Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade de Adelaide

A Universidade de Adelaide é uma instituição de ensino superior australiana fundada em 1874. É a terceira mais antiga universidade da Austrália.

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Tailoring the physicochemical and mechanical properties of optical copper-cobalt oxide thin films through annealing treatment

Amri, A.; Jiang, Z.T.; Zhao, X.; Xie, Z.; Yin, C.Y.; Ali, N.; Mondinos, N.; Rahman, M.M.; Habibi, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Abstract not available; Amun Amri, Zhong-Tao Jiang, Xiaoli Zhao, Zonghan Xie, Chun-Yang Yin, Nurshahidah Ali, Nick Mondinos, M. Mahbubur Rahman, Daryoush Habibi

Variation in natural head position and establishing corrected head position

Barbera, A.L.; Sampson, W.J.; Townsend, G.C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Abstract not available; A.L. Barbera, W.J. Sampson, G.C. Townsend

Estimating glomerular filtration rate in obese subjects

Nguyen, M.T.; Fong, J.; Ullah, S.; Lovell, A.; Thompson, C.H.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Abstract not available; Minh T. Nguyen, Julia Fong, Shahid Ullah, Alex Lovell, Campbell H. Thompson

Mitochondrial dysfunction in oocytes of obese mothers: transmission to offspring and reversal by pharmacological endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitors

Wu, L.L.; Russell, D.L.; Wong, S.L.; Chen, M.; Tsai, T.S.; St John, J.C.; Norman, R.J.; Febbraio, M.A.; Carroll, J.; Robker, R.L.
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Over-nutrition in females causes altered fetal growth during pregnancy and permanently programs the metabolism of offspring; however, the temporal and mechanistic origins of these changes, and whether they are reversible, are unknown. We now show that, in obese female mice, cumulus-oocyte complexes exhibit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, high levels of intracellular lipid, spindle abnormalities and reduced PTX3 extracellular matrix protein production. Ovulated oocytes from obese mice contain normal levels of mitochondrial (mt) DNA but have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and high levels of autophagy compared with oocytes from lean mice. After in vitro fertilization, the oocytes of obese female mice demonstrate reduced developmental potential and form blastocysts with reduced levels of mtDNA. Blastocysts transferred to normal weight surrogates that were then analyzed at E14.5 showed that oocytes from obese mice gave rise to fetuses that were heavier than controls and had reduced liver and kidney mtDNA content per cell, indicating that maternal obesity before conception had altered the transmission of mitochondria to offspring. Treatment of the obese females with the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal or the chaperone inducer BGP-15 before ovulation increased the amount of the mitochondrial replication factors TFAM and DRP1...

Female offspring sired by diet induced obese male mice display impaired blastocyst development with molecular alterations to their ovaries, oocytes and cumulus cells

Fullston, T.; Shehadeh, H.; Sandeman, L.Y.; Kang, W.X.; Wu, L.L.; Robker, R.L.; McPherson, N.O.; Lane, M.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
To investigate the impacts that a paternal high fat diet (HFD) has on embryology, ovarian/cumulus cell gene expression and COC metabolism from female offspring, using a mouse model.Founder male mice were either fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks. The HFD induced obesity but not diabetes, and founder males were then mated to normal weight CD fed female mice. Female offspring were maintained on a CD, super-ovulated, mated and the resultant zygotes were cultured to the blastocyst stage for embryo morphology, blastocyst cell number and apoptosis assessment. Ovaries and cumulus cells from offspring were collected for gene expression analysis of selected genes that maintain chromatin remodeling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. Cumulus/oocyte complexes were also investigated for glucose uptake and lipid accumulation.Female offspring sired by obese fathers produced embryos with delayed development and impaired quality, displayed increases in ovarian expression of Glut1, Glut3 and Glut4, and an increase in cumulus cell expression of Glut4. Interestingly their COCs did take up more glucose, but did accumulate more lipid.A paternal HFD is associated with subfertility in female offspring despite the offspring being fed a CD and this subfertility is concomitant with ovarian/cumulus cell molecular alterations and increased lipid accumulation.; Tod Fullston...

