Página 6 dos resultados de 353506 itens digitais encontrados em 0.097 segundos

Adaptive finite state machine based visual autonomous navigation system

Sales, Daniel Oliva; Correa, Diogo Santos Ortiz; Fernandes, Leandro Carlos; Wolf, Denis Fernando; Osório, Fernando Santos
Fonte: Elsevier; Amsterdam Publicador: Elsevier; Amsterdam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
In this paper we present an original approach applied to autonomous mobile robots navigation integrating localization and navigation using a topological map based on the proposed AFSM (adaptive finite state machine) technique. In this approach, the environment is mapped as a graph, and each possible path is represented by a sequence of states controlled by a FSM—finite state machine. An ANN (artificial neural network) is trained to recognize patterns on input data, where each pattern is associated to specific environment features or properties, consequently representing the present context/state of the FSM. When a new input pattern is recognized by the ANN (changing the current context), this allows the FSM to change to the next state and its associated action/behavior. The input features are related to specific local properties of the environment (obtained from sensors data), as for example, straight path, right and left turns, and intersections. This way, the FSM is integrated to a previously trained ANN, which acts as a key component recognizing and indicating the present state and the state changes, allowing the AFSM to select the current/correct action (local reactive behaviors) for each situation. The AFSM allows the mobile robot to autonomously follow a sequence of states/behaviors in order to reach a destination...

Próximos e distantes: um estudo sobre as percepções e atitudes da comunidade judaica paulista em relação ao Estado de Israel (2006-2010); Near or far: a study on perceptions and attitudes of the Jewish community of São Paulo regarding the state is Israel (2006-2010)

Douek, Daniel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Contradizendo os pressupostos iniciais do sionismo, após pouco mais de 60 anos da fundação do Estado de Israel, a vida judaica na diáspora não findou, e foram desenvolvidos novos padrões de relacionamento entre as comunidades judaicas e o Estado de Israel. O presente trabalho analisa percepções e atitudes da comunidade judaica de São Paulo. Buscou-se verificar o modo como esta comunidade elabora, confere significado simbólico e prático e mantém o vínculo à distância com Israel por meio de suas principais instituições. Para isso, foram analisadas notícias, editoriais e artigos do jornal Tribuna Judaica ao logo de um período de cinco anos de janeiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2010. Também foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com dirigentes das entidades judaicas mais importantes e com representantes do Estado de Israel. Verificamos que os vínculos entre a comunidade judaica de São Paulo e o Estado de Israel são organizados e mantidos por um núcleo institucional relativamente pequeno, e reforçados por representantes do governo israelense que, periodicamente, visitam o Brasil. Para a comunidade judaica de São Paulo, viagens a Israel de curta ou longa duração também são importantes na aproximação com o país. Constatamos ainda que o vínculo com o Estado de Israel tornou-se parte indissociável da identidade da maioria dos judeus. Porém...

Intervenção estatal no exercício da autoridade familiar; State intervention at family authority

Patiño, Ana Paula Corrêa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/09/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
A família é a base da sociedade, conforme expressa disposição contida na Constituição Federal de 1988, que lhe assegura especial proteção do Estado. É o núcleo familiar a menor e mais íntima célula social, mas também o mais importante agrupamento de pessoas que têm entre si uma profunda relação afetiva e de solidariedade. Tão importantes são os laços de afetividade que unem os familiares que a lei lhes atribui valor e eficácia jurídica. Dentro do núcleo familiar, as crianças e adolescentes que contam com menos de 18 anos de idade, são consideradas mais vulneráveis e, por tal motivo, recebem proteção especial, ainda mais específica do Estado. A Constituição Federal lhes assegura vários direitos e garantias fundamentais, confirmados e reiterados no Código Civil, no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente e, até mesmo em leis infraconstitucionais esparsas. É dever da família, da sociedade e do Estado assegurar à criança e ao adolescente, com absoluta prioridade os direitos fundamentais estabelecidos na Constituição Federal. O Estado, por sua vez, diante da importância que os menores têm dentro da família e para nossa sociedade, impõe aos pais a autoridade familiar, delegando a eles a enorme responsabilidade de dirigir a criação e educação dos filhos...

