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Revisão do pensamento sanitário como foco no Centro de Saúde; Review of sanitary thought with a focus on Health Centre

Mello, Guilherme Arantes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/07/2010 PT
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26.34%
Sob o referencial da história das idéias, este estudo revisa o pensamento sanitarista brasileiro, norteado pela figura do Centro de Saúde. A reforma do Serviço Sanitário paulista de 1925 e a instituição das Unidades de Saúde da Família em 1994 definem os limites gerais da revisão. Considera-se a possibilidade de que o discurso sobre o Centro de Saúde inaugurou uma nova era epistemológica na saúde pública, definida pela dimensão individual da educação sanitária, em detrimento da medicina das cidades ou era bacteriana. As novas concepções surgiram, sustentaram e foram sustentadas pelo deslocamento da influência política e intelectual francesa para os Estados Unidos, materializada nas ações da Fundação Rockefeller, tendo por base a Universidade Johns Hopkins. São Paulo foi uma das cidades escolhidas para investimento maciço, como efeito demonstração do novo ideário. Embora a atuação institucional da Fundação tenha tido escala planetária, a apropriação discursiva e adaptação local se mostrou mais precoce e coesa na América Latina, dando ensejo a criação e fortalecimento de um verdadeiro pan-americanismo na saúde pública, com a participação do Brasil. No país, o discurso da era sanitária e seus corolários medicina preventiva...

Experiências de pensamento no ensino da filosofia

Silva, Idalina Maria Correia da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2013 POR
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Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Ensino da Filosofia no Ensino Secundário; O recurso a experiências de pensamento é um clássico da história da filosofia. Na verdade, a filosofia é uma extensa galeria de experiências de pensamento. Por que razão os filósofos recorrem tão frequentemente a experiências de pensamento? A história das experiências de pensamento pode elucidar-nos sobre a natureza do pensamento filosófico? Se os filósofos as empregam tão abundantemente, beneficiará o ensino da filosofia com a sua aplicação e em que medida? No presente trabalho que tem por título, Experiências de pensamento no ensino da filosofia, descrevo a minha prática de ensino que se caracterizou pela sua aplicação e fundamento teoricamente o seu emprego tentando dar uma resposta a todas estas questões. Este trabalho consiste no relatório do estágio que integra o Mestrado em Ensino da Filosofia no Ensino Secundário e que foi concretizado no ano letivo de 2012/2013 na Escola Secundária Martins Sarmento, em Guimarães, com a turma 10ºCT3.; Thought experiments are a classic resource found all through the history of philosophy. Indeed, philosophy is an extensive gallery of thought experiments. Why do philosophers resort to thought experiments so often? Can the history of thought experiments elucidate us about the nature of philosophical thought?If philosophers employ them so abundantly...

Why did the white bear return? Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and attributions for unsuccessful thought suppression

Magee, Joshua C.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The current study examined the nature and consequences of attributions about unsuccessful thought suppression. Undergraduate students with either high (N=67) or low (N=59) levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms rated attributions to explain their unsuccessful thought suppression attempts. We expected that self-blaming attributions and attributions ascribing importance to unwanted thoughts would predict more distress and greater recurrence of thoughts during time spent monitoring or suppressing unwanted thoughts. Further, we expected that these attributions would mediate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom levels and the negative thought suppression outcomes (distress and thought recurrence). Structural equation models largely confirmed the hypotheses, suggesting that attributions may be an important factor in explaining the consequences of thought suppression. Implications are discussed for cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder and thought suppression.

Thought disorder and frontotemporal volumes in pediatric epilepsy

Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Taylor, Janelle; Daley, Melita; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Shields, W. Donald; Sankar, Raman
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
The aim of this study was to determine if volumes of frontotemporal regions associated with language were related to thought disorder in 42 children, aged 5–16 years, with cryptogenic epilepsy, all of whom had complex partial seizures (CPS). The children with CPS and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy children underwent brain MRI scans at 1.5 T. Tissue was segmented, and total brain, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes were computed. Thought disorder measures, IQ, and seizure information were collected for each patient. The subjects with CPS had more thought disorder, smaller total gray matter and orbital frontal gray matter volumes, as well as larger temporal lobe white matter volumes than the control group. In the CPS group, thought disorder was significantly related to smaller orbital frontal and inferior frontal gray matter volumes, increased Heschl’s gyrus gray matter volumes, and smaller superior temporal gyrus white matter volumes. However, significantly larger orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and temporal lobe gray matter volumes and decreased Heschl’s gyrus white matter volumes were associated with thought disorder in the control group. These findings suggest that thought disorder might represent a developmental disability involving frontotemporal regions associated with language in pediatric CPS.

