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Performance of different genotypes of vegetable soybeans in Jaboticabal-SP

Castoldi, R.; Charlo, H. C O; Braz, L. T.; Mendonça, J. L.; Panizzi, M. C C; Ito, L. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 125-128
ENG
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The study was conducted in the field, in the experimental area of the Section of Crop Production and Aromatic Medicinal Plants, belonging to the Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Jaboticabal Campus-SP. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of seven genotypes of vegetable soybeans in Jaboticabal-SP. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with seven treatments (genotypes) and four replications. The genotypes examined were: CNPSOI, JLM003, JLM010, JLM018, JLM019, JLM024 and BRS216. The seeds were obtained from EMBRAPA-Soja and EMBRAPA- Hortaliças, and planted in Styrofoam trays with 128 cells containing Plantmax Hortaliças® as substrate. Transplanting occurred 10 d after seeding when the seedlings showed 2 or 3 definitive leaves and about 12 cm in height, demonstrating that the soil had been properly prepared according to the recommendations for this crop. Pests and diseases were adequately controlled in the event of their occurrence in the experimental area and in accordance with technical recommendations for the chemical products utilized. Collections were carried out based on the maturation of the pods, according to the scale of Fehr and Caviness (1977) adapted by Costa and Marchezan (1982)...

Nutrients balances and milk fatty acid profile of mid lactation dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid

Freitas Júnior, Jose Esler de; Rennó, Francisco Palma; Gandra, Jefferson Rodrigues; Rennó, Luciana Navajás; Rodrigues, Gustavo Henrique; Santos, Marcos Veiga dos; Oliveira, Mauro Dal Secco de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 322-335
ENG
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The objective was to evaluate the effect of unsaturated fatty acid sources supplementation on nutrients balances and milk fatty acid profile of mid lactation dairy cows. Twelve Brazilian Holstein cows in the mid lactation (mean of 128 days) and (580 ± 20kg of weight; mean ± SD) with milk yield of 25kg/d were assigned randomly into three 4 × 4 Latin square, fed the following diets: control (C); refined soybean oil; (SO); whole soybean raw (WS) and; calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA). Milk yield was 26.6; 26.4; 24.1 and 25.7 to the diets CO, SO, WS and CSFA respectively. Cows fed the WS treatment produced less milk (1.95kg/d of milk), fat and lactose than did cows fed the SO and CSFA. Cows fed the CSFA treatment showed less blood, urine (g/d) concentrations of N more energetic efficiency and intake of energy than did cows fed the SO treatment. Cows fed the unsaturated fatty acids sources showed more C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-C18:1 FA concentration in milk than did cows fed the CO treatment. Diets with whole soybeans and soybeans oil provide more efficient digestive processes, and increase milk composition of unsaturated fatty acids.

Diallel analysis for grain yield and mineral absorption rate of soybeans grown in acid brazilian savannah soil; Análise dialélica da produção de grãos e taxa de absorção mineral na soja cultivada em solo ácido dos cerrados brasileiros

Spehar, Carlos Roberto
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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ABSTRACT: High available aluminium and low levels of calcium below the ploughed zone of the soil are limiting factors for agricultural sustainability in the Brazilian Cerrados (Savannahs). The mineral stresses compound with dry spells effect by preventing deep root growth of cultivated plants and causes yield instability. The mode of inheritance for grain yield and mineral absorption ratio of a diallel cross in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in high and low Al areas was identified. Differences among the genotypes for grain yield were more evident in the high Al, by grouping tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes for their respective arrays in the hybrids. A large proportion of genetic variance was additive for grain yield and mineral absorption ratio in both environments. High heritability values suggest that soybeans can be improved by crosses among Al-tolerant genotypes, using modified pedigree, early generation and recurrent selection schemes. _________________________________________________________________________________ RESUMO; A presença de alumínio e reduzidos níveis de cálcio abaixo da camada arável do solo são fatores que ameaçam a sustentabilidade agrícola nos cerrados brasileiros. Esses fatores limitantes agravam o efeito de estresses hídricos...

Damage level of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari: tetranychidae) in soybeans

Suekane,Renato; Degrande,Paulo Eduardo; Melo,Elmo Pontes de; Bertoncello,Thiago Ferreira; Lima Junior,Izidro dos Santos de; Kodama,Cássio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Viçosa Publicador: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 EN
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Among phytophagous spider mites, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 is one of the most important agricultural pests, not only because of the damage it causes, but also because it has a wide host range, infesting many commercial crops such as leafy greens, cotton, beans, and soybeans, among others. This study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias (FCA) of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), located in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments consisted of 5 levels in percentage of chlorotic symptoms (indicating mite damage): 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. All of the characteristics evaluated, except for number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per plant, the total weight (productivity), and the weight of 1000 seeds, were significantly influenced by the different levels of chlorotic symptoms. The economic damage level for the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, according to the equation y = 66.63-0.51 x, based on the price of US$ 11.00 per bag of soybeans and a control cost of US$ 16.00, would be 15.80% chlorotic symptoms. At a price of US$ 29.00 per bag with the same control cost...