Principais fatores do estado contínuo e da sustentabilidade de empresas atuantes no Brasil; Main factors of continuos state and sustainability of companies operating in Brazil

Campos, Gabriel Moreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
O desenvolvimento sustentável e a sustentabilidade são temas que, nas últimas cinco décadas, têm despertado o interesse crescente de pesquisadores, profissionais e governantes, em virtude dos efeitos da intensificação da utilização dos recursos naturais pelo ser humano. Dentre os aspectos que formam os temas "desenvolvimento sustentável e sustentabilidade", destaca-se a demanda pela elaboração de métricas que permitam a aferição precisa do grau de desenvolvimento sustentável e de sustentabilidade do planeta, de nações e de outros tipos de organismos, como as empresas. A relevância, para a sociedade e para a economia, da condição em que a empresa atua é evidenciada pela existência de normas de auditoria, em diversos países, que orientam os auditores independentes na condução de trabalhos sob sua responsabilidade, especificamente na avaliação da provável existência de dúvida material sobre a capacidade da empresa de se manter em estado contínuo. Assim, esta tese tem como objetivo principal explicar a relação entre os principais fatores do estado contínuo e da sustentabilidade de empresas atuantes no Brasil. Nesse sentido, foi realizada uma ampla pesquisa bibliográfica em obras nacionais e internacionais para a construção da plataforma teórica...

Governance Arrangements for State Owned Enterprises

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
The aim of this paper is to shed new light on key challenges in governance arrangements for state owned enterprises in infrastructure sectors. The paper provides guidelines on how to classify the fuzzy and sometimes conflicting development goals of infrastructure and the governance arrangements needed to reach such goals. Three policy recommendations emerge. First, some of the structures implied by internationally adopted principles of corporate governance for state owned enterprises favoring a centralized ownership function versus a decentralized or dual structure have not yet been sufficiently "tested" in practice and may not suit all developing countries. Second, general corporate governance guidelines (and policy recommendations) need to be carefully adapted to infrastructure sectors, particularly in the natural monopoly segments. Because the market structure and regulatory arrangements in which state owned enterprises operate matters, governments may want to distinguish the state owned enterprises operating in potentially competitive sectors from the ones under a natural monopoly structure. Competition provides not only formidable benefits...

State and Local Governance in Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge about state capacity in Nigeria by taking stock of governance issues, including public financial management and civil services, and analyzing them in representative states across the regions, as states assume an expanded role in delivering services to their populations under the 1999 constitution. Specifically, the study lays the groundwork for preparing a program of assistance to state governments, should the Federal Government seek financing from the Bank. Before capacity can be strengthened, the context for capacity building must be understood and the constraints analyzed. Thus the study focuses both on the evolving story of federalism in Nigeria, as well as the challenges states face in managing their finances and delivering services in the aftermath of misrule and decay under the military. Six states were selected for review: Bauchi, Nasarawa, Rivers, Anambra, Ogun and Sokoto--one from each of the geo-political zones of Nigeria. These are some of the principal findings: There is a great deal of variation across states in their capacity for governance. A new generation of state governors is emerging...

Measuring Governance, Corruption, and State Capture : How Firms and Bureaucrats Shape the Business Environment in Transition Economies

Hellman, Joel S.; Jones, Geraint; Kaufmann, Daniel; Schankerman, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
As a symptom of fundamental institutional weaknesses, corruption needs to be viewed within a broader governance framework. It thrives where the state is unable to reign over its bureaucracy, to protect property and contractual rights, or to provide institutions that support the rule off law. Furthermore, governance failures at the national level cannot be isolated from the interface between the corporate and state sectors, in particular from the heretofore under-emphasized influence that firms may exert on the state. Under certain conditions, corporate strategies may exacerbate mis-governance at the national level. An in-depth empirical assessment of the links between corporate behavior and national governance can thus provide particular insights. The 1999 Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) - the transition economies component of the ongoing World Business Environment Survey - assesses in detail the various dimensions of governance from the perspective of about 3,000 firms in 20 countries. After introducing the survey framework and measurement approach...