Age Differences in the Effects of Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Decision Making

Queen, Tara L.; Hess, Thomas M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
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The roles of unconscious and conscious thought in decision making were investigated to examine both (a) boundary conditions associated with the efficacy of each type of thought and (b) age differences in intuitive versus deliberative thought. Participants were presented with two decision tasks, one requiring active deliberation and the other intuitive processing. Younger and older adults then engaged in conscious or unconscious thought processing before making a decision. A manipulation check revealed that younger adults were more accurate in their representations of the decision material than older adults, which accounted for much of the age-related variation in performance when the full sample was considered. When only considering accurate participants, decision making was best when there was congruence between the nature of the information and the thought condition. Thus, unconscious thought was more appropriate when the decision relied on intuitive rather than deliberative processing, whereas the converse was true with conscious thought. Although older adults displayed somewhat less efficient deliberative processing, their ability to process information at the intuitive level was relatively preserved. Additionally, both young and older adults displayed choice-supportive memory.

Dimensionality Analysis of the Thought Suppression Inventory: Combining EFA, MSA, and CFA

Wismeijer, Andreas A. J.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The Thought Suppression Inventory (TSI; Rassin, European Journal of Personality 17: 285-298, 2003) was designed to measure thought intrusion, thought suppression and successful thought suppression. Given the importance to distinguish between these three aspects of thought control, the aim of this study was to scrutinize the dimensionality of the TSI. In a sample of 333 Dutch senior citizins, we examined (1) the dimensionality of the TSI using various procedures such as PAF, Mokken scale analysis (MSA) and CFA, and (2) the scale properties of the TSI. PAF favored a two factor solution, however, MSA and CFA suggested that three dimensions most adequately capture the structure of the TSI. Although all scales obtained at least medium scalability coefficients, several items were identified that are psychometrically unsound and may benefit from rewording or replacement. The findings suggest that the TSI is a three-dimensional questionnaire as originally proposed by Rassin (European Journal of Personality 17: 285-298, 2003) measuring thought intrusion, thought suppression, and successful thought suppression.

Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.

Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder

Barnes, Rachel D.; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been validated in clinical samples. The purpose of the current study is to examine the factor structure and clinical correlates of the FTSI within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 128). Analyses revealed a valid and reliable one-factor measure of food thought suppression that was related to higher levels of eating and general psychopathology. The findings provide evidence for the use of the FTSI with obese women with BED. Future research should examine the psychometric properties of the FTSI within larger and more diverse samples.

Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success

Lambert, Ann E.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Beadel, Jessica R.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/06/2013 EN
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26.39%
Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults’ thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults’ were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults’ reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

Conscious thought does not guide moment-to-moment actions—it serves social and cultural functions

Masicampo, E. J.; Baumeister, Roy F.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Humans enjoy a private, mental life that is richer and more vivid than that of any other animal. Yet as central as the conscious experience is to human life, numerous disciplines have long struggled to explain it. The present paper reviews the latest theories and evidence from psychology that addresses what conscious thought is and how it affects human behavior. We suggest that conscious thought adapts human behavior to life in complex society and culture. First, we review research challenging the common notion that conscious thought directly guides and controls action. Second, we present an alternative view—that conscious thought processes actions and events that are typically removed from the here and now, and that it indirectly shapes action to favor culturally adaptive responses. Third, we summarize recent empirical work on conscious thought, which generally supports this alternative view. We see conscious thought as the place where the unconscious mind assembles ideas so as to reach new conclusions about how best to behave, or what outcomes to pursue or avoid. Rather than directly controlling action, conscious thought provides the input from these kinds of mental simulations to the executive. Conscious thought offers insights about the past and future...

Attentional Interference by Threat and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Thought Control Strategies

Wisco, Blair E.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Marx, Brian P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Attentional interference by threat is associated with PTSD, but the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. Attentional interference might be related to increased use of maladaptive thought control strategies, such as suppressing unwanted thoughts (thought suppression) or replacing threatening thoughts with everyday concerns (worry), which increase PTSD risk. Conversely, attentional interference might be associated with reduced use of adaptive strategies, such as talking about threatening thoughts (social control) which decrease PTSD risk. This study tested if thought control strategies mediate the relationship between attentional interference and PTSD. Sixty-one male Vietnam-era veterans completed measures of PTSD symptoms and thought control strategies. Participants also completed a visual search task measuring attentional interference, which required participants to identify a target letter string among a group of threat or neutral words. Attentional interference by threat was related to PTSD symptoms, and mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects of attentional interference through thought suppression and worry. Attentional interference was related to reexperiencing and avoidance, but not hyperarousal, symptom clusters. Thought suppression was a unique mediator for reexperiencing...

