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Expressão gênica dos receptores de estrógeno e ocitocina no endométrio, miométrio e placenta durante a gestação e parto em cadelas; Expression of the canine estrogen and oxytocin receptor genes in the endometrium, myometrium and placenta during pregnancy and parturition

Veiga, Giselle Almeida Lima da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2008 PT
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As diversas interações hormonais durante e gestação e parto na espécie canina são parcialmente conhecidas. A resposta dos tecidos frente ao estímulo hormonal é dependente da expressão gênica de seus receptores, bem como da concentração local dos hormônios. Desta maneira, o presente estudo apresentou como objetivos: caracterizar a expressão gênica dos receptores de estrógeno e ocitocina no endométrio, miométrio e placenta, correlacionando com as concentrações séricas dos respectivos hormônios durante a gestação e o parto. As cadelas gestantes foram alocadas em 4 grupos de acordo com a idade gestacional: até 20 dias de gestação (grupo 1, n=11), de 20 a 40 dias de gestação (grupo 2, n=12), de 40 a 60 dias de gestação (grupo 3, n=12) e em pródromos do parto (grupo 4, n=11). As cadelas dos grupos 1, 2 e 3 foram submetidas à ovário-histerectomia e as cadelas do grupo 4, à cesariana seguida da ovário-histerectomia. Amostras de endométrio, miométrio e placenta foram colhidas, bem como amostras de sangue para obtenção do soro sangüíneo. A extração do RNA total e a confecção do cDNA das amostras foram realizadas a partir de kits comerciais. As reações da PCR em tempo-real foram realizadas para os genes (RNAm) do receptor do estrógeno α (REα) e receptor da ocitocina (OTR)...

Evolution of differentiated thyroid cancer during pregnancy in a community University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Cabezón,Carmen Amalia; Carrizo,Laura Carolina; Costanzo,Pablo René
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presentation, follow-up and evolution of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) detected during pregnancy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty nine women with DTC detected during pregnancy were analyzed. Group I (n = 13) was seen during pregnancy and DTC was diagnosed during gestation; detection of the nodule occurred during pregnancy (first trimester). Group II (n = 16) was seen after delivery; detection of the nodule occurred during pregnancy (second or third trimester). Complete thyroidectomy, ablative dose of radioactive iodine, and treatment with levothyroxine were performed. Follow-up: neck ultrasound; TSH, free T4, thyroglobulin, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies with and without treatment with levothyroxine; and 131I whole body scans. Histological diagnosis, lymph node metastases, tumor size and stage, complications from pregnancy, and DTC evolution were evaluated. RESULTS: 100% of the patients had papillary thyroid carcinoma. Lymph node metastases were detected in 13 (44.8%), and invasion of adjacent extrathyroid tissue in 2 patients. Tumor size was larger in Group II: 22.1 ± 10.9 versus 13.9 ± 3.5 mm; p = 0.03. No differences were found in the tumor stages between groups. All patients had full-term pregnancies and healthy newborns. Follow-up: 5.7 ± 4.3 years; one patient had persistent disease. CONCLUSIONS: DTC detected during pregnancy had a favorable evolution. Surgery may be postponed to the post-delivery period...

Enhanced expression of Ang-(1-7) during pregnancy

Brosnihan,K.B.; Neves,L.A.A.; Anton,L.; Joyner,J.; Valdes,G.; Merrill,D.C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
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Pregnancy is a physiological condition characterized by a progressive increase of the different components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The physiological consequences of the stimulated RAS in normal pregnancy are incompletely understood, and even less understood is the question of how this system may be altered and contribute to the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Findings from our group have provided novel insights into how the RAS may contribute to the physiological condition of pregnancy by showing that pregnancy increases the expression of both the vasodilator heptapeptide of the RAS, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], and of a newly cloned angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homolog, ACE2, that shows high catalytic efficiency for Ang II metabolism to Ang-(1-7). The discovery of ACE2 adds a new dimension to the complexity of the RAS by providing a new arm that may counter-regulate the activity of the vasoconstrictor component, while amplifying the vasodilator component. The studies reviewed in this article demonstrate that Ang-(1-7) increases in plasma and urine of normal pregnant women. In preeclamptic subjects we showed that plasma Ang-(1-7) was suppressed as compared to the levels found in normal pregnancy. In addition...

Drug Metabolism and Transport During Pregnancy: How Does Drug Disposition Change during Pregnancy and What Are the Mechanisms that Cause Such Changes?

