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Um estudo sobre o setor informal urbano e formas de participação na produção ; An urban informal sector study and participating modes in the production

Cacciamali, Maria Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/1982 PT
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O ponto de partida para o desenvolvimento deste estudo é a existência de segmentação na produção aqui entendida como contínua diferenciação de atividades produtivas – de formas de organizar a produção e o trabalho, de processos produtivos e de trabalhos e de atributos requeridos para exerce-lo – e com este pano de fundo conceitua-se o termo Setor Informal e desenvolve-se o quadro metodológico que irá originar um conjunto de elementos empíricos sobre os trabalhadores no Município de São Paulo em 1980. O Setor Informal é aqui associado com as formas de organizar a produção, que não tem como motor o trabalho assalariado, ou seja, considera-se Setor Informal como o conjunto de produtores que, de posse dos meios de trabalho, desenvolvem suas atividades baseadas na própria força de trabalho. O quadro metodológico, por sua vez, foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de refletir espectros de formas dos indivíduos participarem da produção – proprietários, assalariados e trabalhadores por conta própria - , qualificados por aspectos referentes: requisitos para o trabalho – idade, sexo e escolaridade –, condições de trabalho – vínculo jurídico, qualificação, horas trabalhadas e tempo de permanência no posto de trabalho ou atividade – e níveis de renda. Decorre da análise empreendida...

Productivity gains from migration: An analysis of Cape Verdean return migrants

Rodrigues, Guilherme
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2015 ENG
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Are return migrants more productive than non-migrants? If so, is it a causal effect or simply self-selection? Existing literature has not reached a consensus on the role of return migration for origin countries. To answer these research questions, an empirical analysis was performed based on household data collected in Cape Verde. One of the most common identification problems in the migration literature is the presence of migrant self-selection. In order to disentangle potential selection bias, we use instrumental variable estimation using variation provided by unemployment rates in migrant destination countries, which is compared with OLS and Nearest Neighbor Matching (NNM) methods. The results using the instrumental variable approach provide evidence of labour income gains due to return migration, while OLS underestimates the coefficient of interest. This bias points towards negative self-selection of return migrants on unobserved characteristics, although the different estimates cannot be distinguished statistically. Interestingly, migration duration and occupational changes after migration do not seem to influence post-migration income. There is weak evidence that return migrants from the United States have higher income gains caused by migration than the ones who returned from Portugal.

Diverse societies are more productive: a lesson from ants

Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Liebmann, Julia E.; Foitzik, Susanne
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The fitness consequences of animal personalities (also known as behavioural syndromes) have recently been studied in several solitary species. However, the adaptive significance of collective personalities in social insects and especially of behavioural variation among group members remains largely unexplored. Although intracolonial behavioural variation is an important component of division of labour, and as such a key feature for the success of societies, empirical links between behavioural variation and fitness are scarce. We investigated aggression, exploration and brood care behaviour in Temnothorax longispinosus ant colonies. We focused on two distinct aspects: intercolonial variability and its consistency across time and contexts, and intracolonial variability and its influence on productivity. Aggressiveness was consistent over four to five months with a new generation of workers emerging in between trial series. Other behaviours were not consistent over time. Exploration of novel environments responded to the sequence of assays: colonies were faster in discovering when workers previously encountered opponents in aggression experiments. Suites of correlated behaviours (e.g. aggression–exploration syndrome) present in the first series did not persist over time. Finally...

Economic Performance under NAFTA : A Firm-Level Analysis of the Trade-Productivity Linkages

De Hoyos, Rafael E.; Iacovone, Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Did the North American Free Trade Agreement make Mexican firms more productive? If so, through which channels? This paper addresses these questions by deploying an innovative microeconometric approach that disentangles the various channels through which integration with the global markets (via international trade) can affect firm-level productivity. The results show that the North American Free Trade Agreement stimulated the productivity of Mexican plants via: (1) an increase in import competition and (2) a positive effect on access to imported intermediate inputs. However, the impact of trade reforms was not identical for all integrated firms, with fully integrated firms (i.e. firms simultaneously exporting and importing) benefiting more than other integrated firms. Contrary to previous results, once self-selection problems are solved, the analysis finds a rather weak relationship between exports and productivity growth.

