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Gestão municipal no primeiro ciclo do ensino fundamental: impactos da descentralização das escolas estaduais; Municipal management in the first cycle of basic education: impacts of decentralization of the state schools

Amorim, Vivian de Fátima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2013 PT
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Este trabalho avalia os efeitos do aumento da proporção de alunos de 1ª a 4ª série matriculados em escolas municipais, sobretudo no que concerne à transferência de gestão de algumas escolas estaduais para a administração municipal. Tal processo ocorreu concomitantemente a perda de autonomia fiscal quanto ao direcionamento dos recursos da educação, devido às regras de alocação impostas pelo FUNDEF. Nesse sentido, ainda que a gestão escolar estivesse mais próxima da população, a destinação da maior parte dos recursos ao pagamento de professores em exercício poderia ser contrária às preferências locais. Primeiramente, existem evidências de que o processo de municipalização implicou piora nos indicadores de rendimento, enquanto que as externalidades positivas associadas à alocação de recursos do FUNDEF parecem ter contrabalanceado a perda de autonomia local. Em segundo lugar, existem indicativos de que um componente específico do processo de expansão da gestão municipal, a descentralização das escolas estaduais, esteja associado à queda das taxas de reprovação, após um período de acomodação. Contudo, os resultados sugerem aumento da desigualdade dos resultados educacionais, uma vez que os efeitos positivos concentram-se em municípios com maiores níveis de renda per capita.; This work evaluates the effects of increasing the proportion of students from 1st to 4th grade enrolled in municipal schools...

Decentralization And Education Performance: A First View To The Brazilian Process

D. Paredes, Ricardo; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de; Leme, Maria Carolina da Silva
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper analyses the impact of the decentralization in educational system that is taking place in Brazil in the last decade, as a result of several laws that encourage municipalities to invest in fundamental education. The proficiency tests undertaken by the government allows to follow some public schools in two points in time. Therefore we were able to create an experimental group with the schools that were under state system in the SAEB exam and have migrated to the municipality system by the time of Prova Brasil and a control group with the schools that were under the state system between the two exams and compare the difference in their results using a fixed effect panel data analysis. The difference in difference estimator indicates that there is no significant change in the performance of the students.

Fiscal behaviour in the European Union : rules, fiscal decentralization and government indebtedness

Afonso, António; Hauptmeier, Sebastian
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia. Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia.
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 ENG
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We assess the fiscal behaviour in the European Union countries for the period 1990- 2005 via the responsiveness of budget balances to several determinants. The results show that the existence of effective fiscal rules, the degree of public spending decentralization, and the electoral cycle can impinge on the country’s fiscal position. Furthermore, the results also support the responsiveness of primary balances to government indebtedness.

Policies for decentralization and development of health education

Green,Lawrence W.
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1988 EN
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How the policy of action and professional standards have influenced the development and decentralization of health education is discussed. It is concluded that a review of policies both of developing as well as of developed countries could help to put some observations into a perspective that is closer to the Brazilian reality.

Decentralization of Health Care in Brazil : A Case Study of Bahia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report is a case study analyzing key issues--coverage, equity, sustainability--faced by the Brazilian health system in the state of Bahia, in the context of national reforms geared to the decentralization of health care. Thus, the report examines the instruments and the incentives in the system to: 1) improve the coverage of the key health interventions that influence the basic health outcomes of the population; 2) reduce the inequality in the distribution of publicly financed health care; and 3)) improve the fianncial sustainability of the health sector through greater efficiency and through improved mechanisms for cost control. Special attention is paid to implementation in Bahia of the latest and most ambitious of the national reforms based on those objectives: the Operational Regulations for Health Care, issued in early 2001 and referred to in this report by its Brazilian acronym, NOAS. NOAS is expected to have a significant impact on the organization of public health care over the next several years. Its main features are described in the Introduction. The structure of the report is as follows: the report has four chapters dealing...

Fiscal Decentralization in Developing and Transition Economies: Progress, Problems, and the Promise

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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The author discusses the revolution in public sector thinking that is transforming the public sectors of developing and transition countries. Countries are reconsidering their fiscal systems and searching for the right balance between central government control and decentralized governance. Political decentralization has advanced in most countries. Subnational expenditures in developing countries as a percentage of total public expenditures have also increased over the past two decades. However, the process is far from complete. In many countries, the central government is still involved in the delivery of local services, local governments have few sources of own-revenues, local governments have limited access to borrowing for capital projects, and the design of intergovernmental transfers does neither address regional fiscal equity nor convey appropriate incentives for fiscal discipline, improved service delivery performance, and accountability to citizens. Decentralized public governance can help realign public sector incentives through greater accountability to citizens...