Incidência natural e biologia de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

Cañete,Carolina L.; Foerster,Luís A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 PT
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Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner is an egg parasitoid of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and has recently been collected from eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybeans. In order to evaluate the suitability of A. gemmatalis eggs as hosts of T. atopovirilia, field surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 on corn and soybeans, and a colony of the parasitoid was established in laboratory. At 25 ºC, development from oviposition to emergence lasted nine days and a sex-ratio of 0.58 (females:males) was obtained. Females lived significantly longer (11.4 days) when kept in ovipositional activity, than in the absence of host eggs (6.6 days). Total fecundity averaged 104.5 parasitized eggs, resulting in the emergence of 138.3 descendents. Mean daily fecundity was highest (30 eggs/female) on the first day. Oviposition continued until one day before the death of the females, however 70% of the eggs were laid during the first four days after emergence. A female-biased progeny was produced during the first three days of oviposition, whereas further ovipositions were male-biased. Females lived significantly longer when exposed to host eggs in comparison to females deprived of eggs. The results show that eggs of A. gemmatalis are suitable for the development of T. atopovirilia...

Diallel analysis for grain yield and mineral absorption rate of soybeans grown in acid brazilian savannah soil

Spehar,Carlos Roberto
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1999 EN
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26.87%
High available aluminium and low levels of calcium below the ploughed zone of the soil are limiting factors for agricultural sustainability in the Brazilian Cerrados (Savannahs). The mineral stresses compound with dry spells effect by preventing deep root growth of cultivated plants and causes yield instability. The mode of inheritance for grain yield and mineral absorption ratio of a diallel cross in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in high and low Al areas was identified. Differences among the genotypes for grain yield were more evident in the high Al, by grouping tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes for their respective arrays in the hybrids. A large proportion of genetic variance was additive for grain yield and mineral absorption ratio in both environments. High heritability values suggest that soybeans can be improved by crosses among Al-tolerant genotypes, using modified pedigree, early generation and recurrent selection schemes.

An application of the spatial equilibrium model to soybean production in tocantins and neighboring states in Brazil

De La Cruz,Betty Clara Barraza; Pizzolato,Nelio D.; De La Cruz,Andrés Barraza
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2010 EN
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In the production chain of soybeans in Brazil a sizable part of the corresponding cost structure is the result of logistics costs. Given the location of its production sites, distant from the ocean, the optimization of the transportation costs is essential for preserving competitiveness. Using nonlinear programming, this study proposes a spatial multimodal and temporal equilibrium model. The applicability of the model is tested with a case study regarding the exports of the soybeans produced in three states in the northern part of the Brazilian cerrado region. In the state of Tocantins, the effects of infrastructure investments in the competitiveness of the production are described through four proposed scenarios, while the basic scenario compares the three states. The data are treated using the GAMS/MINOS program. The study asserts that soybean production will be more competitive if warehousing facilities are used extensively and when the project hydroway becomes operational.

Qualitative characteristics of meat from confined crossbred heifers fed with lipid sources

Fiorentini,Giovani; Berchielli,Telma Teresinha; Santana,Márcia Cristina Araújo; Dian,Paulo Henrique Moura; Reis,Ricardo Andrade; Sampaio,Alexandre Amstalden Moraes; Biehl,Marcos Vinicius
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
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Lipids have been used in ruminant feed to replace high amounts of grain for increasing the diet energy density, performance and meat quality. This study evaluated the qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot heifers fed with sources of lipid supplements. Twenty-one crossbred heifers (1/4Nelore × 1/4Santa Gertrudis × 1/2Braunvieh) were used. Each heifer received 60 % forage with a base of corn silage and 40 % concentrate, resulting in 5.8 % lipid content in the total diet. The following sources of lipids were used: soybeans, protected fat and soybean oil. There were no differences on physical characteristics of meat samples from heifers fed with the lipid sources. Soybeans increased the concentration of linoleic acid, content of polyunsaturated fatty acid and activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the Longissimus muscle. The use of soybean oil in the diet increased the oleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, total cis- and trans-fatty acids (C18:0) and the activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the subcutaneous fat. Diets with soybean grain had greater deposition of linoleic and linolenic acids than diets with fat protected and greater presence of these essential fatty acids are associated to a better composition and meat quality.

