at the time of the incarcerated pregnancy than at the time of the home pregnancy. After controlling for important covariates, a higher number of pregnancy days spent incarcerated was found to be associated with higher infant birth weight. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that aspects of the prison environment such as shelter and regular meals may enhance pregnancy outcomes among very high risk women. Health professionals should join others in efforts to assure that health-promoting resources such as adequate shelter...

Uterine Incarceration: Rare Cause of Urinary Retention in Healthy Pregnant Patients

Slama, Richard; Barry, Mike; McManus, Ken; Latham, Doug; Berniard, Matthew
Fonte: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine Publicador: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.81%
Gravid uterine incarceration (GUI) is a condition that is well discussed in literature; however, there are few acute diagnoses in the emergency department (ED). We present a case series where three multiparous females presented to the ED with non-specific urinary symptoms. On bedside ultrasound, each patient was noted to have a retroverted uterus and inferior bladder entrapment under the sacral promontory. GUI is a rare condition that can lead to uremia, sepsis, peritonitis, and ultimately maternal death. Emergency physicians should include GUI in their differential diagnosis in this patient population and use bedside ultrasound as an adjunct to diagnosis.

Incarceration of Meckel's diverticulum in a left paraduodenal Treitz' hernia

Gerdes, Christoph; Akkermann, Oke; Krüger, Volker; Gerdes, Anna; Gerdes, Berthold
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
Meckel’s diverticula incarcerated in a hernia were first described anecdotally by Littré, a French surgeon, in 1700. Meckel, a German anatomist and surgeon, explained the pathophysiology of this disease 100 years later. In addition, a congenital paraduodenal mesocolic hernia, known as a Treitz hernia, is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. These hernias are caused by an abnormal rotation of the primitive midgut, resulting in a right or left paraduodenal hernia. We treated a patient presenting with pain and diagnosed extraluminal air in the abdomen after a computed tomography examination. We performed a laparotomy and found a combination of these two seldomly occurring congenital diseases, incarceration and perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum in a left paraduodenal hernia. We performed a thorough review of the literature, and this report is the first to describe a patient with a combination of these two rare conditions. We considered the case regarding the variety of terminology as well as the treatment options of these conditions.

Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: An HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal✩

Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels.

Punishing Threats, Imprisoning Millions

Galdes, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%

This thesis seeks to determine whether the federal criminal law has been used increasingly in the past several decades to punish conduct that poses a general threat to society, rather than conduct that causes a concrete harm to a particular victim. It situates this question within a broader discussion of criminal punishment in the United States, including rising incarceration rates, the theoretical justifications for punishment, and important legal limitations on its exercise.

To determine whether the federal criminal law has been used increasingly to punish threats, this thesis charts the enforcement of twenty main categories of federal crimes over the past forty years. It gathers and organizes data on criminal case filings published yearly by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. After calculating the trend of enforcement for each crime, it groups the twenty crimes into three categories based on whether the prohibited conduct constitutes a concrete harm versus a general threat of harm.

Analyzing the results, the thesis concludes that there has been a strong trend over the past two decades to use the federal criminal law to target conduct which threatens to harm society...

"Quem mantém a ordem, quem cria desordem": gangues prisionais na Bahia; "Who maintains order, who creates disorder": prison gangs in Bahia

Lourenço, Luiz Claudio; Almeida, Odilza Lines de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2013 POR
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26.81%
In various western democracies where policy directives for incarceration have been implemented, we can identify an ever stronger and persistent presence of organized groups of prisoners, i.e. prison gangs. This phenomenon is also observable in the majority of Brazil's federal states, including Bahia. Here we look to identify some of the factors and nuances involved in the relation between the state, prison administrations and two of the main prison gangs active in Bahia during the first decade of the 21st century. By using a case study methodology and data triangulation, elements can be found that help us comprehend the process through which these gangs came to be formed and maintained inside and outside the prison units during the period analyzed.; Em diversas democracias ocidentais onde diretrizes políticas de encarceramento foram adotadas, é possível observar a existência cada vez mais forte e recorrente de coletivos organizados de presos, a saber, as gangues prisionais. No Brasil, esse fenômeno também é observado em boa parte de suas unidades federativas. Procuramos aqui identificar alguns dos fatores e das nuanças que compuseram a relação entre Estado, administração prisional e as duas principais gangues prisionais que atuaram na Bahia durante a primeira década dos anos 2000. Ao utilizarmos a metodologia de estudo de caso e da triangulação de informações...

We are still largely in the dark as to whether incarceration reduces recidivism

Mears, Daniel P.; Cochran, Joshua C.; Cullen, Francis T.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN; EN
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26.81%
One of the aims of prison is to reduce recidivism. Daniel P. Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, and Francis T. Cullen find, however, that research tells us little about the effects of prison on offending. They argue that if we want more effective punishment policy, we need better research on the conditions under which incarceration reduces recidivism or achieves other goals.

Although the “get-tough” approach is popular among the American public and policymakers alike, incarceration does not reduce crime

Dawkins, Marika
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
The prevalence of crime has been of great concern to policymakers for decades, with many factors being blamed and many solutions suggested. Since the 1970s’ punitive incarceration policies have found favor, and are now being replicated for juvenile offenders as well. Using state-level data on crime and juvenile residential placement (which have now become very similar in their operations to those of adult facilities), Marika Dawkins finds that such placements do not lead to a reduction in juvenile offending or crime. She argues that, in this light, community-based sanctions as well as greater support for families should take precedence over institutionalization.

Despite signs of less punitive policing and incarceration policies, 2014 will be remembered for Michael Brown and Eric Garner

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
This year saw the trend away from mass incarceration continue and signs of what might be the emergence of an end to the ‘War on Drugs’. In his review of the year in criminal justice and policing policy, Tim Newburn writes that while there have been some encouraging signs of a less punitive and exclusionary means of dealing with crime, the killings of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in New York by police, and the protests that followed, are likely to be the most memorable events of 2014.

The politics of punishment in America are slowly moving away from the mass incarceration policies of the past

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
Decades of punitive crime policies, frequently linked with the ‘war on drugs’, have given the US the highest incarceration rate in the world, with African Americans vastly overrepresented in the prison population. Tim Newburn argues, however, that there may be some small cause for optimism. In a recent speech, the US Attorney-General, Eric Holder, announced changes to the way offenders would be punished, including a desire to reduce the prison population. In addition to Holder’s speech,, the declining use of the death penalty, falling state-level prison populations, and gradual changes to drugs laws, appear to indicate that the politics of punishment in America are beginning to shift.

Paternal incarceration has complicated and countervailing effects on family life

Turney, Kristin
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2013 EN; EN
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With more than 2 million citizens incarcerated, the United States currently has the largest prison population in the world. Although more than 1.7 million children currently have a parent behind bars, the actual effects of imprisonment on families are not well understood. Drawing on her current research, Kristin Turney challenges the notion that male incarceration is universally negative for families, painting, instead, a complicated picture of how fathers’ imprisonment impacts family relationships.