The Impact of the Investment Climate on Employment Growth : Does Sub-Saharan Africa Mirror Other Low-Income Regions?

Aterido, Reyes; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Using survey data from 86,000 enterprises in 104 countries, including 17,000 enterprises in 31 Sub-Saharan African countries, this paper finds that average enterprise-level employment growth rates are remarkably similar across regions. This is true despite significant differences in the quality of the investment climate in which these enterprises operate. Objective measures of investment climate conditions (including the number of outages, the share of firms with bank loans, and others) indicate that conditions are most challenging within Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as for smaller enterprises. However, enterprises employment in Sub-Saharan Africa is less sensitive to changes in access to infrastructure and finance relative to other low-income regions. This can be understood by looking at non-linear effects by firm size -- and the finding that these size effects are particularly strong within Sub-Saharan Africa. Although unreliable infrastructure services and inadequate access to finance generally hamper growth...

Youth Employment : A Human Development Agenda for the Next Decade

Robalino, David; Margolis, David; Rother, Friederike; Newhouse, David; Lundberg, Mattias
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper reviews the main challenges facing countries in attempting to improve labor market outcomes among youth, focusing on the issues that became starkly visible during the recent financial crisis. In order to better identify and set up human development interventions, the paper proposes an agenda that focuses on three areas: (1) improving the understanding of the causes and consequences of poor labor market outcomes for youth; (2) continuing to learn from the evaluation of pilots and programs that aim to promote productive employment among young people; and (3) addressing implementation issues which frequently overwhelm the best designs. The paper utilizes research on youth employment to take stock of youth labor market outcomes across regions, focusing on inactivity, unemployment, and employment indicators. A review of what is known about current interventions, including those that appear in the youth employment Inventory database of programs, provides the basis for determining the efficacy of five categories of intervention: (i) skills training (including vocational training...

The Export-Productivity Link in Brazilian Manufacturing Firms

Cirera, X.; Lederman, D.; Máñez, J.A.; Rochina, M.E.; Sanchis, J.A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper explores the link between exports and total factor productivity in Brazilian manufacturing firms over the period 2000–08. The Brazilian experience is instructive, as it is a case of an economy that expanded aggregate exports significantly, but with stagnant aggregate growth in total factor productivity. The paper first estimates firm-level total factor productivity under alternative assumptions (exogenous and endogenous law of motion for productivity) following a GMM procedure. In turn, the analysis uses stochastic dominance techniques to assess whether the ex ante most productive firms are those that start exporting (self-selection hypothesis). Finally, the paper tests whether exporting boosts firms’ total factor productivity growth (learning-by-exporting hypothesis) using matching techniques to control for the possibility that selection into exports may not be a random process. The results confirm the self-selection hypothesis and show that starting to export yields additional growth in total factor productivity that emerges since the firm’s first year of exporting but lasts only one year. Further...

Searching for a New Silver Age in Russia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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Russia’s population is expected to age significantly over the next few decades. The coming decline in Russia’s working-age population will pose serious social and economic challenges, but it can also open up opportunities. Without adequate adjustments of policies and behaviors, an aging population can impair national growth and fiscal sustainability. These pessimistic forecasts, however, are based on the unrealistic assumption that individuals and government policy will not change. Achieving healthy, active, and prosperous aging will require policy changes across a host of areas. Policies to support women can both limit population aging and increase labor force participation. Changes in behavior and policy can greatly mitigate the impact of aging on growth and fiscal sustainability. Promoting adult education and better age-management human resources policies at the firm level is essential to improve the employment prospects for older workers and raise productivity across the age spectrum. This volume presents research from the World Bank on the impact of demographic trends in Russia. The first section focuses on the macroeconomic impacts of aging and considers how aging has affected gross domestic product (GDP) growth and convergence among Russian regions since the early 1990s; it also offers alternative approaches to forecasting the relationship between aging and growth. The second section...