Nutrients balances and milk fatty acid profile of mid lactation dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid

Freitas Júnior,Jose Esler de; Rennó,Francisco Palma; Gandra,Jefferson Rodrigues; Rennó,Luciana Navajás; Rodrigues,Gustavo Henrique; Santos,Marcos Veiga dos; Oliveira,Mauro Dal Secco de
Fonte: UFBA - Universidade Federal da Bahia Publicador: UFBA - Universidade Federal da Bahia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.87%
The objective was to evaluate the effect of unsaturated fatty acid sources supplementation on nutrients balances and milk fatty acid profile of mid lactation dairy cows. Twelve Brazilian Holstein cows in the mid lactation (mean of 128 days) and (580 ± 20kg of weight; mean ± SD) with milk yield of 25kg/d were assigned randomly into three 4 x 4 Latin square, fed the following diets: control (C); refined soybean oil; (SO); whole soybean raw (WS) and; calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA). Milk yield was 26.6; 26.4; 24.1 and 25.7 to the diets CO, SO, WS and CSFA respectively. Cows fed the WS treatment produced less milk (1.95kg/d of milk), fat and lactose than did cows fed the SO and CSFA. Cows fed the CSFA treatment showed less blood, urine (g/d) concentrations of N more energetic efficiency and intake of energy than did cows fed the SO treatment. Cows fed the unsaturated fatty acids sources showed more C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-C18:1 FA concentration in milk than did cows fed the CO treatment. Diets with whole soybeans and soybeans oil provide more efficient digestive processes, and increase milk composition of unsaturated fatty acids.

Maize and soybeans production in integrated system under no-tillage with different pasture combinations and animal categories

Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Ceará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Ceará
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
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26.87%
The adoption of no-till system (NTS) combined with crop-livestock integration (CLI) has been a strategy promoted in Brazil, aiming to maximize areas yield and increase agribusiness profitability. This study aimed to evaluate grains yield and phytotechnical attributes from maize and soybean culture by CLI system under NTS after winter annual pure and diversified pastures with the absence or presence of grazing animals. The experiment was installed in Castro (Paraná State, Brazil) on in a dystrophic Humic Rhodic Hapludox with a clay texture, using experimental design of randomized complete blocks in 4 x 2 factorial scheme with three replications. Treatments included four pasture combinations (diversified or pure) and animal categories (light and heavy) subjected or not to grazing animals during the winter. During 2008/09 and 2009/10 summers, the area was cultivated with soybeans and maize, respectively, with yield assessment of grains and phytotechnical attributes. Treatments did not alter the yield and weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) of soybeans. In maize culture, the grazing animal during the winter increased the plant population and grains yield, but gave slight decrease in WTS. Pasture combinations (diversified or pure) and animal categories (light and heavy) did not interfere in soybean culture...

Expression and Accumulation Patterns of Nitrogen-Responsive Lipoxygenase in Soybeans.

Grimes, H. D.; Tranbarger, T. J.; Franceschi, V. R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1993 EN
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Gene expression and protein accumulation patterns of nitrogen-responsive lipoxygenase (LOX-NR), as a representative vegetative storage protein, were investigated in nonnodulated soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Wye). The form of available nitrogen (supplied as NH4NO3, NH4+, NO3-, or urea) influenced the mRNA level and the amount of LOX protein, indicating that preferential accumulation of LOX may occur. Soybeans were grown with 0, 2, 5, and 16 mM total nitrogen to determine the extent to which LOX accumulation responded to soil nitrogen levels. Analysis of both mRNA and protein levels was conducted in shoot tips, stems, pod walls, and leaves over the entire life cycle of the plant. A general correlation between increasing available nitrogen level and LOX level was seen in the shoot tip and other organs throughout the soybean life cycle. However, appreciable amounts of LOX-NR mRNA and protein accumulated even when plants were grown under conditions of nitrogen deficiency. The results indicate that LOX may play an important role as a temporary storage site for amino acids in the developing shoot tip. The expression patterns of LOX-NR in plants grown under nitrogen deficiency suggest that these proteins, although responsive to nitrogen status...

Evaluation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as a potential mycotoxin producer on soybeans.

Ciegler, A; Burbridge, K A; Ciegler, J; Hesseltine, C W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1978 EN
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Solvent extracts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia were nontoxic to mice and chicken embryos; psoralens were not detected. Solvent extracts of soybeans inoculated with 10 strains of S. sclerotiorum were toxic on injection but nontoxic on per os administration to mice. The presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soybeans may partially help explain toxicity by intraperitineal injection.

