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Semantic quality through semantic definition: refining the Read Codes through internal consistency.

Schulz, E. B.; Barrett, J. W.; Price, C.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
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Checks of internal consistency in controlled medical vocabularies facilitate their development and assist refinement of the underlying terminological model. Two simple checks of consistency between knowledge in the subtype hierarchy and that in semantic definitions of concepts are described. It is proposed that these checks are a helpful adjunct to, but not a replacement for, large-scale involvement of domain experts in construction of controlled vocabularies.

Validation Techniques for Medical Data

Brown, Bob; Lattimer, Kriss; Harbort, Bob; Peake, Susan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/10/1983 EN
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A medical data base is only as good as the data it contains, and the process of collecting medical information and converting it to machine-readable form is fraught with opportunities for error. An analysis of the regularities in medical data permits the development of validity and reasonableness checks which can be automated. We examine the regularities to be found in common elements of medical data and suggest checks based on these regularities. Particular attention is given to constructing checks which lend themselves to automation.

Food hygiene on the wards

Steuer, Walter
Fonte: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House Publicador: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/2007 EN
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A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food.

Online Availability Check of Teleradiology Components

Weisser, Gerald; Ruggiero, Stephan; Runa, Alain; Düber, Christoph; Neff, Wolfgang; Walz, Michael
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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For a region-wide teleradiology network in Germany a vendor-independent Uptime-server concept was defined. The Uptime-server was realized for the availability check and prospective error-detection of the emergency teleradiology servers and clients based on encrypted digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM)-e-mail transfers. The concept and the experiences of 2 years of use with more than 30 clients and servers in 15 hospitals and in nine other regional partners are shown. The Uptime-server does provide automated availability checks for all servers and clients, automated checks of the download speed of the Internet lines, and a graphical user interface for the clinical user and the system administrator. A clinical user can display the availability information from all clients and servers in the network (see http://www.teleradiologie-rnd.de). In case of malfunctions during an emergency transfer, immediate reactions are possible, often without the need for help of a hotline or a system administrator. The chosen Uptime-server concept proofed to be reliable; it worked with products from nine different manufacturers without problems. Its statistical output can be used to fulfill the legal requirements of regular availability checks for teleradiology lines.

Efficacy of Two Systemic Insecticides Injected Into Loblolly Pine for Protection Against Southern Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Grosman, Donald M.; Clarke, Stephen R.; Upton, William W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005–2006) and Alabama (2006–2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles...

Management of the Greenbug on Grain Sorghum. 2. Testing Seed and Soil Treatments for Greenbug and Corn Leaf Aphid Control

Cate, J. R.; Bottrell, D. G.; Teetes, G. L.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Monocrotophos treatments to grain sorghum seed were not effective against Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). Seed-furrow treatments of aldicarb were effective when placed in the seed furrow in direct contact with seed at planting but were not effective when banded 1/2 inch above seed. Seed-furrow treatments of granular or liquid disulfoton gave season-long control of pest and about six weeks control of the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). Sidedress treatments of granular or liquid disulfoton also were effective against greenbugs, but a period of 2-3 weeks after application was required for best control. Combination treatments of disulfoton, seed-furrow + sidedress application, or seed-furrow + foliar spray application, were highly effective against the greenbug and provided season-long control. Phorate granules applied in direct contact with seed in the seed furrow at planting provided several weeks of residual control of both greenbugs and corn leaf aphids but caused a significant reduction in plant stand. Combination seed-furrow + foliar spray treatments of phorate gave season-long greenbug control. Some of the insecticidal treatments caused a significant reduction in populations of insect and spider predators and hymenopterous parasites. some insecticidal treatments increased grain sorghum seed yields significantly over the nontreated checks...

