Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade de Adelaide

A Universidade de Adelaide é uma instituição de ensino superior australiana fundada em 1874. É a terceira mais antiga universidade da Austrália.

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Characterizing long-term CO₂-water-rock reaction pathways to identify tracers of CO₂ migration during geological storage in a low-salinity, siliciclastic reservoir system; Characterizing long-term CO(2)-water-rock reaction pathways to identify tracers of CO(2) migration during geological storage in a low-salinity, siliciclastic reservoir system

Horner, K.N.; Schacht, U.; Haese, R.R.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Abstract not available; Kyle N. Horner, Ulrike Schacht, Ralf R. Haese

Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption

Bourn, R.; Prichard, I.; Hutchinson, A.D.; Wilson, C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Abstract not available; Rebecca Bourn, Ivanka Prichard, Amanda D. Hutchinson, Carlene Wilson

Significant enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the lipids extracted by supercritical CO₂ from the livers of Australian rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii); Significant enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the lipids extracted by supercritical CO(2) from the livers of Australian rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii)

Nguyen, T.T.; Zhang, W.; Barber, A.R.; Su, P.; He, S.
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As)...

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases insulin sensitivity in overweight men with and without type 2 diabetes

Wilkinson, D.; Nolting, M.; Mahadi, M.K.; Chapman, I.; Heilbronn, L.
Fonte: South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (Spums) Publicador: South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (Spums)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
The onset of insulin resistance is an important metabolic event in the development of type 2 diabetes. For patients with type 2 diabetes, we recently showed that peripheral insulin sensitivity was increased during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). This study aims to investigate whether this occurs in a non-patient population with and without type 2 diabetes, along with the mechanism of this effect.Overweight and obese male participants were recruited from the community, 11 without and eight with type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the glucose infusion rate (GIR) during a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp (80 mU·m⁻²·min⁻¹) at baseline and during the third HBOT session. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in fasting serum and adipose tissue samples taken for their gene expression at baseline and immediately following four HBOT sessions. Additional fasting serum samples were collected during the first HBOT at 0, 60 and 120 minutes, and 24-hours after the last HBOT.In response to HBOT, GIR was increased by 29±32% in those without (n=10, P=0.01), and by 57±66% in those with type 2 diabetes (n=7, P=0.04). This increase was maintained for 30 minutes post HBOT. Reduced MCP-1 and TNF-α were observed after HBOT...

An evidence-based framework to measure quality of allied health care

Grimmer, K.; Lizarondo, L.; Kumar, S.; Bell, E.; Buist, M.; Weinstein, P.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: There is no standard way of describing the complexities of allied health (AH) care, or its quality. AH is an umbrella term which excludes medicine and nursing, and variably includes disciplines which provide therapy, diagnostic, or scientific services. This paper outlines a framework for a standard approach to evaluate the quality of AH therapy services. METHODS: A realist synthesis framework describing what AH does, how it does it, and what is achieved, was developed. This was populated by the findings of a systematic review of literature published since 1980 reporting concepts of quality relevant to AH. Articles were included on quality measurement concepts, theories, debates, and/or hypothetical frameworks. RESULTS: Of 139 included articles, 21 reported on descriptions of quality potentially relevant to AH. From these, 24 measures of quality were identified, with 15 potentially relating to what AH does, 17 to how AH delivers care, 8 relating to short term functional outcomes, and 9 relating to longer term functional and health system outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: A novel evidence-based quality framework was proposed to address the complexity of AH therapies. This should assist in better evaluation of AH processes and outcomes...

The cost-effectiveness of providing antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese: the LIMIT randomised trial

Dodd, J.M.; Ahmed, S.; Karnon, J.; Umberger, W.; Deussen, A.R.; Tran, T.; Grivell, R.M.; Crowther, C.A.; Turnbull, D.; McPhee, A.J.; Wittert, G.; Owens, J.A.; Robinson, J.S.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity during pregnancy is common, although robust evidence about the economic implications of providing an antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention for women who are overweight or obese is lacking. We conducted a health economic evaluation in parallel with the LIMIT randomised trial. Women with a singleton pregnancy, between 10(+0)-20(+0) weeks, and BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) were randomised to Lifestyle Advice (a comprehensive antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention) or Standard Care. The economic evaluation took the perspective of the health care system and its patients, and compared costs encountered from the additional use of resources from time of randomisation until six weeks postpartum. Increments in health outcomes for both the woman and infant were considered in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Mean costs and effects in the treatment groups allocated at randomisation were compared, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and confidence intervals (95%) calculated. Bootstrapping was used to confirm the estimated confidence intervals, and to generate acceptability curves representing the probability of the intervention being cost-effective at alternative monetary equivalent values for the outcomes avoiding high infant birth weight...