Isoherranen, Nina; Thummel, Kenneth E.
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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There is increasing evidence that pregnancy alters the function of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in a gestational-stage and tissue-specific manner. In vivo probe studies have shown that the activity of several hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, such as CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, is increased during pregnancy, whereas the activity of others, such as CYP1A2, is decreased. The activity of some renal transporters, including organic cation transporter and P-glycoprotein, also appears to be increased during pregnancy. Although much has been learned, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of the spectrum of drug metabolism and transport genes affected, gestational age–dependent changes in the activity of encoded drug metabolizing and transporting processes, and the mechanisms of pregnancy-induced alterations. In this issue of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, a series of articles is presented that address the predictability, mechanisms, and magnitude of changes in drug metabolism and transport processes during pregnancy. The articles highlight state-of-the-art approaches to studying mechanisms of changes in drug disposition during pregnancy, and illustrate the use and integration of data from in vitro models, animal studies...

Incidence and Predictors of Pregnancy among a Cohort of HIV-Positive Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Mbarara, Uganda

Kaida, Angela; Matthews, Lynn Turner; Kanters, Steve; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Muzoora, Conrad; Mocello, A. Rain; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter; Haberer, Jessica; Hogg, Robert S.; Bangsberg, David Roy
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Objective: Many people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa desire biological children. Implementation of HIV prevention strategies that support the reproductive goals of people living with HIV while minimizing HIV transmission risk to sexual partners and future children requires a comprehensive understanding of pregnancy in this population. We analyzed prospective cohort data to determine pregnancy incidence and predictors among HIV-positive women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a setting with high HIV prevalence and fertility. Methods: Participants were enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) cohort of HIV-positive individuals initiating ART in Mbarara. Bloodwork (including CD4 cells/mm3, HIV viral load) and questionnaires (including socio-demographics, health status, sexual behavior, partner dynamics, HIV history, and self-reported pregnancy) were completed at baseline and quarterly. Our analysis includes 351 HIV-positive women (18–49 years) who enrolled between 2005–2011. We measured pregnancy incidence by proximal and distal time relative to ART initiation and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (with repeated events) to identify baseline and time-dependent predictors of pregnancy post-ART initiation. Results: At baseline (pre-ART initiation)...

Teenage Pregnancy and Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean : On Teenage Fertility Decisions, Poverty and Economic Achievement

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Favara, Marta; Haddock, Sarah E.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Muller, Miriam; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The pregnancy project sought to expose the existence, and challenge the validity, of stereotypes about Hispanic women. The charade explored the underlying motivations of the many who responded with a wide range of reactions. The specific objectives of this regional study are: to establish a thorough description of the magnitude of the issue and its potential implications for social advancement; to advance the understanding of the risk factors, motivations and impacts at the household level-as a determinant of poverty and a cause of intra-and intergenerational poverty traps; to illuminate the coping mechanisms and their individual and social implications; to highlight the gender-related issues that have historically provoked asymmetric costs to boys and girls; and to provide elements that support specific policies on this matter. In the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been moving in the right direction and the region has experienced important gains in gender equality of endowments (assets) and economic opportunities. In most LAC countries...

Hypertension during pregnancy in South Australia, Part 2: risk factors for adverse maternal and/or perinatal outcome - results of multivariable analysis

Vreeburg, S.; Jacobs, D.; Dekker, G.; Heard, A.; Priest, K.; Chan, A.
Fonte: Royal Australian NZ College Obstetricians & Gynecologists Publicador: Royal Australian NZ College Obstetricians & Gynecologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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Objective: To identify factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with hypertension during pregnancy Design: A population-based retrospective multivariable analysis using the South Australian perinatal data collection. Methods: Perinatal data on 70 386 singleton births in 1998–2001 were used in multivariable analyses on three groups: all women combined, all hypertensive women and women with pregnancy hypertension only, in order to identify independent risk factors for requirement for level II/III care, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) birth and maternal length of stay greater than 7 days. Results: The risks for the four morbidities were all increased among women with hypertension compared with normotensive women. Those with pre-existing hypertension had the lowest risk (with odds ratios (OR) 1.26–2.90). Pregnancy hypertension held the intermediate position (OR 1.52–5.70), while superimposed pre-eclampsia was associated with the highest risk (OR 2.00–8.75). Among women with hypertension, Aboriginality, older maternal age, nulliparity and pre-existing or gestational diabetes increased the risk for level II/III nursery care, preterm birth and prolonged hospital stay. Smokers had shorter stays...