Scalable fault management architecture for dynamic optical networks : an information-theoretic approach

Wen, Yonggang
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 262 leaves
ENG
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All-optical switching, in place of electronic switching, of high data-rate lightpaths at intermediate nodes is one of the key enabling technologies for economically scalable future data networks. This replacement of electronic switching with optical switching at intermediate nodes, however, presents new challenges for fault detection and localization in reconfigurable all-optical networks. Presently, fault detection and localization techniques, as implemented in SONET/G.709 networks, rely on electronic processing of parity checks at intermediate nodes. If similar techniques are adapted to all-optical reconfigurable networks, optical signals need to be tapped out at intermediate nodes for parity checks. This additional electronic processing would break the all-optical transparency paradigm and thus significantly diminish the cost advantages of all-optical networks. In this thesis, we propose new fault-diagnosis approaches specifically tailored to all-optical networks, with an objective of keeping the diagnostic capital expenditure and the diagnostic operation effort low. Instead of the aforementioned passive monitoring paradigm based on parity checks, we propose a proactive lightpath probing paradigm: optical probing signals are sent along a set of lightpaths in the network...

Data Management for Monitoring Forest Soils in Europe for the Biosoil Project

LACARCE Eva; LE BAS Christine; COUSIN Jean Luc; PESTY Bernahrd; TOUTAIN B.; DURRANT Tracy; MONTANARELLA Luca
Fonte: BLACKWELL PUBLISHING Publicador: BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
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Growing environmental awareness and advances in modelling have generated interest in soil monitoring networks. Data management tools have to be developed in order to store data, check for errors and retrieve data for sharing and for analysis. As a result, we have designed a web application and a database for the Biosoil project that focuses on European forest soils. Integral to the system are authentication of users and access rights to the modules and data. It also logs all activities of each user. During data submission, the system automatically manages data transfer from the flat file (ASCII file) to the database after compliance checks. Then error tracking is followed by automated expert checks. These checks identify potential mistakes that can be corrected or commented on by data providers. The database is intended to cope with the challenges of transnational monitoring and integrates data quality assurance / quality control mechanisms. Benefits from the architecture of the database and from the services provided by the software may be generalized to all soil monitoring databases in order to improve data management and quality control.; JRC.H.7-Climate Risk Management

The political and security implications of regionalism in Russia : the rise of regional Tsars?

Hartmann, Allison M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This thesis examines the political and security impacts of the devolution of power to Russiaαs regions since 1993. By reviewing the basis of Russiaαs federal structure the author identifies how the nature of the structure and the manner in which it evolved have led to the emergence of local tsars who have few horizontal or vertical checks on their power. The thesis analyzes the impact that strong regional leaders have had within their regions, to include their impact on free and fair elections, free press, individualsα rights, and rule of law. The author finds that the lack of checks on the regional leadersα abuses of power within the regions destabilizes the country by only further encouraging them to expand their power into realms intended to be under the control of the federal government, to include the military and foreign policy. The resultant injection of regional leadership into these matters threatens the security of Russia by inhibiting the ability of the central government to field a cohesive military force and pursue cogent foreign policy. The thesis further examines the prospects for regional tsars in light of recent efforts to rein in the regions. The author determines that these reforms, though resulting in a degree of centralization...

The political and security implications of regionalism in Russia: the rise of regional Tsars?

Hartmann, Allison M.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.75%
This thesis examines the political and security impacts of the devolution of power to Russiagass regions since 1993. By reviewing the basis of Russiagass federal structure the author identifies how the nature of the structure and the manner in which it evolved have led to the emergence of local tsars who have few horizontal or vertical checks on their power. The thesis analyzes the impact that strong regional leaders have had within their regions, to include their impact on free and fair elections, free press, individualsgas rights, and rule of law. The author finds that the lack of checks on the regional leadersgas abuses of power within the regions destabilizes the country by only further encouraging them to expand their power into realms intended to be under the control of the federal government, to include the military and foreign policy. The resultant injection of regional leadership into these matters threatens the security of Russia by inhibiting the ability of the central government to field a cohesive military force and pursue cogent foreign policy. The thesis further examines the prospects for regional tsars in light of recent efforts to rein in the regions. The author determines that these reforms, though resulting in a degree of centralization...

