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Intervenções do Estado sobre o mercado bancário e os trade-offs entre eficiência, resiliência financeira e estabilidade macroeconômica; State Interventions in banking system and the trade-offs between efficiency, financial resiliance, and macroeconomic stability

Costa, Sílvio Michael de Azevedo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/04/2011 PT
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A tese tem como propósito conectar os objetivos de eficiência da indústria bancária, resiliência financeira e estabilidade macroeconômica em um arcabouço integrado e multidimensional, para entender como as fricções financeiras geram trade-offs e como políticas de intervenção do Estado, baseadas em cada uma das dimensões, interagem com os demais conceitos. É desenvolvido um modelo DSGE de escala média que descreve explicitamente o setor bancário e inclui fricções no escopo da firma e da indústria bancária em adição às rigidezes tradicionais dessa classe de modelos. Os objetivos são interpretados a partir de relações endógenas do modelo. Exercícios de comparação de estado estacionário e simulação dinâmica estocástica de ajustamento a choque contracionista de política monetária são utilizados para entender a interação conceitual. Os resultados mostram que as fricções financeiras implicam pass-through imperfeito da política monetária porque o ajustamento dentro da estrutura do passivo bancário é diferente, implicando novas condições de resiliência financeira e induzindo ganhos de eficiência tecnológica. As intervenções do Estado analisadas são as barreiras à entrada, os recolhimentos compulsórios de reservas e os requerimentos de capital. Cada política baseada em um conceito específico de intervenção modifica de maneira particular o comportamento ótimo dos bancos...

O uso da internet banking pelos clientes exclusivos do Banco do Brasil de General Câmara

Schneider, Nadia
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Para uma Instituição Financeira obter o sucesso desejado, esta precisa estudar os seus clientes e o comportamento destes. Neste estudo procurou-se conhecer o comportamento e a satisfação dos clientes exclusivos da agência do Banco do Brasil de General Câmara, em relação ao uso da Internet Banking. Este estudo tem uma abordagem quantitativa fazendo uso da estatística descritiva na análise dos dados coletados através do questionário com 30 clientes exclusivos, com o objetivo de se obter um panorama geral do perfil sócio econômico do cliente e da utilização das tecnologias bancárias, observando questões voltadas à satisfação destes clientes. Quanto ao comportamento do consumidor, a maioria não utiliza a internet banking e aqueles que usam, só efetua transação de extratos e saldos. Em relação ao nível de satisfação com a internet banking, observou-se que ainda não está no nível ideal, mesmo entre pessoas com bons conhecimentos em informática, elevada renda e alta escolaridade. Observa-se que a maioria dos clientes demonstra desconfiança, medos e incertezas quanto à utilização do site. Conclui-se que os clientes exclusivos da agência do Banco do Brasil de General Câmara não estão familiarizados com o ambiente digital e os que estão...

Banking Sector Competition in Russia

Anzoategui, Diego; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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The Russian banking sector includes approximately 1,000 banks, but is it competitive? This paper analyzes bank competition in Russia during 2002-2008. The authors examine indicators of concentration and contestability, and compute non-structural measures of competition. They compare competition in Russia to that in Brazil, China, and India, and contrast competition across different groups of banks within Russia. Contestability in Russia is obstructed by uneven supervisory practices and an unclear exit process. Non-structural measures reveal that banks in Russia are less competitive than those in Brazil. Within Russia, large banks and state-owned banks exert more market power than the smaller and privately-owned institutions. Finally, business-oriented banks are more competitive than those concentrating on lending to individuals.

Expanding Bank Outreach through Retail Partnerships : Correspondent Banking in Brazil

Kumar, Anjali; Nair, Ajai; Parsons, Adam; Urdapilleta, Eduardo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This paper explores the extent to which formal, regulated financial institutions such as banks have been able to partner with "correspondents"- commercial entities whose primary objective and business is other than the provision of financial services. The paper illustrates the case of Brazil, where banks recently have developed extensive networks of such correspondents. Such arrangements result in lower costs and shared risks for participating financial institutions, making these arrangements an attractive vehicle for outreach to the underserved. Correspondent banking requires an enabling environment to emerge, and poses some regulatory challenges and some increase in risk. While there are reasons why this model was particularly successful in Brazil, it may be replicable elsewhere if appropriate regulatory adjustments are undertaken.