A preliminary study on the role of acoustic emission on inferring Cerchar abrasivity index of rocks using artificial neural network

Perez, S.; Karakus, M.; Sepulveda, E.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Abstract not available; S Perez, M Karakus, E Sepulveda

Two-parameter bifurcation study of the regularized long-wave equation

Podvigina, O.; Zheligovsky, V.; Rempel, E.L.; Chian, A.C.L.; Chertovskih, R.; Muñoz, P.R.
Fonte: American Physical Society Publicador: American Physical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
We perform a two-parameter bifurcation study of the driven-damped regularized long-wave equation by varying the amplitude and phase of the driver. Increasing the amplitude of the driver brings the system to the regime of spatiotemporal chaos (STC), a chaotic state with a large number of degrees of freedom. Several global bifurcations are found, including codimension-two bifurcations and homoclinic bifurcations involving three-tori and the manifolds of steady waves, leading to the formation of chaotic saddles in the phase space. We identify four distinct routes to STC; they depend on the phase of the driver and involve boundary and interior crises, intermittency, the Ruelle-Takens scenario, the Feigenbaum cascade, an embedded saddle-node, homoclinic, and other bifurcations. This study elucidates some of the recently reported dynamical phenomena.; O. Podvigina, V. Zheligovsky, E.L. Rempel, A.C.-L. Chian, R. Chertovskih, and P.R. Muñoz

A reduction in Npas4 expression results in delayed neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

Klaric, T.S.; Thomas, P.Q.; Dottori, M.; Leong, W.K.; Koblar, S.A.; Lewis, M.D.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
INTRODUCTION Npas4 is a calcium-dependent transcription factor expressed within neurons of the brain where it regulates the expression of several genes that are important for neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. It is known that in the adult brain Npas4 plays an important role in several key aspects of neurobiology including inhibitory synapse formation, neuroprotection and memory, yet very little is known about the role of Npas4 during neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and function of Npas4 during nervous system development by using a combination of in vivo experiments in the developing mouse embryo and neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as an in vitro model of the early stages of embryogenesis. METHODS Two different neural differentiation paradigms were used to investigate Npas4 expression during neurodevelopment in vitro; adherent monolayer differentiation of mouse ESCs in N2B27 medium and Noggin-induced differentiation of human ESCs. This work was complemented by direct analysis of Npas4 expression in the mouse embryo. The function of Npas4 in the context of neurodevelopment was investigated using loss-of-function experiments in vitro. We created several mouse ESC lines in which Npas4 expression was reduced during neural differentiation through RNA interference and we then analyzed the ability of these Npas4 knockdown mouse ESCs lines to undergo neural differentiation. RESULTS We found that while Npas4 is not expressed in undifferentiated ESCs...

Perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity during the school lunch break for girls aged 12–13 years

Watson, A.; Eliott, J.; Mehta, K.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Given the short- and long-term health implications associated with overweight and obesity plus the likelihood of overweight or obesity to continue into adulthood, addressing the causes of overweight and obesity in childhood is a significant public health concern. One underlying cause of overweight and obesity is insufficient physical activity. The Department of Health and Aging recommends children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day; however, these recommendations are met less frequently with increasing age, and girls less often meet these recommendations than boys. School lunch times have been identified as an ideal time for maximizing children’s physical activity (PA), but studies have shown variable levels of PA among children during this time and research indicates that during school lunch times, girls are consistently less active than boys. Understanding influences on girls’ participation in PA during this time may help to increase levels of PA for this demographic. Two South Australian schools, one government and one independent, were included in the sample. Four focus groups (three or four participants per group: total 13 participants) focusing on girls’ perceptions of PA during the lunch break were conducted. Transcripts and field notes were analyzed using a social constructionist framework and thematic content analysis. The expectation to participate in activities considered “gender appropriate”...

Returning individual research results for genome sequences of pancreatic cancer

Johns, A.L.; Miller, D.K.; Simpson, S.H.; Gill, A.J.; Kassahn, K.S.; Humphris, J.L.; Samra, J.S.; Tucker, K.; Andrews, L.; Chang, D.K.; Waddell, N.; Pajic, M.; Pearson, J.V.; Grimmond, S.M.; Biankin, A.V.; Zeps, N.; Martyn-Smith, M.; Tang, H.; Papangelis,
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of individual results to participants in genomic research is a complex and contentious issue. There are many existing commentaries and opinion pieces on the topic, but little empirical data concerning actual cases describing how individual results have been returned. Thus, the real life risks and benefits of disclosing individual research results to participants are rarely if ever presented as part of this debate. METHODS: The Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative (APGI) is an Australian contribution to the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), that involves prospective sequencing of tumor and normal genomes of study participants with pancreatic cancer in Australia. We present three examples that illustrate different facets of how research results may arise, and how they may be returned to individuals within an ethically defensible and clinically practical framework. This framework includes the necessary elements identified by others including consent, determination of the significance of results and which to return, delineation of the responsibility for communication and the clinical pathway for managing the consequences of returning results. RESULTS: Of 285 recruited patients, we returned results to a total of 25 with no adverse events to date. These included four that were classified as medically actionable...