Flow-Sensitive Control-Flow Analysis in Linear-Log Time

Adams, Michael D.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
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Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, Informatics, 2011; The flexibility of dynamically typed languages such as JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and Scheme comes at the cost of run-time type checks. Some of these checks can be eliminated via control-flow analysis. However, traditional control-flow analysis (CFA) is not ideal for this task as it ignores flow-sensitive information that can be gained from dynamic type predicates, such as JavaScript's instanceof and Scheme's pair?, and from type-restricted operators, such as Scheme's car. Yet, adding flow-sensitivity to a traditional CFA worsens the already significant compile-time cost of traditional CFA. This makes it unsuitable for use in just-in-time compilers. In response, this dissertation presents a fast, flow-sensitive type-recovery algorithm based on the linear-time, flow-insensitive sub-0CFA. The algorithm has been implemented as an experimental optimization into Chez Scheme compiler, where it has proven to be effective, justifying the elimination of about 60% of run-time type checks in a large set of bench- marks. The algorithm processes on average over 100,000 lines of code per second and scales well asymptotically...

The effect of log heating temperature on the peeling process and veneer quality: beech, birch, and spruce case studies

DUPLEIX, Anna; DENAUD, Louis; BLÉRON, Laurent; MARCHAL, Rémy; HUGHES, Mark
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
EN
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Heating green-wood prior to peeling is necessary to improve both peeling process and quality of veneer. This study investigates optimum heating temperatures by soaking of beech, birch and spruce. Experiments have studied the influence of heating temperatures from 20 to 80 C on thickness deviations and veneer lathe checking using a pneumatic rugosimeter and image analysis of opening checks with the SMOF device (Système de Mesure de l’Ouverture des Fissures). Conclusions account for reduced heating temperatures compared to the temperatures currently in-use in the industry. Already at 50 C, positive effects of heating ensure efficient peeling process. Low temperatures produce veneers with deeper and more spaced checks than high temperatures when checks are closer and less deep, becoming even unpredictable especially in case of spruce. These results establish the SMOF as an essential non-destructive control device to control the quality of the veneer produced at research level.; Institut Carnot, RYM-TO Doctoral School

Resistência de linhagens de tomateiro à mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolii), relacionada a aleloquímicos e à densidade de tricomas.; Resistance of strains of tomato to whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii), related to allelochemicals and density of trichomes.

Neiva, Irã Pinheiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri Publicador: Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
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O trabalho teve os objetivos de comparar a efetividade de linhagens melhoradas de tomateiro, ricas em acilaçúcares (AA), zingibereno (ZGB) ou 2-tridecanona (2-TD), quanto aos níveis de resistência à mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolii) e verificar se a seleção de linhagens com base em sua densidade de tricomas glandulares é efetiva no sentido de promover níveis satisfatórios de resistência a esse inseto. Essas linhagens foram obtidas através de sucessivos retrocruzamentos em tomateiro Solanum lycopersicum, a partir do cruzamento interespecífico S. lycopersicum x S. habrochaites var. glabratum 'PI 1344171'. Linhagens ricas em AA (TOM-687), ZGB (ZGB-703) e 2-TD (TOM-622) foram testadas para os níveis de resistência à Bemisia argentifolii. Duas linhagens de tomateiro (TOM-584 e TOM-679), com nível normal dos três aleloquímicos, e o acesso selvagem (PI 134417), alto teor de 2-TD, foram utilizados como testemunhas. TOM-687, ZGB-703 e TOM-622 mostraram diminuições significativas na ovoposição e na contagem de ninfas depois de 23 dias após infestação, quando comparadas com os controles TOM-584 e TOM-679. Todas as três linhagens ricas nos aleloquímicos mostraram níveis de resistência à praga, relativamente aos controles...