Branchless Banking in Pakistan : A Laboratory for Innovation

Bold, Chris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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Pakistan is one of the fastest developing markets for branchless banking in the world. Clear regulations and a regulator that is willing to both listen to the private sector and provide incentives for innovation have promoted a dynamic branchless banking sector. Two players have already launched services, and others are waiting in the wings. This brief highlights both existing and anticipated businesses and outlines the key challenges and opportunities that are likely to shape the market over the next twelve months.

Commitment to a Lady’s First WIN : Banking Innovation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Owuor, Vivian Awiti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Doing business is challenging in the Democratic Republic of Congo and presents opportunities for innovative approaches to banking, especially for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) - and particularly for women entrepreneurs. But it is getting easier, thanks to innovating banking. This SmartLesson reviews some of the early lessons learned from the ongoing implementation of a Women in Business (WIN) component in a MSME finance project with Rawbank, S.A.R.L, and the second-largest bank in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Managing the Real and Fiscal Effects of Banking Crises

Klingbiel, Daniela; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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The study provides two recent analyses, spurred by the recent East Asian crisis, of government responses to financial distress, and, also presents a comprehensive database on systemic, and borderline banking crises. In the first chapter, the authors review the tradeoffs involved in public policies for systemic, financial, and corporate sector restructuring. They find that consistent policies are crucial for success, though such consistency is often missing. This consistency covers many dimensions, and entails among other things, ensuring that there are sufficient resources for absorbing losses, and, that private agents face appropriate incentives for restructuring. The authors also find that sustainable restructuring, requires deep structural reforms, facing upfront, political economy factors. In the second chapter, the authors use cross-country evidence to determine whether specific crisis containment, and resolution policies, systematically influence the fiscal costs of resolving a crisis. They find that accommodating policies - such as blanket deposit guarantees...

Analyzing and Managing Banking Risk : A Framework for Assessing Corporate Governance and Financial Risk Management, Second Edition

Van Greuning, Hennie; Brajovic Bratanovic, Sonja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This publication aims to complement existing methodologies by establishing a comprehensive framework for the assessment of banks, not only by using financial data, but also by considering corporate governance. It argues that each of the key players in the corporate governance process (such as shareholders, directors, executive managers, and internal and external auditors) is responsible for some component of financial and operational risk management. Following a holistic overview of bank analysis in Chapter 2, the importance of banking supervision in the context of corporate governance is discussed in Chapter 3. This chapter also considers the partnership approach and the emerging framework for corporate governance and risk management, as well as the identification and allocation of tasks as part of the risk management process. The framework for risk management is further discussed in Chapters 4 through 11.

Further Evidence on the Link between Finance and Growth : An International Analysis of Community Banking and Economic Performance

Berger, Allen N.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Klapper, Leora F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The authors contribute to both the finance-growth literature and the community banking literature by testing the effects of the relative health of community banks on economic growth, and investigating potential transmission mechanisms for these effects using data from 1993-2000 on 49 nations. Data from both industrial and developing nations suggest that greater market shares and efficiency ranks of small, private, domestically-owned banks are associated with better economic performance, and that the marginal benefits of higher shares are greater when the banks are more efficient. Only mixed support is found for hypothesized transmission mechanisms through improved financing for small and medium enterprises or greater overall bank credit flows. Data from developing nations are also consistent with favorable economic effects of foreign-owned banks, but unfavorable effects from state-owned banks.

Banking Risks around the World : The Implicit Safety Net Subsidy Approach

Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The author calculates gross safety net subsidies for a large sample of banks in 12 countries, to assess the relationship between the risk-taking behavior of banks, and certain ban characteristics. He finds that gross safety net subsidies are higher for banks that have concentrated ownership, that are affiliated with a business group, that are small, or that have high credit growth, and for banks in countries with low GDP per capita, high inflation, or poor quality, and enforcement of the legal system. These findings suggest that the moral hazard behavior of a bank depends on its institutional environment, and its corporate governance structure. The author also presents a matrix that shows estimates of safety net subsidies for a range of given combinations of equity volatilities, and equity-to-deposit ratios. These figures could be used as input to an early warning system, for both individual, and systemic banking problems.

The interplay between the EBA and the Banking Union

CAPPIELLO, Stefano
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
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In the last five years the European institutional architecture of banking regulation and supervision has undergone sweeping changes, brought about by a number of sequential legislative initiatives. Such a "Copernican revolution" naturally calls for investigating whether and how these different layers of reforms add up to (or can be interpreted in a way that ensure) an overall consistent, efficient and effective design for banking regulation and supervision. This is particularly the case for the European Banking Authority (EBA) and the Banking Union (BU), two new institutional players which in the public debate are sometimes dubbed as overlapping or even conflicting. The paper provides a critical analysis of this interplay and its components, also with the aim to provide food for thought for further exploration, from a private as well as a public law perspective. It starts from the reasons behind the foundation of the EBA and the BU, to show how these new institutional players in fact were created to pursue two distinct and complementary goals, and operate on two separate but interconnected institutional levels. The paper then dwells on the panoply of innovative regulatory tools which the EBA can dispose of in order to accomplish its mission to foster maximum harmonization and the creation of a single set of common rules (the “Single rulebook” or SR): technical standards...