Bank Ownership and Credit over the Business Cycle : Is Lending by State Banks Less Procyclical?

Bertay, Ata Can; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high-income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand potentially unstable non-deposit liabilities relatively little during booms, especially in countries with good governance. Public banks also report loan non-performance more evenly over the business cycle. Overall the results of the analysis suggest that state banks can play a useful role in stabilizing credit over the business cycle as well as during periods of financial instability. However, the track record of state banks in credit allocation remains quite poor, questioning the wisdom of using state banks as a short-term countercyclical tool.

Institutional Change, Political Economy, and State Capabilities

Bain, Katherine; Porter, Doug; Watts, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This paper is one of a series aimed at deepening the World Bank’s capacity to follow through on commitments made in response to the World Development Report (WDR) 2011, which gave renewed prominence to the nexus between conflict, security, and development. Nigeria is a remarkable illustration of how deeply intractable the cycle of poverty, conflict, and fragility can become when tied to the ferocious battles associated with the political economy of oil. This paper places the corpus of analytic and programmatic work concerning institutional reform in conversation with a now substantial body of work on resource politics and most especially, the debate over the politico-institutional character (sometimes called political settlements or pacting arrangements associated with the order of power) and reform landscape of the petro-state. Recent institution reform policy writing appears to have little to say about the political and economic conditions in which crises and institutional disjunctures may authorize, and thereby enable...

Bringing legitimacy back in to neo-Weberian state theory and international relations

Seabrooke, Leonard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 316663 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Within international relations one seldom finds discussion of how legitimacy affects ‘state capacity’—a state’s capacity to enact and adapt to domestic and international change. This is especially surprising for neo- Weberian approaches that have viewed state capacity as a major concern for over two decades. And although legitimacy was a key ingredient to Max Weber’s approach to the state, the concept is eschewed or ignored in the three discernible neo Weberian approaches to state capacity. The first two of these approaches, ‘isolated autonomy’ and ‘embedded autonomy’, produce functionalist view of a state which responds to an anarchical international system. The third, ‘social embeddedness’, conceives of the state–society complex as a contested rather than functional space but does not produce a substantive conception of legitimacy. I argue that a reinvigorated conception of legitimacy provides us with a substantive neo-Weberian ‘historicist’ approach that provides a deeper understanding of how both norms and material interests shape the state. This approach is applied to a brief case study of financial reform in the United States and Japan to illustrate that bringing legitimacy back in provides a better means of understanding state capacity.; yes

Growth in India’s state economies before and with reforms: shares and determinants

Shand, Ric; Bhide, Shashanka
Fonte: ASARC Publicador: ASARC
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 71141 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
The overall growth performance of the Indian economy has been characterized by substantial regional variation in growth over the decades (Shand and Bhide 2000). This is despite the focus in successive Five-Year Plan policies and programs on reducing the incidence of poverty and of achieving balanced regional development (Bhide and Shand 1999). A close understanding of the regional patterns of growth within India is desirable for several reasons. First, central importance in policy continues to be the objective of achieving and sustaining a higher overall growth rate in the Indian economy. Policy makers need insights on past performance at state level in order to formulate future policy directions more effectively. Second, high levels of foreign and domestic investment are needed to reach the growth target. Foreign and domestic investors need information on state level performance and prospects to guide their choice of location between states. Third, there are fiscal problems in the states, which are exacerbating those at the Centre, and the issue of fiscal stability now requires these problems at state level to be addressed. Finally, with greater decentralization of policy making process consequent to the economic reforms in the 1990s...

The role of YeaZ in the VBNC state of Vibrio parahaemolyticus NCTC 10884.