Diet during pregnancy, neonatal outcomes and later health

Moore, V.; Davies, M.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Renewed interest in nutrition during pregnancy has been generated by the hypothesis that adult disease has origins in early life. Animal experiments clearly show that altering maternal diet before and during pregnancy can induce permanent changes in the offspring’s birth size, adult health and lifespan. Among women living in Western societies, cigarette smoking is the most important factor known to reduce fetal growth, followed by low pre-pregnancy weight and low gestational weight gain. Obesity is also associated with pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, so inadequate or excessive energy intake is not optimal for the developing fetus. Against a history of inconsistent results, several recent studies suggest that in Western settings the balance of macronutrients in a woman’s diet can influence newborn size. Effects appear to be modest, but this relationship may not encapsulate the full significance for health of the child, as there is emerging evidence of associations with long-term metabolic functioning that are independent of birth size. Consequences of inadequate maternal nutrition, for the offspring, may depend on timing during gestation, reflecting critical windows for fetal development. Where women are not malnourished...

Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: A randomised controlled trial

Dodd, J.; Crowther, C.; Haslam, R.; Robinson, J.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Background: There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time. The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications. Design: Multicentred randomised trial. Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 366 weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36+6 weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care. Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care...

Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy

van der Graaf, A.; Zeeman, G.; Groen, H.; Roberts, C.; Dekker, G.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Objectives Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy may be promising in evaluating maternal hemodynamic (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. We explored usage of applanation tonometry and Doppler ultrasound for assessment of cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and arterial stiffness in early pregnancy. Methods Pregnant healthy nulliparous women were studied during first trimester. Radial artery pressure waveform (augmentation index(AIx)), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and cardiac output (CO) were measured by applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor), electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound (USCOM) and related to maternal demographic characteristics and literature concerning advanced pregnancy and non-pregnant subjects. Results 116 women were studied during gestational age range of 7+2-14 weeks. Systolic and diastolic central blood pressure were correlated with systolic and diastolic brachial blood pressure respectively. Both measures of arterial stiffness (heart rate corrected AIx(AIx@75) and PWV) were correlated. AIx@75, PWV and SVR were correlated with central mean arterial pressure. CO was negatively correlated with AIx and associated with BMI. PWV was associated with age and BMI, whereas SVR was associated with age. Conclusions Applanation tonometry and Doppler Ultrasound for assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy revealed similar associations between different hemodynamic parameters and maternal characteristics as have previously been reported in advanced pregnancy and non-pregnant subjects. The SphygmoCor and the USCOM appear to be reliable methods for the assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy. Obtaining a comprehensive hemodynamic profile using these modalities may offer insight in maternal (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. Future work needs to be done relating such measures to pregnancy outcome.; van der Graaf AM...

Measuring outcomes in fertility trials: can we rely on clinical pregnancy rates?

Clarke, J.; van Rumste, M.; Farquhar, C.; Johnson, N.; Mol, B.; Herbison, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the estimates of treatment effect in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in reproductive medicine differ when either clinical pregnancy or live birth is used as the outcome measure. DESIGN: Metaanalysis. SETTING: We analyzed RCTs in reproductive medicine found in systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Library that reported on both clinical pregnancy and live birth. PATIENT(S): Subfertile couples. INTERVENTION(S): For each individual RCT, data on clinical pregnancy and live birth were extracted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We compared the outcome of each study by calculating a kappa-statistic (statistically significant treatment effective or not) and by comparing the odds ratio by calculating the ratio of the odds ratios (ROR). RESULT(S): We found 67 systematic reviews, of which 42 reported on pregnancy and live birth. These 42 reviews included 654 RCTs, of which 143 (22%) reported both on pregnancy and live birth. The pregnancy loss rates in the treatment and control groups were comparable. Of the 143 RCTs, the conclusion based on pregnancy rate and live birth rate was comparable (kappa value of 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.94). The odds ratios estimating treatment effect from pregnancy and live birth were also comparable (ROR...

A randomised controlled trial of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and subsequent development of attention, working memory and inhibitory control in early childhood.

Gould, Jacqueline F.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
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The last trimester of pregnancy is the period during which the fetal brain is growing at its greatest velocity, particularly the frontal lobes and hippocampus. This is also the peak period for the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neural tissues. The amount of DHA required by the fetus is thought to exceed the DHA intake of women of child-bearing age who consume a Western-style diet. This has led to the belief that maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy will enhance child cognitive development in these populations. Cohort studies have supported this belief by linking intake of foods rich in DHA (primarily seafood) during pregnancy to enhanced child cognitive development. However, only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can establish causality. In this thesis I report a comprehensive systematic review of the current RCTs of DHA supplementation during pregnancy (Chapter 1) using procedures described by the Cochrane collaboration and the PRISMA statement. Results of globalised standard assessments in the reviewed RCTs were compared in meta analyses. No effect of DHA supplementation was found in any age group, except in the 2-5 year-olds where the LCPUFA group was advantaged. A risk of bias assessment revealed that the majority of the trials were of poor quality...

Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors after hypertensive pregnancy disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Hermes, W.; Ket, J.; van Pampus, M.; Franx, A.; Veenendaal, M.; Kolster, C.; Tamsma, J.; Bloemenkamp, K.; Ponjee, G.; van der Hout, E.; ten Horn, H.; Loix, S.; Mol, B.; de Groot, C.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders and women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Data were collected from PubMed and EMBASE (from inception to February 28, 2011) supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies. Included were cohort studies and case-control studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders compared with women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Of 2573 studies reviewed for eligibility, quality, and data extraction, 22 were included in the review, of which 15 could be meta-analyzed. The pooled mean differences for the outcomes of interest were 0.17 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–0.25 mmol/L) for glucose (10 studies), 3.46 mU/mL (95% CI, 2.34–4.58 mU/mL) for insulin (5 studies), 0.13 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.05–0.21) for triglycerides (10 studies), 0.22 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.11–0.33 mmol/L) for total cholesterol (11 studies), -0.11 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.18 to -0.04 mmol/L) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (10 studies), and 0.21 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.10–0.32) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (9 studies)...

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with a history of early onset versus late onset preeclampsia and pregnancy induced hypertension

Breimer, A.Y.; Koster, M.P.H.; Hermes, W.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Mol, B.W.; van Rijn, B.B.; Franx, A.
Fonte: SAGE Publicador: SAGE
Tipo: Conference item
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups...

Physiological and biochemical measurements before, during and after pregnancy of healthy rats

Corvino,Silvana Barroso; Volpato,Gustavo Tadeu; Macedo,Nathália Cristine Dias; Sinzato,Yuri Karen; Rudge,Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno,Débora Cristina
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
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PURPOSE:To analyze the physiological and biochemical measurements before, during and after pregnancy of healthy rats.METHODS:Wistar adult females rats (n=8) were weighed and blood samples were obtained before, during and after pregnancy for biochemical determinations, chow intake, water consumption and milk production were evaluated. At day 10 postpartum, the rats were killed for weighing of organs and adipose tissues.RESULTS: The results showed increase in body weight, serum insulin and ingestion of water and chow. At day 17 pregnancy, presented normal values in the OGTT. At days 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy, there was increase in triglyceride levels. At term pregnancy, there was weight gain due to fetal growth. In the postpartum period presented reduced blood glucose levels. The glycemic means were reduced during and after pregnancy compared to after pregnancy. The triglyceride concentrations were increased before and during pregnancy in relation to after pregnancy. The total cholesterol levels presented no changes.CONCLUSION: The use of experimental animals is suitable for evaluation of metabolic changes because the profile of answers found in this study was similar to human profile, showing the relevance of translational research to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms and possible treatment for diseases.

Reduction of the number of fetuses for women with a multiple pregnancy

Dodd, J.; Crowther, C.
Fonte: Update Software Ltd Publicador: Update Software Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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BACKGROUND When couples are faced with the dilemma of a higher-order multiple pregnancy there are three options. Termination of the entire pregnancy has generally not been acceptable to women, especially for those with a past history of infertility. Attempting to continue with all the fetuses is associated with inherent problems of preterm birth, survival and long-term morbidity. The other alternative relates to reduction in the number of fetuses by selective termination. The acceptability of these options for the couple will depend on their social background and underlying beliefs. This review focused on reduction in the number of fetuses. OBJECTIVES To assess a policy of multifetal reduction with a policy of expectant management of women with a multiple pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (13 June 2012). SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who were managed expectantly with outcomes in women who underwent selective fetal reduction of a multiple pregnancy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS There were no randomised controlled trials identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found no available data from randomised trials to inform the risks and benefits of pregnancy reduction procedures for women with a multiple pregnancy. While randomised controlled trials will provide the most reliable evidence about the risks and benefits of fetal reduction procedures...

Elective birth at 37 weeks' gestation for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy

Dodd, J.M.; Deussen, A.R.; Grivell, R.M.; Crowther, C.A.
Fonte: Cochrane Collaboration Publicador: Cochrane Collaboration
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of birth for women with an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy at term is uncertain, with clinical support for both elective delivery at 37 weeks, as well as expectant management (awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour). OBJECTIVES: To assess a policy of elective delivery from 37 weeks' gestation compared with an expectant approach for women with an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 December 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who underwent elective delivery from 37 weeks' gestation in a twin pregnancy with outcomes in controls who were managed expectantly. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, trial quality and extracted data from the included trials. MAIN RESULTS: Two randomised controlled trials comparing elective birth at 37 weeks for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy, with expectant management were included, involving 271 women and 542 infants. One trial was at an overall low risk of bias, and one trial was at unclear risk of selection bias...