Giving credit where it's due: the delivery of banking and financial services to Indigenous Australians in rural and remote areas

McDonnell, Siobhan; Westbury, Neil
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 375854 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Australia's financial system is undergoing a period of substantial structural change. A number of interrelated factors are implicated: changes in the competitive forces within the sector, the introduction of new technology, and changing consumer demands. While these changes may have had positive impacts on most consumers, they have had a number of negative impacts, particularly for low-income consumers of financial services and for people located in rural and remote communities.

This Discussion Paper (218) and the one following (219) will analyse the proposition that an alternative model for the delivery of financial services or re-regulation of the financial sector is required to protect the interests of low-income groups and, in particular, Indigenous people. The argument is based on an understanding of the impact of the deregulation of the financial sector on the delivery of banking services to low-income groups and to people located in rural and remote communities. Indigenous people make up a significant proportion of both of these groups. It is argued that deregulation has had a profound impact on Indigenous people, both because of their historical lack of equitable access to financial services, and their comparatively low socioeconomic status.

Supply of financial services to rural and remote communities within Australia is currently in decline. This paper explores current banking and financial services in the context of Australia's financial system...

Banking on Governance? Conflicts of Interest Facing Bank Owners and Supervisors

Leechor, Chad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Banks fail with alarming frequency, resulting in large losses of taxpayer money. A key factor in the high failure rate is the flawed governance mechanism, which exacerbates the risks inherent in banking. Bankers control a lot of other people's money and have much discretion over the information they disclose. The temptation to engage in excessive risk taking is strong. Tightening banking supervision is seldom the solution. For their part, banking supervisors often face incentives at odds with those of taxpayers. At times they may prefer not to act to minimize taxpayer losses. These twin governance problems are further compounded by the common practice of disclosing banking information only to supervisors, not to markets. This Note explains the conflicts and proposes some solutions.

Measuring Banking Efficiency in the Pre- and Post-Liberalization Environment : Evidence from the Turkish Banking System

Denizer, Cevdet A.; Dinc, Mustafa; Tarimcilar, Murat
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The authors examine banking efficiency before and after liberalization, drawing on Turkey's experience. They also investigate the scale effect on efficiency by type of ownership. Their findings suggest that liberalization programs were followed by an observable decline in efficiency, not an improvement. During the study period Turkish banks did not operate at the optimum scale. Another unexpected result was that efficiency was no different between state-owned and privately owned banks. Banks that were privately owned or foreign owned had been expected to respond better to liberalization, because they were smaller and more dynamically structured, but they were no more efficient than state-owned banks. One reason for the systemwide decline in efficiency might have been the general increase in macroeconomic instability during the period studied.

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Philippines - Focused Update of the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This focused assessment of the current state of the Philippines' compliance with the Basel core principles for effective banking supervision is an update of the detailed assessment completed as part of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) that took place in 2002. Thus, the current assessment targets those Basle Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCPs) for which the initial assessment was non-compliant or materially non-compliant, and those for which the FSAP had recommended reforms. As the original assessment had been made using the 1997 methodology, which was superseded by the 2006 methodology, the principles that were reviewed were mapped into the 2006 principles. This report should provide inputs for the enhancement of the Central Bank of the Philippines (BSP's) action plan to move toward full compliance with the core principles. This assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision was based on an examination of the legal and regulatory framework and benefited from the inputs of the IMF resident advisor...

Foreign Entry in Turkey's Banking Sector, 1980-97

Denizer, Cevdet
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
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Despite high and volatile inflation, a record number of foreign and local banks entered Turkey's banking sector after the country relaxed rules about bank entry, and generally eliminated controls on interest rates, and financial intermediation in 1980. The country's financial integration with the rest of the world took a big step forward with the opening up of the capital account in 1989. Capital inflows rose significantly, and the financial system became increasingly linked with external markets. The author examines one dimension of liberalization: the impact of foreign banks entering the financial sector. Between 1980 and the end of 1997, 17 foreign banks, and a number of new local banks entered the sector. The author investigates how these banks' entry into the sector affected performance, based on three measures: net interest margin, overhead expenses, and return on assets (all expressed as a percentage of total assets). He finds that: 1) Foreign bank ownership is related to all three performance measures. 2) Foreign bank entry reduced the overhead expenses of domestic commercial banks, strengthening profits. 3) Despite their small scale operations, foreign banks entering the sector had a strong effect on competition. But the market could use more competition. 4) There are strong indications that foreign banks had a positive impact on financial...