O outro diálogo: uma compreensão do diálogo interno; The other dialogue: understanding internal dialogue

Dias, Aline de Pinho
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This thesis aims to enable a wider comprehension on thought operation as well as suggest alternatives for the formation of reflexive, critical, autonomous and creative individuals. The research defends the idea that it is possible for an individual to develop vigilant attention that makes thought flexibilization and change in the course of action, possible. This operation is called Internal Dialogue and is essentially characterized by a continuous openness towards novelty and learning. This makes it possible to minimize the usual way thought operates, in a automatic fashion (automatism). The research was based on theoretical references and ideas of David Bohm (1989;1994;2005) and Michael Polanyi (1983). The main emphasis was the understanding that a crisis situation enables awareness and state of alert that favors a more flexible thought pattern (Aragão Gomes, 1994, 1997). The methodology used was presentation and analysis of these moments through autobibliographical records with indication of crisis on behalf of the subjects. Other criteria were also used that enabled the composition of the analyzed material such as the fact that: the subjects were public and real, the data was available through accessible material; the subjects identified themselves as in crisis; these crisis were of varied kinds; they had different social...

Outro diálogo: uma compreensão do diálogo interno; The other dialogue: understanding internal dialogue.

Dias, Aline de Pinho
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This thesis aims to enable a wider comprehension on thought operation as well as suggest alternatives for the formation of reflexive, critical, autonomous and creative individuals. The research defends the idea that it is possible for an individual to develop vigilant attention that makes thought flexibilization and change in the course of action, possible. This operation is called Internal Dialogue and is essentially characterized by a continuous openness towards novelty and learning. This makes it possible to minimize the usual way thought operates, in a automatic fashion (automatism). The research was based on theoretical references and ideas of David Bohm (1989;1994;2005) and Michael Polanyi (1983). The main emphasis was the understanding that a crisis situation enables awareness and state of alert that favors a more flexible thought pattern (Aragão Gomes, 1994, 1997). The methodology used was presentation and analysis of these moments through autobibliographical records with indication of crisis on behalf of the subjects. Other criteria were also used that enabled the composition of the analyzed material such as the fact that: the subjects were public and real, the data was available through accessible material; the subjects identified themselves as in crisis; these crisis were of varied kinds; they had different social...

Reported speech and thought in Kavalan

Jiang, Haowen
Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
One of the amazing characteristics of human language is self-reference, that is, referring to itself by means of itself. This language-with-language phenomenon is most evident in reported discourse, where speech, thought, and perception tend to be interconnected. Hence, this paper investigates reported speech (RS) and reported thought (RT) in Kavalan, an endangered Austronesian language, by focusing on the quotative marker zin, which frames either a speech event or a mental event. Based on our present corpus, it is found that in narratives reported speech is nearly twice as frequent as reported thought, with instances of reported speech almost exclusively framed by third person pronouns. In conversations, however, the situation is reversed, namely, reported thought is twice more frequent than reported speech, with instances of reported thought almost exclusively framed by first person pronouns. Our study shows that self-report of thought is the norm in conversations while other-report of speech is predominant in narratives.

Language, Meaning, and Rational Thought

Jackendoff, Ray
Fonte: Indiana University William T. Patten Foundation Publicador: Indiana University William T. Patten Foundation
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
This talk, based on Jackendoff's forthcoming book A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning, explores the experience of thought as inner speech, the Joycean stream of consciousness. The paradox is that thinking cannot be dependent on language, since (a) the same thought can be expressed in different languages, and (b) nonlinguistic organisms such as apes and babies do manage to think. He makes the case that thought itself is mostly unconscious, and that the conscious experience of inner speech is determined largely by the handles provided by the pronunciation linked to the thought. In addition, Professor Jackendoff will show that it is impossible to achieve the ideal of rational thinking, in which every step of reasoning is explicit, because the logical connections among statements ultimately rest on an intuitive (i.e. unconscious) judgment of conviction. He suggests that, nevertheless, the handles on thought provided by language enhance thought in important ways, and that a better ideal involves sensitivity to an appropriate balance between linguistically expressed rational reasoning and intuitive judgment.

Territories of thought: Recent vicissitudes of French thought and the American academy

Larson, Anthony Tonnes
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 520 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The influence of French thought on the American academy in the past thirty years is unquestionable. The philosophical concept of the territory, as it is elaborated by Gilles Deleuze offers a powerful tool for explaining this influence, particularly as it is related to the thought of his contemporaries, Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault The Deleuzian concept of the territory deploys a creative and affirmative notion of difference which also permits a critique of the "groundings" or "territorializations" of thought in the form of socio-historic or metaphysical "images" (the images deployed by contemporary capitalism and by certain readings of psychoanalysis and literature). A close reading of the work of Derrida and Foucault reveals the conceptual limits of their work in comparison to Deleuze's creative and affirmative notion of difference. When the thought of these former thinkers is expressed within the American academy (specifically within the work of Jonathan Culler, Paul de Man, Hubert Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, and Judith Butler), one may trace a Deleuzian re-territorialization of thought that is based on the critique Deleuze makes of socio-historic and metaphysical images of thought.