Impact of CARDIOrespiratory FITness on arrhythmia recurrence in obese individuals with atrial fibrillation: the CARDIO-FIT Study

Pathak, R.K.; Elliott, A.; Middeldorp, M.E.; Meredith, M.; Mehta, A.B.; Mahajan, R.; Hendriks, J.M.L.; Twomey, D.; Kalman, J.M.; Abhayaratna, W.P.; Lau, D.H.; Sanders, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Abstract not available; Rajeev K. Pathak, Adrian Elliott, Melissa E. Middeldorp, Megan Meredith, Abhinav B. Mehta, Rajiv Mahajan, Jeroen M.L. Hendriks, Darragh Twomey, Jonathan M. Kalman, Walter P. Abhayaratna, Dennis H. Lau, Prashanthan Sanders

When two obese parents are worse than one! Impacts on embryo and fetal development

McPherson, N.O.; Bell, V.G.; Zander-Fox, D.; Fullston, T.; Wu, L.L.; Robker, R.L.; Lane, M.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in reproductively aged adults is increasing worldwide. While the effects of either paternal or maternal obesity on gamete health and subsequent fertility and pregnancy have been reported independently, the combination of having both parents overweight/obese on fecundity and offspring health has received minimal attention. Using a 2x2 study design in rodents we established the relative contributions of paternal and maternal obesity on fetal and embryo development and whether combined paternal and maternal obesity had an additive effect. Here we show that parental obesity reduces fetal and placental weights without altering pregnancy establishment and is not dependent on an in utero exposure to a high fat diet. Interestingly combined parental obesity seemed to accumulate of both the negative influences paternal and maternal obesity had alone on embryo and fetal health rather than an amplification, manifested as reduced embryo developmental competency, reduced blastocyst cell numbers, impaired mitochondrial function, alterations to active and repressive embryonic chromatin marks, resulting in aberrant placental gene expression and reduced fetal liver mtDNA copy numbers. Further understanding both the maternal cytoplasmic and paternal genetic interactions during this early developmental time frame will be vital for understanding how developmental programming is regulated and for the proposition of interventions to mitigate their effects.; N. O. McPherson...

Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis precedes food intake in genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats

Kontos, A.; de Menezes, R.C.; Ootsuka, Y.; Blessing, W.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Abstract not available; Anna Kontos, Rodrigo C. de Menezes, Youichirou Ootsuka, William Blessing

Plaque vulnerability at non-culprit lesions in obese patients with coronary artery disease: frequency-domain optical coherence tomography analysis

Kataoka, Y.; Hammadah, M.; Puri, R.; Duggal, B.; Uno, K.; Kapadia, S.R.; Tuzcu, E.M.; Nissen, S.E.; Nicholls, S.J.
Fonte: Sage Publicador: Sage
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Obesity is associated with adverse atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. While various metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity promote plaque formation, the morphological phenotype of atherosclerotic plaque has not been well characterized in the setting of obesity. Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) enables in vivo visualization of plaque microstructures associated with vulnerability. We characterized plaque microstructures in obese patients.FD-OCT imaging was performed in 308 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)). Plaques in obese (n = 129) and non-obese (n = 179) patients were compared with regard to clinical characteristics and FD-OCT-derived features of plaque vulnerability.Obese patients were more likely to be younger (p = 0.01), female (p = 0.01) and have a history of hypertension (p = 0.01). Higher levels of triglyceride (p < 0.0001) and glucose (p = 0.02), whereas a lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.02) was observed in obese patients. FD-OCT imaging demonstrated thinner fibrous caps (85.3 ± 31.1 vs 110.1 ± 32.4 µm...

Strategic hedging: Evidence from Brazilian exporters

Boehe, D.M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Abstract not available; Dirk Michael Boehe

An international, multicentre evaluation and description of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in cystic fibrosis

Geake, J.B.; Reid, D.W.; Currie, B.J.; Bell, S.C.; Bright-Thomas, R.; Dewar, J.; Holden, S.; Simmonds, N.; Gyi, K.; Kenna, D.; Waters, V.; Jackson, M.; O'Sullivan, B.; Taccetti, G.; Kolbe, J.; O'Carroll, M.; Campbell, D.; Jaksic, M.; Radhakrishna, N.; Kid
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Several cases of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in CF have been previously reported. We aimed to identify all cases globally, risk factors for acquisition, clinical consequences, and optimal treatment strategies.We performed a literature search to identify all published cases of B. pseudomallei infection in CF. In addition we hand-searched respiratory journals, and contacted experts in infectious diseases and CF around the world. Supervising clinicians for identified cases were contacted and contemporaneous clinical data was requested.25 culture-confirmed cases were identified. The median age at acquisition was 21 years, mean FEV1 % predicted was 60 %, and mean BMI was 19.5 kg/m(2). The location of acquisition was northern Australia or south-east Asia for most. 19 patients (76 %) developed chronic infection, which was usually associated with clinical decline. Successful eradication strategies included a minimum of two weeks of intravenous ceftazidime, followed by a consolidation phase with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and this resulted in a higher chance of success when instituted early. Three cases of lung transplantation have been recorded in the setting of chronic B. pseudomallei infection.Chronic carriage of B. pseudomallei in patients with CF appears common after infection...