Financial Dependence, Banking Sector Competition, and Economic Growth

Claessens, Stijn; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The relationships among competition in the financial sector, access of firms to external financing, and associated economic growth are ambiguous in theory. Moreover, measuring competition in the financial sector can be complex. In this paper the authors first estimate for 16 countries a measure of banking system competition based on industrial organization theory. They then relate this competition measure to growth of industries and find that greater competition in countries' banking systems allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These results are robust under a variety of tests. Their results suggest that the degree of competition is an important aspect of financial sector functioning.

Reforming State-Dominated Banking Systems in Africa : Financial Adjustment and Technical Assistance Programs; La reforme des systèmes bancaires controles par l'Etat en Afrique : les programmes d'ajustement financier et d'assistance technique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The objective of the reforms is to improve the capacity of financial institutions to serve the needs of economic agents and the population at large. In Cote d'Ivoire, downsizing, reorganization and (as required) privatization and liquidation of key banks and insurance companies, in the early 1990s led to the establishment of a more efficient and competitive banking system. In Benin, all state-owned commercial banks were liquidated in the late 1980s, leading the way to the emergence of a strong network of private banks serving urban areas, and of grass root-based institutions serving people in rural areas. On the other hand, efforts undertaken in Tanzania in the late 1980s and early 1990s to restructure the banking system met with failure. Continued fiscal disequilibria, lack of political commitment behind the privatization of the state-owned National Bank of Commerce (NBC), and lack of clarity on the appropriate strategy to carry out such privatization have left Tanzania with well over 80 percent of banking assets held by NBC and with well over half of the loan portfolios of NBC and other state-owned banks non-performing.

Extending Financial Services with Banking Agents

Siedek, Hannah
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Banking agents are retail vendors, lottery outlets, and post offices-trusted local establishments that can double as a kind of bank branch for their customers, processing everything from bill and pension payments to deposits, withdrawals, and money transfers. Banking agents' lower set-up and running costs promise to help banks and microfinance institutions reach more and poorer people living far from the nearest branch, with more financial products, at lower cost, than traditional microfinance or banking channels. Banking agents process transactions with point-of-sale (POS) card readers, barcode scanners, and sometimes personal computers that connect with the bank's server using a dial-up or other data connection. The clerk at the retail or postal outlet collects and disburses cash and, in some cases, opens bank accounts for new clients and fills in credit applications. The retail outlets earn a portion of the transaction fee. Some generate so much business from handling these transactions that they dedicate an employee to operating the POS device. Some banks use management companies to identify...

Espaço geográfico, sistema bancário e a hipercapilaridade do crédito no Brasil; Geographical space, banking system and overpresence of credit in Brazil; L'espace géographique, le système bancaire et l'hypercapillarité du crédit au Brésil

CONTEL, Fabio Betioli
Fonte: Universidade Federal da Bahia - Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas - Centro de Recursos Humanos Publicador: Universidade Federal da Bahia - Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas - Centro de Recursos Humanos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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O presente artigo tem por objetivo a análise do funcionamento atual do sistema bancário brasileiro, sob uma perspectiva geográfica. Fixando a periodização do estudo a partir da instalação do Plano Real (1994), foi possível identificar quais as principais alterações nos conteúdos técnicos e normativos do território brasileiro que têm relação direta com o desenvolvimento recente do sistema bancário nacional. Dentre as principais novidades desse sistema, foi dado destaque a três questões: o maciço processo de privatização dos bancos públicos estaduais; a implementação do Sistema de Pagamentos Brasileiro (SPB); e a difusão das novas formas de prestação de serviços bancários (Correspondentes Bancários, cartões de crédito/débito e internet banking principalmente), possibilitada pelos objetos informacionais que vêm sendo instalados no território desde as últimas décadas do século XX.; This paper aims to analyse today's operation of the Brazilian banking system, under a geographical perspective. Beginning the time interval of this study from the installation of Plano Real (1994), it was possible to identify which were the main alterations in the technical and normative contents in the Brazilian territory that have a direct relationship with the recent development of the national banking system. Among the main innovations of that system...