An archaeological analysis of an Inka province: Pachacamac and the Ischma Nation of the central coast of Peru

Cornejo Guerrero, Miguel Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
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An Inka province is defined archaeologically in the valleys of Lurin, Rimae and Chill on on the Central Coast of Peru, formed from two Late Intermediate Period nations, Ischma and Collique. Ischma was a state formed around the prestige of its god and shrine, Pachacamac. Collique was an autonomous nation which controlled the valley of Chillon. The lnka province can be mapped using settlement and funerary pattern analysis and the distribution of the local pottery and its Inka variants. It comprised about 200,000 inhabitants, both local and foreign mitimaes, the equivalent of five guarangas, and distributed through the pre-existing local political structure of Districts (senorios) and Sub-districts (curacazgos), and reutilising earlier buildings. The strategy of incorporation was similar to that used in other provinces. Two types of structure were critical, the walled compound in the lower valleys and the kallanka-plaza in the middle valleys. Both were inserted into local settlements. The lnkas enclosed the most important political and religious buildings to impose their administrative will. Both the walled compound and the kallanka-plaza are architectures of power. Other Inka building types were also used, including kanchas...

La insercion laboral en el siglo XXI: los futuros perfiles profesionales

Aristegui Fradua, Irache Eufemia
Fonte: Universidade da Coruña Publicador: Universidade da Coruña
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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[Abstract] The current economic climate is accelerating the change the employment landscape that younger people are facing in Europe, Spain and the Basque Country . And not just because their occupancy rate drops significantly from five years ago, but because they are also changing the working conditions , type of jobs, sectors where there may be job skills required by firms ... etc . The position of fixed and stable job has changed and we need to face from all areas starting from primary education to higher education , but also through joint action by the institutions and enterprises . In this changing context is difficult to predict the future of the labour market , however , will try to outline the professions and sectors where we understand that may be the sources of employment for the coming years . Our hypothesis is that face in the future will be new emerging sectors and professions in turn coexist with traditional productive sectors of each country.; [Resumen] La actual coyuntura económica está acelerando el cambio del panorama laboral al que se enfrentan las personas más jóvenes en Europa, España y en el Pais Vasco. Y no sólo porque su tasa de ocupación desciende de manera significativa desde hace cinco años, sino porque también están cambiando las condiciones laborales...

Women and Trade in Africa : Realizing the Potential

Brenton, Paul; Gamberoni, Elisa; Sear, Catherine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Regional trade in Africa can play a vital role in diversifying economies and reducing dependence on the export of a few mineral products, in delivering food and energy security, in generating jobs for the increasing numbers of young people, and in alleviating poverty and promoting a shared prosperity. Women play a key role in trade in Africa and will be essential to Africa's success in exploiting its trade potential. In many countries in Africa, the majority of small farmers are women, and they produce crops such as maize, cassava, cotton, and rice that have enormous potential for increased trade between African countries and with the global market. Women are also involved in providing services across borders, such as education, health, and professional services, including accountancy and legal services. Hundreds of thousands of women cross borders in Africa every day to deliver goods from areas where they are relatively cheap to areas in which they are in shorter supply. Yet, policy makers typically overlook women's contribution to trade and the challenges they face. This volume brings together a series of chapters that look at the ways that women participate in trade in Africa...

Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend

Chaaban, Jad; Cunningham, Wendy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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Although girls are approximately half the youth population in developing countries, they contribute less than their potential to the economy. The objective of this paper is to quantify the opportunity cost of girls' exclusion from productive employment with the hope that stark figures will lead policymakers to reconsider the current underinvestment in girls. The paper explores the linkages between investing in girls and potential increases in national income by examining three widely prevalent aspects of adolescent girls' lives: early school dropout, teenage pregnancy and joblessness. The countries included in the analysis are: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Paraguay, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The authors use secondary data to allow for some comparability across countries. They find that investing in girls so that they would complete the next level of education would lead to lifetime earnings of today's cohort of girls that is equivalent to up to 68 percent of annual gross domestic product. When adjusting for ability bias and labor demand elasticities...

Informality in Colombia : Implications for Worker Welfare and Firm Productivity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
ENGLISH
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The level of informality in Colombia's labor market is high and persistent. When measuring informality of workers in terms of their contributions to health insurance and pension systems, 74.2 percent of all Colombian labor force was considered informal in 2008. The informality debate has taken on a new sense of urgency, as Colombia's robust economic growth in recent years has not led to significant declines in informality. Even during the period of high economic growth experienced between 2001 and 2007, the share of workers in the informal sector remained very high. This report presents new insights to develop a better understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of informality and its implications for social policies. The study analyzes informality using the conceptual framework presented in the World Bank flagship study on informality (Perry et al 2007), which shows that informality in the region is a function of both exclusion and exit, with some workers and firms opting out of the formal sector based on their assessment of the relative benefits and costs of formality versus informality. The focus of this report is on exploring options to enhance worker welfare and firm productivity through access to public goods and services...