Subjectivity, freedom and history : Michel Foucault's contribution to critical thought

Falzon, Christopher Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis aims to defend Foucault, who pursues an 'anti-humanistic' critique of the subject, from the charge that he thereby falls into political pessimism, irrationalism and uncritical objectivism. Habermas in particular makes these criticisms. I argue that these criticisms depend on reading Foucault in terms of the very humanism that he rejects - more specifically, in terms of a 'humanistic subject-object framework', in which human beings are either free, autonomous subjects or determined, unfree objects. By questioning the subject in terms of history, Foucault seems to represent the latter alternative, and is criticised accordingly. But this situation can be turned around. In terms of this framework, it is not possible to give a historical account of the subject without destroying it, but by the same token, the autonomous subject lacks any historical context or any plausible account of its emergence. The freedom it represents turns out to be abstract and unworldly. Existentialism is discussed in this connection. I then argue that the subject -object framework of thinking is itself the outcome of a subordination of the notion of history to a metaphysical First Philosophy, in the form of a foundational subjectivism. From the standpoint of the humanist subject...

A morada do pensamento: um encontro com Platão na busca da natureza do sentido em Frege

Falcão, Jeziel Cordeiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia; Metafísica Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia; Metafísica
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
The ontological investigation of sense, from German philosopher Gottlob Frege s point of view, has, as its foundation, the understanding of reference, representation, thought and sense s categories. According to Frege s writings, On Sense and Reference, and Thoughts Logical Investigations, sense carries itself the solution for the problem of identity s relation. Sense gives us the knowledge s increment that identity doesn t give. But still there is a problem: the definition of sense's nature. Sense couldn t have its nature strictly defined because, in this case, it would be reduced to reference s category and thus, sense would be identified with the own extra-linguistic object, and this is a misconception. But Frege said that thought must be considered as the sense of the sentence. So, with this close relationship between sense and thought, a new goal in this investigation is putt in focus: thought. To Frege, thought is not a simple subjective performance of thinking, it is not a subjective representation, but it is an objective content that is real, eternal, and that exists by itself in a third realm . Thought exists in a realm beyond the world of subjective representations and beyond the world of sensible perception. From this point...

Revenge of the 'Neurds': Characterizing Creative Thought in terms of the Structure and Dynamics of Memory

Gabora, Liane
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/08/2013
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26.37%
There is cognitive, neurological, and computational support for the hypothesis that defocusing attention results in divergent or associative thought, conducive to insight and finding unusual connections, while focusing attention results in convergent or analytic thought, conducive to rule-based operations. Creativity appears to involve both. It is widely believed that it is possible to escape mental fixation by spontaneously and temporarily engaging in a more associative mode of thought. The resulting insight (if found) may be refined in a more analytic mode of thought. The questions addressed here are: (1) how does the architecture of memory support these two modes of thought, and (2) what is happening at the neural level when one shifts between them? Recent advances in neuroscience shed light on this. Activated cell assemblies are composed of multiple neural cliques, groups of neurons that respond differentially to general or context-specific aspects of a situation. I refer to neural cliques that would not be included in the assembly if one were in an analytic mode, but would be if one were in an associative mode, as neurds. It is posited that the shift to a more associative mode of thought is accomplished by recruiting neurds that respond to abstract or atypical microfeatures of the problem or task. Since memory is distributed and content-addressable...

O pensamento político de Agostinho Neto no contexto da luta de libertação nacional em Angola

Bungo, Marcelina Macana
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 15/12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Mestrado em História, Defesa e Relações Internacionais; O presente trabalho tem como objeto a análise do pensamento político da pessoa considerada o pai da Nação Angolana, o seu primeiro Presidente da República, enquanto país independente, Agostinho Neto. É uma figura incontornável no panorama político angolano e um dos principais responsáveis pela proeza da unificação e coesão nacional do território angolano. Tão diversificado culturalmente, teve a missão de despertar em todos os cidadãos angolanos um sentimento de pertença e uma identidade nacional comum. Espelhou a visão de praticamente todo o continente africano em relação ao colonialismo europeu, defendendo a libertação do seu povo do jugo colonialista português, numa luta independentista que se intensifica no final da década de 50 do século XX. No âmbito do tema da dissertação, o pensamento político de Agostinho Neto, bem como o surgimento de movimentos nacionais de libertação em praticamente todo o continente africano, fenómeno a que Angola não escapou, urge também analisar os outros movimentos de libertação nacional de Angola, com destaque para a UPA/FNLA e a UNITA, que partilharam com o MPLA a arena política. Tomando em consideração os objetivos de estudo delineados...