TaylorActive - Examining the effectiveness of web-based personally-tailored videos to increase physical activity: a randomised controlled trial protocol

Vandelanotte, C.; Short, C.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Hooker, C.; Canoy, D.; Rebar, A.; Alley, S.; Schoeppe, S.; Mummery, W.K.; Duncan, M.J.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity levels are unacceptably high and effective interventions that can increase physical activity in large populations at low cost are urgently needed. Web-based interventions that use computer-tailoring have shown to be effective, though people tend to 'skim' and 'scan' text on the Internet rather than thoroughly read it. The use of online videos is, however, popular and engaging. Therefore, the aim of this 3-group randomised controlled trial is to examine whether a web-based physical activity intervention that provides personally-tailored videos is more effective when compared with traditional personally-tailored text-based intervention and a control group. METHODS/DESIGN: In total 510 Australians will be recruited through social media advertisements, e-mail and third party databases. Participants will be randomised to one of three groups: text-tailored, video-tailored, or control. All groups will gain access to the same web-based platform and a library containing brief physical activity articles. The text-tailored group will additionally have access to 8 sessions of personalised physical activity advice that is instantaneously generated based on responses to brief online surveys. The theory-based advice will be provided over a period of 3 months and address constructs such as self-efficacy...

Development, inter-rater reliability and feasibility of a checklist to assess implementation (Ch-IMP) in systematic reviews: the case of provider-based prevention and treatment programs targeting children and youth

Cargo, M.; Stankov, I.; Thomas, J.; Saini, M.; Rogers, P.; Mayo-Wilson, E.; Hannes, K.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND: Several papers report deficiencies in the reporting of information about the implementation of interventions in clinical trials. Information about implementation is also required in systematic reviews of complex interventions to facilitate the translation and uptake of evidence of provider-based prevention and treatment programs. To capture whether and how implementation is assessed within systematic effectiveness reviews, we developed a checklist for implementation (Ch-IMP) and piloted it in a cohort of reviews on provider-based prevention and treatment interventions for children and young people. This paper reports on the inter-rater reliability, feasibility and reasons for discrepant ratings. METHODS: Checklist domains were informed by a framework for program theory; items within domains were generated from a literature review. The checklist was pilot-tested on a cohort of 27 effectiveness reviews targeting children and youth. Two raters independently extracted information on 47 items. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated using percentage agreement and unweighted kappa coefficients. Reasons for discrepant ratings were content analysed. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 1.00 and were not influenced by one-sided bias. Most kappa values were classified as excellent (n = 20) or good (n = 17) with a few items categorised as fair (n = 7) or poor (n = 1). Prevalence-adjusted kappa coefficients indicate good or excellent agreement for all but one item. Four areas contributed to scoring discrepancies: 1) clarity or sufficiency of information provided in the review; 2) information missed in the review; 3) issues encountered with the tool; and 4) issues encountered at the review level. Use of the tool demands time investment and it requires adjustment to improve its feasibility for wider use. CONCLUSIONS: The case of provider-based prevention and treatment interventions showed relevancy in developing and piloting the Ch-IMP as a useful tool for assessing the extent to which systematic reviews assess the quality of implementation. The checklist could be used by authors and editors to improve the quality of systematic reviews...