Fiscal Decentralization and Development: An Analysis of City Governments in Argentina and Mexico, 1980–2010

Smith, Heidi Jane M.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This dissertation examines local governments’ efforts to promote economic development in Latin America. The research uses a mixed method to explore how cities make decisions to innovate, develop, and finance economic development programs. First, this study provides a comparative analysis of decentralization policies in Argentina and Mexico as a means to gain a better understanding of the degree of autonomy exercised by local governments. Then, it analyzes three local governments each within the province of Santa Fe, Argentina and the State of Guanajuato, Mexico. The principal hypothesis of this dissertation is that if local governments collect more own-source tax revenue, they are more likely to promote economic development and thus, in turn, promote growth for their region. By examining six cities, three of which are in Santa Fe—Rosario, Santa Fe (capital) and Rafaela—and three in Guanajuato—Leon, Guanajuato (capital) and San Miguel de Allende, this dissertation provides a better understanding of public finances and tax collection efforts of local governments in Latin America. Specific attention is paid to each city’s budget authority to raise new revenue and efforts to promote economic development. The research also includes a large statistical dataset of Mexico’s 2...

Contextual determinants of decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the family health team

Santos,Silvone Santa Barbara da Silva; Melo,Cristina Maria Meira de; Dallaire,Clemence; Perreault,Michel; Araujo,Edna Maria; Carvalho,Evanilda Souza de Santana; Santos,Luciano Marques dos
Fonte: UNESP Publicador: UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
This study examines the contextual determinants of implementing decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the family health team, in a municipality in the state of Bahia, Brazil. This was an evaluative study using the political model of implementation analysis. Data were obtained through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with managers and healthcare workers. Five themes emerged: planning; training of human resources; organization of the work process; linkage within institutions; and organization of family healthcare units. The results revealed that there are difficulties such as poor infrastructure of healthcare units, creation of flexibility in labor relations and healthcare worker turnover. The study shows that there is a need for stakeholder participation in the process of implementing the policy of decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the micro-area of intervention that comprises the family health program.

Decentralization of Health in the Indian State of West Bengal : Analysis of Decision Space, Institutional Capacities and Accountability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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India has embarked on a substantial program of decentralization following the 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts to the Constitution, which call for establishing and significantly empowering Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) at district, sub-district (block), and village and urban local levels. The World Bank's India program is interested in these developments and is considering how it should support the Government of India (GoI) objectives in these governance reforms. A wide range of support mechanisms is possible, including lending and analytical work, and focusing on national- or state-level activities and direct support for local governments or actions through specific sectors, such as the health sector. The study focused on five functional areas of decisions about health systems, strategic and operational planning, budgeting, human resources, service organization or delivery, and monitoring and evaluation. Prior studies in other countries and Indian states had found that decentralization of decisions, capacities and accountability varied considerably among these functional areas. In West Bengal...

Fiscal Decentralization and Fiscal Performance

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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A resurgence of recent interest in fiscal federalism has been a source of concern among macroeconomic stabilization experts. They argue that a decentralized fiscal system poses a threat to macroeconomic stability as it is incompatible with prudent monetary and fiscal management. The author addresses these concerns by taking a simple neo-institutional economics with an econometric analysis perspective. His analysis concludes that, contrary to a common misconception, fiscal decentralization is associated with improved fiscal performance and better functioning of internal common markets. Fiscal policy coordination represents an important challenge for federal systems. In this context, fiscal rules and institutions provide a useful framework but not necessarily a solution to this challenge. Fiscal rules binding on all levels can help sustain political commitment in countries having coalitions or fragmented regimes in power. Coordinating institutions help in the use of moral suasion to encourage a coordinated response. Industrial countries' experiences also show that unilaterally imposed federal controls and constraints on subnational governments typically do not work. Instead, societal norms based on fiscal conservatism such as the Swiss referenda and political activism of the electorate play important roles. Ultimately capital markets and bond-rating agencies provide more effective discipline on fiscal policy. In this context...

Senegal - Urban Development and Decentralization Program; Senegal - Programme urbain de developpement et de decentralisation (PUDD)

Farvacque-Vitkovic, Catherine D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The Senegal - Urban Development and Decentralization Program provided a credit of $75 million and was implemented over the years 1998-2004. It had 4 development objectives: (i) improve the financial and organizational management of municipalities; (ii) improve the programming of priority urban investments; (iii) rationalize and simplify the financing of urban investments; and (iv) upgrade basic infrastructure in urban and some rural communities. The project addressed the gap between the capacity of local governments and the expectations of the new regulatory and institutional framework. It covered all the country's municipalities and became the backbone of Senegal's decentralization program. At the project's outset, the financial and organizational management of the Senegalese municipalities was known to be weak, but little information existed about the situation in each municipality. No investment programming had been carried out to reflect their priority needs and capacity to finance them. The project also recognized that funding allocations were not being made fairly or transparently. All four development objectives were fully achieved cost-effectively and sustainably.