Abnormal evoked potential latencies in amblyopia.

Sokol, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1983 EN
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The latency of the first (P1) and second (P2) major positive waves of the pattern reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) for small checks (15 minutes of arc) was measured in 68 visually normal children and 32 amblyopic children with mild to moderate visual acuity losses. In the normal children there were no P1 and P2 interocular latency differences. The amblyopic children showed longer P1 latencies and shorter P2 latencies in their amblyopic eye than their normal fellow eye. These findings can be accounted for by a selective loss of the contrast-specific evoked potential mechanisms in amblyopia. The 'shorter' P2 latency obtained from amblyopic eyes for small checks is a reflection of the luminance responses that are normally elicited by larger (60 minute) checks.

Annual assessments of patients aged 75 years and over: views and experiences of elderly people.

Chew, C A; Wilkin, D; Glendinning, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1994 EN
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BACKGROUND. The 1990 contract requires general practitioners to offer all their patients aged 75 years and over an annual health check. Increasing importance is being placed on consumers' views of service provision. AIM. A study was undertaken in June 1992 to investigate elderly patients' views and experiences of the annual health check, and to compare these with the previously reported views of general practitioners and practice nurses who had also been surveyed as part of the study. METHOD. Twenty family health services authorities wrote to a sample of 1500 elderly patients asking if the patient's name could be passed to researchers. Patients who agreed were then interviewed. RESULTS. A total of 664 elderly patients (44%) were interviewed. Only 64% of respondents were aware of their entitlement to a health check. Vulnerable patients, such as those in poor health or who lived alone, were less likely to know about the health checks than other patients. Only 31% of respondents thought they had had a health check. Of these, fewer than half recalled the doctor or nurse discussing the findings with them, although 80% of doctors reported that they always or mostly discussed results with patients. Elderly patients were more likely to recall the physical aspects of the health check rather than discussion about particular health aspects. However...

Especificación formal y verificación de propiedades temporales de procesos de negocios; Formal specification and temporal properties verification of business processes

Regis, Germán Enrique
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 SPA
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El uso de diferentes métodos y herramientas que asistan en la organización y el control de procesos, ha tomado relevancia debido a la necesidad constante de eficiencia por parte de la industria y a la adecuación de sus prácticas a las emergentes y novedosas técnicas de desarrollo y producción. Como producto de estas necesidades, diversos lenguajes para la descripción de procesos de negocios capturaron el interés tanto del sector productivo, para su aplicación en sus actividades, como así también del sector académico, con el fin de aportar conocimiento y generar nuevas herramientas para tal fin. Si bien la mayor parte de los lenguajes para la especificación de procesos de negocios son informales, existen algunos fundados en formalismos matemáticos. Esto brinda a estos lenguajes formales para procesos de negocios la eliminación de ambigüedades en la interpretación de especificaciones, y la posibilidad de realizar diferentes análisis formales, como chequeos de sanidad. Sin embargo, las alternativas existentes poseen en general limitaciones, o bien en poder expresivo, o, para las alternativas más expresivas, la imposibilidad de realizar algunas tareas de análisis automáticamente. En este trabajo presentamos un enfoque formal para la especificación y el análisis de procesos de negocios...

Extending Basic Block Versioning with Typed Object Shapes

Chevalier-Boisvert, Maxime; Feeley, Marc
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/07/2015
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Typical JavaScript (JS) programs feature a large number of object property accesses. Hence, fast property reads and writes are crucial for good performance. Unfortunately, many (often redundant) dynamic checks are implied in each property access and the semantic complexity of JS makes it difficult to optimize away these tests through program analysis. We introduce two techniques to effectively eliminate a large proportion of dynamic checks related to object property accesses. Typed shapes enable code specialization based on object property types without potentially complex and expensive analyses. Shape propagation allows the elimination of redundant shape checks in inline caches. These two techniques combine particularly well with Basic Block Versioning (BBV), but should be easily adaptable to tracing Just-In-Time (JIT) compilers and method JITs with type feedback. To assess the effectiveness of the techniques presented, we have implemented them in Higgs, a type-specializing JIT compiler for JS. The techniques are compared to a baseline using polymorphic Inline Caches (PICs), as well as commercial JS implementations. Empirical results show that across the 26 benchmarks tested, these techniques eliminate on average 48% of type tests...