Children and Youth in Crisis : Protecting and Promoting Human Development in Times of Economic Shocks

Lundberg, Mattias; Wuermli, Alice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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Motivated by the need to understand how crises affect human development in diverse segments of the population, this book explores how individuals and households cope with the changes and stresses induced by economic crises. It examines how these impacts and coping mechanisms differ across cultural and institutional contexts and looks at how best to protect the most vulnerable from lasting harm and the degradation of human capital. Financial crises, at both the global and the national level, are ubiquitous. Reinhart and Rogoff (2009) provide the invaluable lesson that over the past 800 years a major crisis has happened roughly once every 20 years. This pattern raises concern about the human impacts of crises, especially among more vulnerable people in developing countries. During the most recent global financial crisis, international organizations, bilateral development agencies, and civil society organizations all expressed concern about the ongoing 'human crisis.' The global community has become alarmed that the crisis could reverse recent progress in poverty reduction and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Human development is at the core of economic development. Human capital accumulation at all stages from the antenatal environment through early childhood and adolescence helps facilitate the transition to a healthy and productive adulthood and break the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Shortfalls or setbacks at any stage of the life course may have severe consequences for individual development as well as for the growth and development of successful communities. The work presented in this volume deepens our understanding of how shocks affect children and youth in two ways. First...

Gender and Development Mainstreaming : Country Gender Assessment 2012, Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Just as development means less poverty or better access to justice, it also means fewer gaps in wellbeing between males and females. Women's empowerment and gender equality are development objectives in their own right, as embodied in the Millennium Development Goals. It is espoused as well in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), ratified by the Philippines in 1981; the convention established a comprehensive framework for the advancement of women and has been mainstreamed in the Magna Carta of Women, RA 9710. Gender equality is smart economics: it can enhance economic efficiency and improve other development outcomes in three ways: first, removing barriers that prevent women from having the same access as men to education, economic opportunities, and productive inputs can generate broad productivity gains. Second, improving women's absolute and relative status contributes too many other development outcomes, including those for their children. Third, leveling the playing field...

Em busca da reforma agrária produtiva : teoria e evidência; In search of a productive land reform : theory and evidence

Guilherme Berse Rodrigues Lambais
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/05/2013 PT
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Formula-se nesta dissertação um modelo conceitual de organização econômica e produção agrícola para domicílios assentados pela reforma agrária 'new wave'. Este modelo conceitual integra a literatura tradicional sobre direitos de propriedade, organização da firma e a relação inversa da produtividade-área. Assim como também procura contribuir para a literatura com a incorporação de uma corrente normalmente dissociada da questão agrária, qual seja a interrelação entre auto-seleção, desigualdade de riqueza e armadilhas de pobreza. Ao se estabelecer esta base de literatura, chega-se a um modelo conceitual onde a estratégia de produção adquire caráter predominante na causalidade estrutural da produção agrícola dos domicílios. Mais ainda, esta estratégia é em partes determinada pela auto-seleção do programa; no caso, se o domicílio entrou no programa com requerimentos de subsistência, isto é, com problemas de segurança alimentar. As hipóteses centrais são: (1) na definição das "variáveis de estratégia", se estas forem negativamente correlacionadas com a existência de culturas permanentes e pastos e com o nível de ativos, então se confirma que estas são determinadas pela auto-seleção por motivos de segurança alimentar. E (2) no modelo estrutural de produção...