Health Sector Reform in Bolivia : A Decentralization Case Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Bolivia made progress in health status and equity in the last decade, thanks to the implementation of a series of health policies directed primarily at reducing maternal and infant mortality and controlling communicable diseases. These policies include the introduction of a focus on health outcomes in the context of decentralization, the implementation of a public health insurance, the strengthening of vertically-financed public health programs and to a lesser extent, an increase in the size of the sector's workforce and greater participation of indigenous peoples for health. This report analyzes these policies, draws lessons from their implementation, discusses remaining challenges, and provides recommendations in the context of the country's latest policy developments. Findings show that while coverage has increased in almost all municipalities, significant equity gaps remain between the rich and the poor, the urban and rural, and the indigenous and non-indigenous. The analysis suggests that the Ministry of Health should concentrate on three key issues: first...

Innis Lecture: Can the Theory of Incentives Explain Decentralization?

POITEVIN, Michel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2585603 bytes; application/pdf
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This survey presents within a single model three theories of decentralization of decision-making within organizations based on private information and incentives. Renegotiation, collusion, and limits on communication are three sufficient conditions for decentralization to be optimal.; Cet article présente, dans un cadre unifié, un survol de trois théories de la décentralisation de la prise de décision dans les organisations. Ces théories reposent sur la présence d'information privée et des incitations qui en découlent. La renégociation, la collusion et les limites à la communication représentent trois conditions suffisantes pouvant expliquer l'optimalité de la décentralisation.

Descentralización en Colombia, las responsabilidades y autonomía fiscal del municipio de Cajicá; Decentralization in Colombia, responsibilities and fiscal autonomy of the municipality of Cajicá

Cuervo Lamprea, Leonard Fabian; Arévalo Guerrero, Franklin Hernán; Salazar, Jair
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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En el presente trabajo realiza una reseña histórica del proceso de descentralización en Colombia con un análisis de la competencia, capacidad institucional, interacción en los niveles de gobierno realizando énfasis en la labor del municipio de Cajicá en los años 2011-2013, por tal razón se presenta la evolución del presupuesto del municipio, analizando la fuente de financiación, rubros presupuestales de inversión desde el año 2011 a 2013 que reflejen la capacidad propia para el cumplimiento de sus funciones frente a las necesidades de sus habitantes.; In the present paper makes a historical review of the decentralization process in Colombia with competitive analysis, institutional capacity, interaction making levels of government emphasis on Cajicá work of the years 2011-2013, therefore it is presents the evolution of Cajicá budget, analyzing the source of funding, investment budget lines since 2011-2013 that reflect the municipality's own ability to carry out its functions meet the needs of its inhabitants.

Una mirada crítica hacia un proceso de descentralización; TOWARDS A CRITICAL PROCESS DECENTRALIZATION

Obando Cordoba, Richard H.; Ceron Rincon, Alejandra
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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A inicios de los años Noventa, Colombia concentra sus esfuerzos en descentralizar las responsabilidades del gasto Social del nivel Nacional, cediendo estas misma a la unidades con autonomía político-administrativa territoriales. La descentralización Político-administrativa está ligada íntimamente a la conformación de las leyes dictadas por el poder legislativo, y las cuales han marcado una cadena de acontecimientos de distribución y participación entre la Nación y los territorios. Los desequilibrios producidos bajo el establecimiento de estas leyes han enmarcado las limitaciones del empoderamiento fiscal y político de las entidades territoriales, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo es señalar el ineficiente proceso de descentralización fiscal surtido en Colombia y como el Gobierno Nacional ha transformado el proceso de autonomía de las entidades territoriales, a un proceso meramente de saneamiento de las finanzas fiscales del nivel Nacional.; In the early nineties, Colombia focuses its efforts to decentralize responsibilities Social spending National level, giving the same to the political-administrative units with territorial autonomy. The political-administrative decentralization is closely linked to the formation of the laws enacted by the legislature...