The effect of antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese on emotional well-being: the LIMIT randomized trial

Dodd, J.M.; Newman, A.; Moran, L.J.; Deussen, A.R.; Grivell, R.M.; Yelland, L.N.; Crowther, C.A.; Mcphee, A.J.; Wittert, G.; Owens, J.A.; Turnbull, D.; Robinson, J.S.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Our aim was to evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle advice to women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy on maternal quality of life, anxiety and risk of depression, and satisfaction with care.We conducted a randomized trial, involving pregnant women with body mass index >25kg/m(2) , recruited from maternity units in South Australia. Women were randomized to Lifestyle Advice or Standard Care, and completed questionnaires assessing risk of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and quality of life (SF-36) at trial-entry, 28 and 36 weeks gestation, and four months postpartum. Secondary trial outcomes assessed for this analysis were risk of depression, anxiety, maternal quality of life, and satisfaction with care.One or more questionnaires were completed by 976 of 1,108 (90.8%) women receiving Lifestyle Advice and 957 of 1,104 (89.7%) women receiving Standard Care. The risk of depression (adjusted risk ratio 1.01; 95% CI 0.82-1.24; p=0.95), anxiety (adjusted risk ratio 1.09; 95% CI 0.93-1.27; p=0.31), and health related quality of life were similar between the two groups. Women receiving Lifestyle Advice reported improved healthy food choice (Lifestyle Advice 404 (68.9%) vs Standard Care 323 (51.8%); p<0.0001)...

A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of roxithromycin and doxycycline combination, roxithromycin alone, or matching placebo for 12 weeks in adults with frequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Shafuddin, E.; Mills, G.D.; Holmes, M.D.; Poole, P.J.; Mullins, P.R.; Black, P.N.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Azithromycin prophylaxis has been shown to reduce COPD exacerbations but there is poor evidence for other antibiotics. We compared exacerbation rates in COPD patients with a history of frequent exacerbations (at least three moderate or severe COPD exacerbations in the past two years) during a 12-week treatment course and over a subsequent 48-week follow up period.292 patients were randomised to one of three treatments for 12 weeks: roxithromycin 300 mg daily and doxycycline 100 mg daily (n = 101); roxithromycin 300 mg daily (n = 97); or matching placebos (n = 94). There were no differences in the annualised moderate and severe exacerbation rates after treatment with roxithromycin/doxycycline (2.83 (95 % CI 2.37-3.40)) or roxithromycin only (2.69 (2.26-3.21)) compared to placebo (2.5 (2.08-3.03)) (p = 0.352 and p = 0.5832 respectively). Furthermore, there were no differences in the annualised exacerbation rates during 12-week treatment with roxithromycin/doxycycline (1.64 (95 % CI 1.17-2.30)), roxithromycin only (1.75 (1.24-2.41)) or placebo (2.23 (1.68-3.03)) (p = 0.1709 and p = 0.2545 respectively). There were also no significant differences between groups for spirometry or quality of life scores over either the 12-week treatment or 48-week post-treatment periods. Both active treatments were associated with nausea but otherwise adverse events were comparable among treatment groups.Twelve-weeks of prophylaxis with roxithromycin/doxycycline combination or roxithromycin alone did not reduce COPD exacerbations in patients with history of frequent exacerbations. These findings do not support the use of these antibiotics to prevent exacerbations in COPD patients.; Eskandarain Shafuddin...

The acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent: lay people's views and justifications

Xafis, V.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
A key ethical issue arising in data linkage research relates to consent requirements. Patients' consent preferences in the context of health research have been explored but their consent preferences regarding data linkage specifically have been under-explored. In addition, the views on data linkage are often those of patient groups. As a result, little is known about lay people's views and their preferences about consent requirements in the context of data linkage. This study explores lay people's views and justifications regarding the acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent.A qualitative study explored lay people's views regarding consent requirements in data linkage via four hypothetical data linkage scenarios of increasing complexity. Prior to considering the scenarios, participants were provided with information regarding best practice data linkage processes via discussion and a diagrammatic representation of the process.Lay people were able to understand the intricate processes involved in data linkage and the key protections afforded within a short amount of time. They were supportive of data linkage research and, on the whole, believed it should be conducted without consent provided a data linkage organization de-identifies the data used so that researchers do not handle identifiable data. Many thought that de-identified data holds a different status to identifiable data and should be used without specific consent in research that aims to benefit society. In weighing up conflicting values and interests...