Why weight for happiness? Correlates of BMI and SWB in Australia

Robertson, S.; Davies, M.; Winefield, H.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Abstract not available; Sharon Robertson, Matthew Davies, Helen Winefield

From cheek swabs to consensus sequences: an A to Z protocol for high-throughput DNA sequencing of complete human mitochondrial genomes

Clarke, A.C.; Prost, S.; Stanton, J.A.L.; White, W.T.J.; Kaplan, M.E.; Matisoo-Smith, E.A.; Genographic Consortium
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies have made huge impacts in many fields of biological research, but especially in evolutionary biology. One area where NGS has shown potential is for high-throughput sequencing of complete mtDNA genomes (of humans and other animals). Despite the increasing use of NGS technologies and a better appreciation of their importance in answering biological questions, there remain significant obstacles to the successful implementation of NGS-based projects, especially for new users. RESULTS: Here we present an 'A to Z' protocol for obtaining complete human mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes - from DNA extraction to consensus sequence. Although designed for use on humans, this protocol could also be used to sequence small, organellar genomes from other species, and also nuclear loci. This protocol includes DNA extraction, PCR amplification, fragmentation of PCR products, barcoding of fragments, sequencing using the 454 GS FLX platform, and a complete bioinformatics pipeline (primer removal, reference-based mapping, output of coverage plots and SNP calling). CONCLUSIONS: All steps in this protocol are designed to be straightforward to implement, especially for researchers who are undertaking next-generation sequencing for the first time. The molecular steps are scalable to large numbers (hundreds) of individuals and all steps post-DNA extraction can be carried out in 96-well plate format. Also...

Independent genetic control of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination and its phenotypic plasticity

Prado, S.A.; Sadras, V.O.; Borrás, L.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Maize kernel weight (KW) is associated with the duration of the grain-filling period (GFD) and the rate of kernel biomass accumulation (KGR). It is also related to the dynamics of water and hence is physiologically linked to the maximum kernel water content (MWC), kernel desiccation rate (KDR), and moisture concentration at physiological maturity (MCPM). This work proposed that principles of phenotypic plasticity can help to consolidated the understanding of the environmental modulation and genetic control of these traits. For that purpose, a maize population of 245 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was grown under different environmental conditions. Trait plasticity was calculated as the ratio of the variance of each RIL to the overall phenotypic variance of the population of RILs. This work found a hierarchy of plasticities: KDR ≈ GFD > MCPM > KGR > KW > MWC. There was no phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits per se and trait plasticities. MWC, the trait with the lowest plasticity, was the exception because common quantitative trait loci were found for the trait and its plasticity. Independent genetic control of a trait per se and genetic control of its plasticity is a condition for the independent evolution of traits and their plasticities. This allows breeders potentially to select for high or low plasticity in combination with high or low values of economically relevant traits.; Santiago Alvarez Prado...

Spatial gradients in cell wall composition and transcriptional profiles along elongating maize internodes

Zhang, Q.; Cheetamun, R.; Dhugga, K.S.; Rafalski, J.A.; Tingey, S.V.; Shirley, N.J.; Taylor, J.; Hayes, K.; Beatty, M.; Bacic, A.; Burton, R.A.; Fincher, G.B.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and elongation zones contain mainly primary walls, while secondary cell wall deposition accelerates in the transition zone and predominates in the maturation zone. RESULTS: The major wall components cellulose, lignin and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) increased without any abrupt changes across the elongation, transition and maturation zones, although GAX appeared to increase more between the elongation and transition zones. Microarray analyses show that transcript abundance of key glycosyl transferase genes known to be involved in wall synthesis or re-modelling did not match the increases in cellulose, GAX and lignin. Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were low in the meristematic and elongation zones, quickly increased to maximal levels in the transition zone and lower sections of the maturation zone, and generally decreased in the upper maturation zone sections. Genes with transcript profiles showing this pattern included secondary cell wall CesA genes...