Pregnancy outcome following women's participation in a randomised controlled trial of acupuncture to treat nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

Smith, C.; Crowther, C.; Beilby, J.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
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Objectives: Recent studies have concluded that acupuncture is safe in the hands of a qualified practitioner. This study assessed the risk of adverse effects of acupuncture administered during pregnancy. Methods: 593 women with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy volunteered to participate in a randomised controlled trial, conducted at the Women's and Children's Hospital, in South Australia. Patients were given either traditional acupuncture, formula acupuncture, sham acupuncture or no acupuncture. Outcome Measures: Data were collected on perinatal outcome, congenital abnormalities, pregnancy complications and the newborn. Results: No differences were found between study groups in the incidence of perinatal outcome, congenital abnormalities, pregnancy complications and other infant outcomes. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that no serious adverse effects arise from acupuncture administered in early pregnancy.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/623020/description#description; C. Smith; C. Crowther; and J. Beilby; Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

EXCESS MATERNAL WEIGHT GAIN IN PREGNANCY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OPERATIVE DELIVERY

RIVARD, Lauren B.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Increasing obesity rates in Canadian women are at an all time high with more than 50% of Canadian women falling into one of the four overweight to obese categories. Further to this 11-21% of Canadian women who are of child-bearing age are being described as overweight or obese. Along with the increasing rates of obesity is an increase in the number of operative deliveries experienced by pregnant women in Canada. Canadian women experience cesarean section (CS) approximately 21% of the time while women in Ontario experience an even higher rate of CS (26%). While currently there are several studies examining the relationship between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and its association with CS, there is little research examining the relationship between excess weight gain in pregnancy and operative delivery methods. Data were collected through a retrospective chart review to examine the relationship between excess weight gain in pregnancy and operative delivery methods. Mean weight gain throughout pregnancy was measured. Data analysis was conducted using t-tests, Chi-Squared analyses and Fisher’s Exact test of significance, accepting a significance level of alpha = 0.05 with a 95% Confidence Interval of difference. The analysis conducted demonstrated no significant relationship between weight gain in pregnancy and operative delivery methods. When examining maternal weight and labour type...

Avaliação de dois métodos de diagnóstico precoce de gestação em ovelhas: ultra-sonografia transretal e detector de prenhez para pequenos ruminantes (DPPR-80®); Evaluation of two methods for early pregnancy diagnosis in ewes: transrectal ultrasonography and pregnancy detector for small ruminant (DPPR-80®)

Calamari, Claudia Veronica; Ferrari, Sílvia; Leinz, Frederico Fontoura; Rodrigues, Carlos Frederico de Carvalho; Bianchini, Diorandi; Ferreira, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo Augusto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2003 POR
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No período de março a maio de 2001, foram realizados os exames ultra-sonográficos em 88 ovelhas do Núcleo de Pesquisas Zootécnicas Sudoeste - Instituto de Zootecnia. Os animais foram examinados entre o 19º e 33º dia de gestação pela ultra-sonografia transretal com exames executados em dias alternados, e do 25º ao 45º dia pelo detector de prenhez para pequenos ruminantes (DPPR-80Ò). O diagnóstico foi considerado positivo pela ultra-sonografia transretal por meio da visualização do saco gestacional e embrião. Após o 25º dia de gestação foi observado também o batimento cardíaco embrionário, cuja freqüência é de 160 a 200 batimentos por minuto. Esta observação foi dada como diagnóstico de gestação. Os nascimentos confirmaram os resultados dos exames. Dentre 88 fêmeas acasaladas, 3 abortaram durante o experimento e foram retiradas do grupo. Das 85 fêmeas restantes, 64 pariram. O diagnóstico de prenhez por meio da ultra-sonografia transretal apresentou 35,29% de acurácia no 19º dia de gestação, culminando em 82,35.00% no 31º dia de gestação. Pelo detector de prenhez, a acurácia foi de 24,71% no 25º dia de gestação e 34,12.00% no 45º dia. Foi possível visualizar os batimentos cardíacos do embrião pela ultra-sonografia transretal à partir do 21º dia de gestação e os primeiros placentomas foram observados ao redor do 25º dia de gestação. A ultra-sonografia transretal mostrou-se um método superior ao detector de prenhez para pequenos ruminantes...