Aspectos económicos de la flexibilidad temporal

Recio, Albert
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 SPA
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Este trabajo analiza las razones económicas de la flexibilidad laboral en general y de las diversas modalidades de flexibilidad temporal en especial. Se muestra como la misma obedece a las respuestas empresariales a diferentes aspectos del mercado de productos y a la búsqueda de rentabilidad. Y se muestra que el planteamiento obvia tanto las causas patológicos que inciden en las demandas de adaptación como los costes sociales que generan determinadas políticas de flexibilidad temporal, proponiéndose formas alternativas de juzgar las políticas.; This paper analyses economic arguments favourable to labour flexibility and, specially, to different forms of time flexibility. It is oriented to show that their implementations are related to employers responses to different aspects of product markets and the search of profitability. And it is oriented to underline that economic reasons tend to forget, both, that there are some pathology in many causes of economic variability and huge social costs related with time flexibility, introducing some proposals in order to introduce a diverse political solutions

A IMPORTÂNCIA DO RECONHECIMENTO DA COMPOSIÇÃO DIVERSIFICADA DA CLASSE TRABALHADORA: REFLEXÕES A PARTIR DA INDÚSTRIA ELETROELETRÔNICA; A IMPORTÂNCIA DO RECONHECIMENTO DA COMPOSIÇÃO DIVERSIFICADA DA CLASSE TRABALHADORA: REFLEXÕES A PARTIR DA INDÚSTRIA ELETROELETRÔNICA

Lapa, Thaís de Souza
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2013 POR
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This article seeks, through data and discussions about the contemporary composition of the working class, to point out some ways to a gendered reflection about the condition of the Brazilian worker and the perception of their own work. It is claimed the need for recognition of the heterogeneous composition of the working class and seeks to identify the contributions that this perception brings to the analysis of the sociology of work. The analysis is made under sexual division of labour theory. Part of the reflection is based on the study of two transnational companies sector in the metallurgical industry, that manufactures cellphones and other computer equipment manufacturers, with productive plants located in Brazil. The electronics sector is relevant observation point because it employs mostly female workers, enabling a counterpoint to studies on male-dominated sectors in their workforce, such as automotive or chemical.; Este artigo busca, a partir de dados e problematizações sobre a composição contemporânea da classe trabalhadora, apontar alguns caminhos para uma reflexão gendrada sobre o “ser” do/a trabalhador/a brasileiro/a e sua percepção acerca do próprio trabalho. Sustenta-se a necessidade do reconhecimento da composição heterogênea da classe trabalhadora e procura-se identificar as contribuições que esta percepção traz às análises da sociologia do trabalho. A análise se faz à luz da problemática da divisão sexual do trabalho.Parte da reflexão se faz com base em estudo de duas empresas transnacionais do segmento de eletroeletrônicos da indústria metalúrgica...

Flexibilidade à francesa: trabalhadores na Peugeot Citroën brasileira; French-style flexibility: workers at the Brazilian Peugeot Citröen plant

Ramalho, José Ricardo; Santana, Marco Aurélio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2006 POR
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A proposta deste artigo é discutir os efeitos do processo recente de flexibilização da produção industrial (automotiva) sobre as relações de trabalho e sobre os operários e seus sindicatos. A partir do exemplo da primeira unidade brasileira da montadora francesa PSA Peugeot Citroën, instalada no município de Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro, em 2001, pretende-se argumentar que a construção de uma fábrica "enxuta" e reestruturada, com um projeto de superação da organização fordista e integrante de uma cadeia produtiva global, reconfigura as relações com os trabalhadores (e com o sindicato) no espaço fabril por meio da exigência de mais escolaridade, maior capacidade de adaptação às novas tecnologias e novas formas de organização da produção. No entanto, mantém práticas gerenciais autoritárias e evita a reprodução de experiências anteriores de resistência operária. O debate beneficia-se dos trabalhos sobre esta empresa na França realizados por Michel Pialoux e Stéphane Beaux, que nas últimas décadas analisaram suas transformações gerenciais e os desdobramentos sobre o modo de vida de diferentes gerações de operários.; The article discusses the effects of the recent process of flexibilization in industrial (automobile) production on labour relations...

Contrary to national stereotypes, French workers are more productive than their German counterparts and only marginally less productive than American workers

Hancké, Bob
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 EN; EN
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Recently, the CEO of a US manufacturer commented that his company would not invest in a factory in France due to concerns over the productivity of local workers. Surprised by these comments, Bob Hancké looked into statistics across Europe for labour market productivity and hours worked. He finds that French workers are nearly as productive as their American counterparts, and even more so than workers in Germany.