Chen, Shih-Hsun
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important food-borne pathogen known to enter a Viable But Non-Culturable (VBNC) state that increases the survival of V. parahaemolyticus during stress eg. starvation and low temperature. The purpose of this study was to better characterize the impact of environmental factors on loss of culturability associated with entry into a cold induced VBNC state by V. parahaemolyticus NCTC 10884 and undertake an analysis of the role of resuscitation promoting factors in the molecular mechanism that underpins this physiological phenomenon. Entry to the VBNC state was examined for high (10⁹ and 10⁷ cells mL⁻ ¹) and low (10⁵ and 10³ cells mL⁻ ¹) concentration cell suspensions in artificial seawater (ASW) adjusted to different pH and salinity, with incubation at 4°C. Salinities (5 and 10% NaCl) and pH (5 and 9.5) considered suboptimal for growth resulted in short incubation periods required for entry to the VBNC state. Interestingly, the time to loss of culturability of all suspensions tested was found to be dependent on cell suspension concentration. Furthermore, low density cell suspensions, but not high density suspensions that had achieved complete loss of culturability, could not be resuscitated following a temperature upshift to 20°C. This novel result indicated that survival of VBNC state cells is likely to require maintenance nutrients from dead cells within the suspension. To investigate the role of potential resuscitation factor proteins in establishment of the VBNC state and subsequent recovery...

The Security-Politics-Development Nexus: The Lessons of State-Building in Sub-Saharan Africa

TSCHIRGI, Necla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
How can development policy support weak, dysfunctional or fragile states? What constitutes state fragility and what are the appropriate instruments for state-building? After reviewing two recent quantitative indexes (The Index of State Weakness in the Developing World and The Ibrahim Index of African Governance), this paper cautions against the current tendency to categorise a large number of countries as weak, fragile or failing states. Drawing upon country case studies on Namibia, Somalia and Guinea-Bissau, the paper argues that state-building is fundamentally a political process and external “state-builders” need to develop greater understanding of the internal dynamics of individual societies in order to provide appropriate support to address state fragility. Current strategies for statebuilding are heavily weighted in favour of technical, institutional and formal arrangements. Moreover, since 9/11, the international state-building agenda has increasingly focused on state weakness as a challenge for international peace and security, rather than as an issue of national governance. As a result, many preferred policy prescriptions risk weakening the very states that they hope to strengthen.; European Report on Development

Coercion, cash-crops and culture from insurgency to proto-state in Asia's opium belt

Merz, Andrew A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 103 p. : maps ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis is a comparative study of conflict and opium in the Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle, focusing in particular on Afghanistan-Pakistan and Burma. It takes a state building approach to analyze the formation and composition of opiate-funded "proto-states" in the two regions, with case studies on the Taliban and the United Wa State Party. Historic, political, ethnic and cultural factors are explored in relation to each region and proto-state case. The basic argument is that opium and opiate trade provided capital for the formation of basic state-like entities that conduct all the basic statebuilding activities as defined in the literature. What are often called "insurgent groups" are actually armies of proto-states. What are often called "insurgencies" are actually conflicts between infant states in areas that never contained nation-states. This paradigm suggests an alternate method to study these two areas: a method that emphasizes history and anthropology to understand the basic motivations and attributes of the proto-state actors.; Outstanding Thesis; US Marine Corps (USMC) author.

Winning bodies and souls state building and the necessity of nationalism

Adams, Jonathan M.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 74 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
This thesis argues the obvious, but still widely neglected point that for successful state building to occur in the post-Cold War era, nationalism remains a necessary but not sufficient condition for the emergence of a stable modern nation-state. Nationalism is both the key to state building and the central element in any explanation of the limitations of the modern nation-state and the system of sovereign nation-states in the early 21st century. Without a genuinely unifying nationalism and a strong sense of national identity, underpinned by the provision of goods and services, a modern nation-state is nothing but an ineffective bureaucratic edifice masquerading as a modern sovereign nation-state. Despite the post- Cold War resurgence in the theory and practice of state building (or nation building), the crucial role of nationalism receives virtually no attention. The term nationalism is used here in the deepest sense possible: it is not being used to describe a superficial agreement that 'we are all Iraqis now' or 'all Afghanis now' because 'we' elected a new government, usually under the auspices of the United Nations and ostensibly responsible for the 'national' territory within which 'we' live. The central point of this thesis is that despite its apparent obviousness...