Race-specific molecules that protect soybeans from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae*

Wade, Mark; Albersheim, Peter
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1979 EN
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26.87%
Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae (A. A. Hildebrand) is a fungal stem and root rot-causing pathogen of soybeans. Glycoproteins secreted into the medium of the aseptically cultured fungus have been partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and by column chromatography on norleucine-substituted Sepharose 4B and on DEAE-cellulose. Glycoprotein preparations from P. megasperma var. sojae races 1, 2, and 3 have been tested on four cultivars of soybeans. The partially purified glycoproteins from incompatible races of the pathogen (races that cannot successfully infect the plant), but not those from compatible races (races that can kill the plant), protect soybean seedlings from attack by compatible races. The seedlings are protected by introducing the glycoproteins into hypocotyl wounds of seedlings either 90 min prior to or at the time of inoculation of the wounds with mycelia of one of the pathogens. The glycoprotein preparations are poor nonspecific elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation; the glycoproteins have less than 1.0% of the elicitor activity of the glucans present in the mycelial walls of the pathogen.

The Assimilation of Ureides in Shoot Tissues of Soybeans 1: 1. CHANGES IN ALLANTOINASE ACTIVITY AND UREIDE CONTENTS OF LEAVES AND FRUITS

Thomas, Richard J.; Schrader, Larry E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1981 EN
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The ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid, are major forms of N transported from nodules to shoots in soybeans (Merr.). Little is known about the occurrence, localization, or properties of the enzymes involved in the assimilation of ureides in shoot tissues. We have examined the capacity of the shoot tissues to assimilate allantoin via allantoinase (EC 3.5.2.5) during leaf and fruit development in nodulated soybeans. Specific activity of allantoinase in leaves peaked during pod formation and early seed filling. In developing fruits allantoinase activity in the seeds was 2 to 4 times that in the pods when expressed on a fresh weight or organ basis. In seeds, the embryos contained the highest specific allantoinase activity. Stems and petioles also had appreciable allantoinase activity. With development, peaks in the amounts of allantoic acid, but not allantoin, were measured in both leaves and fruits suggesting that the assimilation of allantoic acid may be a limiting factor in ureide assimilation. Highest amounts of ureides were measured in the pith and xylem of stem tissues and in developing pod walls.

The Physiological Basis for Cytokinin Induced Increases in Pod Set in IX93-100 Soybeans

Carlson, Dale R.; Dyer, Daniel J.; Cotterman, C. Daniel; Durley, Richard C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1987 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Previous investigations have shown the feasibility of increasing pod number on legumes by the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) directly to the raceme. These investigations were designed to determine what reproductive parameter was affected by cytokinin application, and if these applications were overcoming a deficiency in root-produced cytokinins during late flowering. Five individual main stem racemes on greenhouse grown soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) were treated with 2 millimolar BA. A single application of BA when pods appeared at 25 to 50% of the proximal floral positions resulted in a 58% increase in pod set due primarily to a 33% reduction in floral abscission. Applications of BA at later intervals also resulted in significant reductions in total abscission. When three applications of BA were imposed on the upper five nodes of field grown soybeans, total pod number and seed weight were significantly increased in this section of the canopy by 27 and 18%, respectively. Throughout the flowering period, root pressure exudate was sampled for the subsequent separation and quantification of zeatin, dihydrozeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside, and isopentenyladenine. Total cytokinin flux peaked from 0 to 9 days after flowering began...

Increase of Chalcone Synthase mRNA in Pathogen-Inoculated Soybeans with Race-Specific Resistance Is Different in Leaves and Roots 1

Dhawale, Shree; Souciet, Ginette; Kuhn, David N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1989 EN
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26.87%
Soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) respond to pathogens by producing isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexins. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the first enzyme of the flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthetic pathway. We investigated changes in the steady state levels of CHS mRNA and other specific mRNAs at increasing times after inoculation in two different race-specific interactions, one between leaves and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv glycinea (Psg), and one between roots and the fungus, Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea (Pmg). The amount of CHS mRNA increases significantly in soybean leaves inoculated with an avirulent race of Psg but not with a virulent race or water. In contrast, the increase in CHS mRNA is similar in roots inoculated with zoospores of either an avirulent or virulent race of Pmg. CHS mRNA increases significantly in pathogen inoculated roots but not in uninoculated controls. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) has been observed by others to increase in wounded or pathogen-inoculated plants. We report here that HRGP mRNA levels are greater in roots inoculated with an avirulent Pmg race than with a virulent race, but inoculation with either race causes a significant increase in HRGP mRNA with respect to controls. Calmodulin or ubiquitin mRNA do not increase in either uninoculated or inoculated roots and leaves. The possibility that race-specific resistance in soybeans is expressed differently in different organs of the plant is discussed.