The Complexity of Computing the Size of an Interval

Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Homan, Christopher M.; Kosub, Sven; Wagner, Klaus W.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Given a p-order A over a universe of strings (i.e., a transitive, reflexive, antisymmetric relation such that if (x, y) is an element of A then |x| is polynomially bounded by |y|), an interval size function of A returns, for each string x in the universe, the number of strings in the interval between strings b(x) and t(x) (with respect to A), where b(x) and t(x) are functions that are polynomial-time computable in the length of x. By choosing sets of interval size functions based on feasibility requirements for their underlying p-orders, we obtain new characterizations of complexity classes. We prove that the set of all interval size functions whose underlying p-orders are polynomial-time decidable is exactly #P. We show that the interval size functions for orders with polynomial-time adjacency checks are closely related to the class FPSPACE(poly). Indeed, FPSPACE(poly) is exactly the class of all nonnegative functions that are an interval size function minus a polynomial-time computable function. We study two important functions in relation to interval size functions. The function #DIV maps each natural number n to the number of nontrivial divisors of n. We show that #DIV is an interval size function of a polynomial-time decidable partial p-order with polynomial-time adjacency checks. The function #MONSAT maps each monotone boolean formula F to the number of satisfying assignments of F. We show that #MONSAT is an interval size function of a polynomial-time decidable total p-order with polynomial-time adjacency checks. Finally...

Resilience in Numerical Methods: A Position on Fault Models and Methodologies

Elliott, James; Hoemmen, Mark; Mueller, Frank
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/01/2014
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Future extreme-scale computer systems may expose silent data corruption (SDC) to applications, in order to save energy or increase performance. However, resilience research struggles to come up with useful abstract programming models for reasoning about SDC. Existing work randomly flips bits in running applications, but this only shows average-case behavior for a low-level, artificial hardware model. Algorithm developers need to understand worst-case behavior with the higher-level data types they actually use, in order to make their algorithms more resilient. Also, we know so little about how SDC may manifest in future hardware, that it seems premature to draw conclusions about the average case. We argue instead that numerical algorithms can benefit from a numerical unreliability fault model, where faults manifest as unbounded perturbations to floating-point data. Algorithms can use inexpensive "sanity" checks that bound or exclude error in the results of computations. Given a selective reliability programming model that requires reliability only when and where needed, such checks can make algorithms reliable despite unbounded faults. Sanity checks, and in general a healthy skepticism about the correctness of subroutines, are wise even if hardware is perfectly reliable.; Comment: Position Paper

Map Tasks in Italian : Asking Questions about Given, Accessible and New Information

Grice, Martine; Savino, Michelina
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 ENG
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This paper confirms that in Bari Italian an intonational distinction is made between polar questions asking about new information (QUERY-YN moves in the HCRC Map Task coding scheme) and those asking about given information (prototypical CHECK moves in the same coding scheme). The former, where the speaker believes that the information is not shared and therefore mutually inactive, employ a rising pitch accent (L+H*). The latter, where the speaker believes that the information is mutually active, are expressed with a falling accent (H*+L or H+L*). The situation is more complicated for moves classified as CHECKS which are asking about information which has been mentioned earlier in the dialogue as opposed to the prototypical CHECKS where the information is given immediately before the current turn. These CHECKS, asking about textually accessible as opposed to given information, as well as those asking about something which can only be inferred from the context, can have either rising or falling pitch accents. The intonational variation is related to the degree of speaker confidence that confirmation being sought in the question will be provided.