The effects of summer temperature and heat waves on heat-related illness in a coastal city of China, 2011-2013

Bai, L.; Ding, G.; Gu, S.; Bi, P.; Su, B.; Qin, D.; Xu, G.; Liu, Q.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Abstract not available; Li Bai, Gangqiang Ding, Shaohua Gu, Peng Bi, Buda Su, Dahe Qin, Guozhang Xu, Qiyong Liu

A genome wide association scan for (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content in the grain of contemporary 2-row Spring and Winter barleys; A genome wide association scan for (1,3;1,4)-beta-glucan content in the grain of contemporary 2-row Spring and Winter barleys

Houston, K.; Russell, J.; Schreiber, M.; Halpin, C.; Oakey, H.; Washington, J.M.; Booth, A.; Shirley, N.; Burton, R.A.; Fincher, G.B.; Waugh, R.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: (1,3;1,4)-β-Glucan is an important component of the cell walls of barley grain as it affects processability during the production of alcoholic beverages and has significant human health benefits when consumed above recommended threshold levels. This leads to diametrically opposed quality requirements for different applications as low levels of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan are required for brewing and distilling and high levels for positive impacts on human health. RESULTS: We quantified grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content in a collection of 399 2-row Spring-type, and 204 2-row Winter-type elite barley cultivars originating mainly from north western Europe. We combined these data with genotypic information derived using a 9 K Illumina iSelect SNP platform and subsequently carried out a Genome Wide Association Scan (GWAS). Statistical analysis accounting for residual genetic structure within the germplasm collection allowed us to identify significant associations between molecular markers and the phenotypic data. By anchoring the regions that contain these associations to the barley genome assembly we catalogued genes underlying the associations. Based on gene annotations and transcript abundance data we identified candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS: We show that a region of the genome on chromosome 2 containing a cluster of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (Csl) genes...

Diurnal changes in water-soluble carbohydrate concentration in lucerne and tall fescue in autumn and the effects on in vitro fermentation

Cajarville, C.; Britos, A.; Errandonea, N.; Gutiérrez, L.; Cozzolino, D.; Repetto, J.L.
Fonte: Royal Society of New Zealand Publicador: Royal Society of New Zealand
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
The aim of the experiment was to study diurnal variation in water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations in leaf and stem of tall fescue and lucerne in autumn and to determine the impact of these changes on the rate and the extent of in vitro fermentation. Vegetative herbage of lucerne and tall fescue were sampled at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h, following three consecutive regrowths between April and May. Whole plants, leaf and stem were analysed for chemical composition and in vitro gas production. There was a linear increase in WSC throughout the day for all plants and plant components (P < 0.001). In both fescue and lucerne, this rise resulted in an increased rate of gas production, although this relationship was more pronounced in fescue. Use of time of day to govern grazing management decisions to potentially improve the rumen supply of WSC and nitrogen in autumn can be achieved from tall fescue or lucerne pastures.; C Cajarville, A Britos, N Errandonea, L Gutiérrez, D Cozzolino and JL Repetto; Published online: 09 Jun 2015

Persistence in the desert: ephemeral waterways and small-scale gene flow in the desert spring amphipod, Wangiannachiltonia guzikae

Robertson, H.L.; Guzik, M.T.; Murphy, N.P.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
1/ The springs of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in central Australia support a unique, but threatened ecosystem adapted to permanent fresh water in a desert landscape. 2/ Taxa within these springs are short-range endemics, with very limited distributions, making them highly susceptible to extinction. Knowledge of fine-scale dispersal mechanisms will help to develop conservation management plans that maintain gene flow and, by extension, the genetic diversity of these populations. 3/ This study focused on determining dispersal capabilities of the endemic GAB spring amphipod, Wangiannachiltonia guzikae, in an area <4 km2. Using 11 microsatellite loci, 288 individuals were genotyped from 14 springs. 4/ Despite the very small area, low levels of gene flow and significant population differences were found among individual spring populations. Microgeographical genetic structure is clearly evident, and fine-scale dispersal is significantly correlated with temporary waterways between springs. 5/ This pattern of genetic divergence supports the stream hierarchy model of population structure and suggests that connectivity between springs is critical for gene flow, although the precise mechanism of dispersal is still open for interpretation.; Hannah L. Robertson...

Desert spring refugia: museums of diversity or evolutionary cradles?

Murphy, N.P.; Guzik, M.T.; Cooper, S.J.B.; Austin, A.D.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Refugia play a critical role in preserving species unable to move or adapt to cope with environmental change. The role of refugia as ‘museums of diversity’ means these environments have a high conservation priority. Less well known, however, is the role that isolated and fragmented refugia can play in the generation of new diversity. Here, we examined the diversification and evolutionary history of a community of endemic invertebrates that inhabit Australian desert spring refugia. We compared the phylogenies of seven endemic groups (Haloniscus and Phreatomerus isopods, chiltoniid amphipods, Ngarawa ostracods, Trochidrobia and Fonscochlea snails and Gymnochthebius beetles) from these springs and examine the rates and timing of diversification and reconstructed the phylogeographic history of each taxon. Despite major life-history differences among these taxa, they demonstrate remarkable similarities in their evolutionary histories. All groups have multiple lineages that extend back to a time before the formation of present-day deserts, and significant geographic-based diversification since adapting to a refugial habitat. The results provide further evidence that refugia act as museums of biodiversity, preserving lineages that would have otherwise gone extinct. However...