Tajikistan : Fiscal Risks from State-Owned Enterprises

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This policy note is part of the World Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the fifth in the series continues the fiscal policy dialogue conducted in the previous notes. It is structured as follows. Chapter 2 reviews the role of state-owned enterprises (SOE) in Tajikistan's economy and identifies key issues. Chapter 3 assesses the fiscal risks posed by SOEs, especially those in the energy sector. Chapter 4 puts forth possible solutions. Chapter 5 summarizes the main conclusions of this note: 1) despite privatizations and attempts at restructuring, Tajikistan still has a large, inefficient, and heavily indebted public sector; 2) the lack of comprehensive information about the sector undermines budget credibility and budget integrity; 3) multiple but uncoordinated functions...

State-owned Banks in the Transition : Origins, Evolution, and Policy Responses

Sherif, Khaled; Borish, Michael; Gross, Alexandra
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Many of the distortions in poorly performing economies do not originate in the banking sector, but where state banks still control a large share of the resources in the banking system, they continue to pose a risk to macroeconomic and fiscal stability. State banks are typically vehicles for patronage that worsen the prospects for competitive market development. Alternatively, these state banks can be ineffective shells that fail to perform a useful intermediation role once the government imposes effective hard budget constraints and a modern supervisory system. The most problematic state banks have been agricultural and industrial banks, whose original role was to finance state farms and industrial enterprises that employed large numbers of people and served as the backbone of the socialist economic mode. Banks now show stronger growth in deposits and capital in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics, suggesting that these countries have put into place structures that have helped to restore confidence in banking systems among creditors...

Strengthening the Governance and Performance of State-Owned Financial Institutions

Scott, David H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Corporate governance arrangements define the responsibilities, authorities and accountabilities of owners, boards of directors, and executive managers of a company. Good corporate governance is as important for state financial institutions as for private sector companies. Many of the problems that commonly afflict state financial institutions can be associated with, if not attributed directly to, weaknesses in corporate governance. This note draws on guidelines recently published by the OECD and the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision to compile a comprehensive corporate governance evaluation framework relevant to state-owned commercial and development finance institutions. It highlights aspects of this framework that are considered to be of particular importance to state financial institutions by citing innovative practices in a number of countries. Finally, it presents a detailed case study of the governance arrangements in place at the Development Bank of Southern Africa.

Brazil - Piaui State Economic Memorandum : Managing a Natural Inheritance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington DC Publicador: Washington DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
This report represents a snapshot of a dialogue between the State of Piaui and the World Bank and focuses on the strategies and actions the State Government may wish to adopt. Piaui's challenge is to build institutions that address its weaknesses and exploit its strengths. Addressing weaknesses implies continuing with efforts to improve education, raising productivity in small-scale agriculture, increasing public participation in government decisions, and enhancing the administration of taxation and spending. Exploiting strengths implies fortifying the management of land, water, and natural resources, carefully selecting strategic infrastructure investments, and recognizing and taking strategic decisions to "get ahead of the environmental frontier" in several parts of the state. Based on the relevant geographical traits of Piaui, three chapters are devoted to the geographical regions: the cerrados, the semi-arid southeastern region, and the north of the state. The report relates cross-cutting institutional themes (a) the revised role of the State in Piaui...

State Enterprises : What Remains?

Kikeri, Sunita; Kolo, Aishetu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
After two decades of privatization, has government ownership and control of enterprises declined substantially? A rigorous assessment is difficult in the absence of systematic data on state enterprises. But ongoing research suggests that while privatization has helped reduce the state's role in some developing countries and regions, in most others the stock of state enterprises remains relatively large. State enterprises continue to play a major role in many developing regions and, in some sectors, across more or less all of them.