Preferential Leaching of Pinitol from Soybeans during Imbibition 1

Nordin, Philip
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1984 EN
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Sugars and cyclitols leached from soybeans (Glycine max var Sparks) during imbibition were assayed as a function of time. Pinitol leached many times faster than carbohydrates. During the initial 20 minutes of imibition, the pinitol/carbohydrate ratio was 3.4, declining to 0.29 for fully imbibed seeds. The value for dry soybeans was 0.14. Hypochlorite treatment of seeds more than doubled the rate at which carbohydrates leached out, but had little effect on pinitol. A role in development of soil microorganisms is postulated for pinitol.

Suppression of Nodule Development of One Side of a Split-Root System of Soybeans Caused by Prior Inoculation of the Other Side 1

Kosslak, Renee M.; Bohlool, B. Ben
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1984 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In a split-root system of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr), inoculation of one half-side suppressed subsequent development of nodules on the opposite side. At zero time, the first side of the split-root system of soybeans received Rhizobium japonicum strain USDA 138 as the primary inoculum. At selected time intervals, the second side was inoculated with the secondary inoculum, a mixture of R. japonicum strain USDA 138 and strain USDA 110. In a short-day season, nodulation by the secondary inoculum was inhibited 100% when inoculation was delayed 10 days. Nodulation on the second side was significantly suppressed when the secondary inoculum was delayed for only 96 hours. In a long-day season, nodule suppression on the second side was highly significant, but not always 100%. Nodule suppression on the second side was not related to the appearance of nodules or nitrogenase activity on the side of split-roots which were inoculated at zero time. When the experiments were done under different light intensities, nodule suppression was significantly more pronounced in the shaded treatments.

Genetics and Ultrastructure of a Cytoplasmically Inherited Yellow Mutant in Soybeans

Palmer, Reid G.; Mascia, Peter N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A chimeric plant was observed in the F2 generation of a cross between a male-sterile line and a plant introduction homozygous for a chromosome interchange in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. F3 progeny of this plant included one chimera, 36 yellow plants and 16 green plants. The yellow plants, which progressively turn green, were viable and fertile in field, greenhouse and growth-chamber environments. Reciprocal cross-pollinations were made between these yellow plants and four known nuclear yellow mutant plants, between these yellow plants and sibling green plants and between these yellow plants and unrelated green plants. Segregation data from F1 and F2 generations indicated cytoplasmic inheritance of the newly discovered yellow phenotype. Pollinations in which reciprocal F1 hybrid plants were used as male or female parents were made with unrelated green plants. Observations in F1 and F2 generations substantiated the hypothesis of cytoplasmic inheritance. No interactions have been observed between this mutant and the various nuclear backgrounds. This is the first report of a cytoplasmically inherited mutant affecting plant color in soybeans. Exchange grafts were made between cytoplasmic yellow plants and sibling green plants and between cytoplasmic yellow plants and unrelated green plants. The phenotype was controlled by the scion...

Genetic Structure of Races of Heterodera glycines and Inheritance of Ability to Reproduce on Resistant Soybeans

Triantaphyllou, A. C.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1975 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Four field populations of Heterodera glycines tested for ability to reproduce on three host differentials were each classified into one of the recognized races. A fifth population represented a new race. Genetic analysis indicated that the designated races are actually field populations that differ from each other primarily in the frequencies of three groups of genes (genes for parasitism) that act quantitatively and control the ability of the nematode to reproduce on resistant P.I. 88788, Pickett, and P.I. 90763 soybeans. Populations of race-3 have none of these genes for parasitism, or they have some in low frequency that results in an index of parasitism of less than 10 on any one of the resistant soybeans. Race-1 has a high frequency of one group of genes that enable it to reproduce on P.I. 88788. Race-2 has two groups of genes for parasitism in high frequency; one for P.I. 88788, and one for Pickett. Based on these findings, it was assumed that race-4 has three groups of genes for parasitism; one for P.I. 88788, one for Pickett, and one for P.I. 90763. Additional races may be recognized when new genes are identified, or when new gene combinations are discovered. The ability to reproduce on P. I. 88788 is inherited independently from the ability to reproduce on Pickett. Although the genetic structure of field populations does not provide a solid foundation for race designation...