Decentralization, Forests and Livelihoods: Theory and Narrative

Tacconi, Luca
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper discusses the theory of decentralized forest management, the associated narrative and the underlying hypotheses. That discussion informs the assessment of whether decentralization can lead to forest conservation. The paper argues that the ideal

Descentralización del sector de salud y conflictos con el gremio médico en México; Health sector decentralization and divergences with the medical society in Mexico

Abrantes Pêgo, Raquel; Arjonilla Alday, Sofía
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2002 SPA
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OBJETIVO: Investigar la percepción y acción del gremio médico en el marco de la descentralización del Sector de Salud en dos estados de México, Guanajuato y Sonora. MÉTODOS: Se han utilizado técnicas cualitativas de investigación. Fueron realizadas 35 entrevistas, semiestructuradas, en total entre los dos estados, a médicos colegiados, Guanajuato y Sonora, tanto de instituciones públicas como privadas y representantes de las asociaciones gremiales y sindicales. RESULTADOS: Para el gremio médico de los dos estados investigados, la descentralización ha implicado en inseguridad, como resultado de la falta de claridad en la regulación del Sector de Salud. La acción de los Colegios de Médicos de ambos estados, se tradujo en una mayor politización de los Colegios de Médicos estatales, en la elaboración de propuestas con el objetivo de incidir en el control del mercado laboral médico de dichos estados y participación en la estructura de poder regional. CONCLUSIONES: La investigación comprueba una readaptación del gremio médico en el ámbito regional, indicando su permanencia como grupo de poder. Contrariamente a lo que informa la literatura estadounidense en México, los médicos han logrado influenciar en la regulación...

Avaliação da descentralização do programa de controle da tuberculose do nível secundário para o nível primário do sistema de saúde de Dourados-MS; Evaluation of the decentralization of the tuberculosis control program from secondary to primary level in the health system of Dourados-MS

Amaral, Arino Sales do; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Sales, Cibele de Moura; Renovato, Rogério Dias
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 POR
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O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a descentralização das ações do controle da tuberculose do nível secundário para o nível primário do sistema de saúde de Dourados-MS, realizado através da implantação do Programa Nacional de Controle da Tuberculose (PNCT), no período de 2003 a 2006. A pesquisa constituiu-se em avaliação normativa com a utilização de dados secundários para obter o conhecimento do contexto e dos resultados das ações desenvolvidas. Foram utilizadas como categorias de análise: estrutura, processo e resultados. Ao analisar o processo de descentralização foi possível observar mudanças na atenção proporcionada aos usuários, não somente pela melhoria no acesso, mas, principalmente, pela postura dos profissionais de saúde evidenciada através de aumento significativo na busca dos sintomáticos respiratórios, na coleta de escarro para a baciloscopia e na detecção dos bacilíferos entre o total dos casos pulmonares encontrados. Todavia, os avanços verificados não trouxeram os resultados esperados para o município, indicando a existência de fragilidades ou lacunas de conhecimento que comprometeram os esforços dispensados no desenvolvimento de ações do programa.; The objective of this study was to evaluate the decentralization of the actions for tuberculosis control from the secondary to the primary level in the health system of the city of Dourados (Central-West region of Brazil)...

A review of the empirical literature about the relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth

Esteban-Laleona,Sonia; Frutos-Madrazo,Pablo de; Miguel-Bilbao,María Cristina de
Fonte: El Colegio Mexiquense A.C. Publicador: El Colegio Mexiquense A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
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Traditionally, academic debates about the benefits that the existence of multilevel government structures provide have been directly related to the gains in efficiency that derive from the processes of decentralization of the Public Sector. However, as of the last decades, the Public Finance has broadened its analysis towards other questions, one of them being whether the fiscal decentralization influences positively in the economic growth of a country. The objective of this document is to provide evidence on results of the main investigations out of topic, examining, both the temporal and space horizons selected in these studies, comparing the conceptual framework and the methodology used by the different authors.

Contextual determinants of decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the family health team

Santos,Silvone Santa Barbara da Silva; Melo,Cristina Maria Meira de; Dallaire,Clemence; Perreault,Michel; Araujo,Edna Maria; Carvalho,Evanilda Souza de Santana; Santos,Luciano Marques dos
Fonte: UNESP Publicador: UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
This study examines the contextual determinants of implementing decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the family health team, in a municipality in the state of Bahia, Brazil. This was an evaluative study using the political model of implementation analysis. Data were obtained through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with managers and healthcare workers. Five themes emerged: planning; training of human resources; organization of the work process; linkage within institutions; and organization of family healthcare units. The results revealed that there are difficulties such as poor infrastructure of healthcare units, creation of flexibility in labor relations and healthcare worker turnover. The study shows that there is a need for stakeholder participation in the process of implementing the policy of decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the micro-area of intervention that comprises the family health program.