Comparative effects of intraduodenal whey protein hydrolysate on antropyloroduodenal motility, gut hormones, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in lean and obese men

Hutchison, A.T.; Feinle-Bisset, C.; Fitzgerald, P.C.E.; Standfield, S.; Horowitz, M.; Clifton, P.M.; Luscombe-Marsh, N.D.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
In lean individuals, intraduodenal protein and lipid modulate gastrointestinal motor and hormone functions and reduce energy intake in a load-dependent manner; protein also stimulates insulin, with modest effects on reducing blood glucose. The effect of intraduodenal lipid on gastrointestinal motor and hormone responses is diminished in obesity; whether the effects of protein are also attenuated remains unclear.The objectives of this study were to characterize the load-dependent effects of intraduodenal whey protein hydrolysate on antropyloroduodenal pressures, gut hormones, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in obese subjects and to compare the responses to the higher protein load with those in lean subjects.We measured antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, insulin, blood glucose, appetite, and energy intake in 12 nondiabetic obese men on 3 separate occasions, in a double-blind, randomized order, during 60-min intraduodenal infusions of hydrolyzed whey protein at either 0 (saline control), 1.5, or 3 kcal/min. Twelve age-matched lean individuals received a 3-kcal/min infusion only. Immediately after the infusions...

Graded Resistance Exercise And Type 2 Diabetes in Older Adults (The GREAT2DO study): methods and baseline cohort characteristics of a randomized controlled trial

Simpson, K.A.; Mavros, Y.; Kay, S.; Meiklejohn, J.; de Vos, N.; Wang, Y.; Guo, Q.; Zhao, R.; Climstein, M.; Baune, B.T.; Blair, S.; O'Sullivan, A.J.; Simar, D.; Singh, N.; Singh, M.A.F.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is projected to affect 439 million people by 2030. Medical management focuses on controlling blood glucose levels pharmacologically in a disease that is closely related to lifestyle factors such as diet and inactivity. Physical activity guidelines include aerobic exercise at intensities or volumes potentially unreachable for older adults limited by many co-morbidities. We aim to show for the first time the efficacy of a novel exercise modality, power training (high-velocity, high-intensity progressive resistance training or PRT), in older adults with T2D as a means for improving glycemic control and targeting many associated metabolic and physiological outcomes. Eligibility criteria included community-dwelling men and women previously diagnosed with T2D who met the current definition of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation. Participants were randomized to a fully supervised power training intervention or sham exercise control group for 12 months. Intervention group participants performed whole body machine-based power training at 80%1RM, 3 days per week. The control group undertook the same volume of non-progressive, low-intensity training. Participants were assessed at baseline...

The effectiveness of laser treatments for onychomycosis in adults in the community: a systematic review

Glasser, H.; Lockwood, C.S.; Lisy, K.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND There is growing public interest in laser therapy to treat onychomycosis, where traditional pharmaceutical options are long-term, expensive, unsuccessful, and suited to a limited demographic. Recent reviews highlighting the potential of laser therapies to offer effective, convenient, short duration treatment regimens and the need for further detailed research have not demonstrated the effectiveness of different laser types and treatment modalities. This systematic review identifies, critically appraises, synthesizes and presents the best available evidence for the effectiveness of laser treatments on onychomycosis of the nails in adults living in the community. The specific review question addressed was the following: Can laser treatment of onychomycotic nails produce outcomes comparable to the current ‘gold standard’ treatment of oral terbinafine over a minimum 12 week treatment period, for adults living in the community? METHODS This systematic review is based on the development and publication of an a priori protocol where population, intervention comparator and outcomes, and inclusion and exclusion criteria are clearly defined. A three step search strategy for published and unpublished studies in English language...

Diversity in boron toxicity tolerance of Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes

Hayes, J.E.; Pallotta, M.; Garcia, M.; Öz, M.T.; Rongala, J.; Sutton, T.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Boron (B) is an important micronutrient for plant growth, but is toxic when levels are too high. This commonly occurs in environments with alkaline soils and relatively low rainfall, including many of the cereal growing regions of southern Australia. Four major genetic loci controlling tolerance to high soil B have been identified in the landrace barley, Sahara 3771. Genes underlying two of the loci encode the B transporters HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1.We investigated sequence and expression level diversity in HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1 across barley germplasm, and identified five novel coding sequence alleles for HvBot1. Lines were identified containing either single or multiple copies of the Sahara HvBot1 allele. We established that only the tandemly duplicated Sahara allele conferred B tolerance, and this duplicated allele was found only in a set of nine lines accessioned in Australian collections as Sahara 3763-3771. HvNIP2;1 coding sequences were highly conserved across barley germplasm. We identified the likely causative SNP in the 5'UTR of Sahara HvNIP2;1, and propose that the creation of a small upstream open reading frame interferes with HvNIP2;1 translation in Sahara 3771. Similar to HvBot1, the tolerant HvNIP2;1 allele was unique to the Sahara barley accessions. We identified a new source of the 2H B tolerance allele controlling leaf symptom development...