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Prevalence and correlates of Hepatitis C among injection drug users: The significance of duration of use, incarceration and race/ethnicity

Latimer, William W.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Floyd, Leah; Lawson, April; Melnikov, Alexander; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Moleko, Anne-Gloria; Cole, Kristin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 EN
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The study examined associations between Hepatitis C (HCV) seropositivity and a lifetime history of jail or correctional facility incarceration among injection drug users. The sample consisted of 351 injection drug users recruited in inner-city neighborhoods of Baltimore. Multiple logistic regressions were fit to assess associations between HCV seropositivity and a lifetime history of incarceration for the total sample and stratified by race. Analyses demonstrated HCV nearly two times greater for whites than African Americans. In addition, HCV was 2.6 times greater in participants incarcerated in correctional facilities and HCV was 7.4 times greater in participants reporting more than 5 years of injection drug use compared to participants reporting less than 1 year of injection drug use. The study findings suggest that incorporating systematic HCV screening, prevention, and treatment programs within correctional systems represents a vital yet underutilized strategy to reduce HCV transmission in society as a whole.

Wedding ring in the wrong place: an unusual presentation of penile incarceration in a child with a wedding ring

Raza, Kazim; Khadim, Muhammad F; Naqvi, Gohar Abass; Ahmed, Iftikhar
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/07/2009 EN
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An unusual case of penile incarceration in a 13-year-old boy is presented, with lessons to be learned for Accident and Emergency Department junior doctors in particular and for all in general. The presentation was misleading and the condition would have gone undiagnosed with fatal consequences without a team effort. The object used was a wedding ring in this case. Penile incarceration is not common in routine practice. The need for development of necessary paediatric history taking and examination techniques among Emergency Department doctors and staff is highlighted. Recalling the basics, this case report emphasises the importance of thorough physical examination. With early diagnosis and treatment, lifelong disabilities can be prevented.

Mediators of the Effect of Parental Incarceration on Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

Kjellstrand, Jean Mollenkamp; Eddy, J. Mark
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
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Over the past two decades, the number of children with parents in prison has increased substantially. Using structural equation modeling with prospective longitudinal data gathered as part of the ongoing Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) trial, the study tests a theoretical model which examines the direct and indirect relationships of four specific domains (parental incarceration, social advantage, parent mental and physical health, effective parenting) as they relate to youth antisocial behavior in the 5th, 8th, and 10th grades. Across all three grades, the relationship between parental incarceration and youth antisocial behaviors was mediated through a complex set of both direct and indirect pathways involving social advantage, parent health, and effective parenting. The total amount of variation explained by the models for youth externalizing ranged from .60 (in 5th grade) to .21 (in 10th grade). The total effects in all the refined models were small.

Hepatitis A/B Vaccine Completion among Homeless Adults with History of Incarceration

Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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HBV vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N=297) who reported histories of incarceration and participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥ 40), having a partner, and chronic homelessness were associated with vaccine completion. Recent research has documented the difficulty in providing vaccine services to younger homeless persons and homeless males at risk for HBV. Additional strategies are needed to achieve HBV vaccination completion rates greater than 50% for formerly incarcerated homeless men. Keywords: Hepatitis B, former prisoners, homeless, men, vaccine completion

Penoscrotal incarceration, four rings, and estate department bolt to the rescue

Abogunrin, Funso A.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Combined penoscrotal incarceration is rarely reported in the literature. It is a urological emergency. Depending on the nature of the constricting object, duration of constriction, and with no defined treatment methods, inventiveness is usually required in removing difficult objects. This is a report of a penoscrotal incarceration by four closed steel rings, treated in Northern Ireland with a few minor points reiterated.

Jail incarceration and birth outcomes

Bell, Janice F.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Cawthon, Mary Lawrence; Huebner, Colleen E.; Ward, Deborah H.; Schroeder, Carole A.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2004 EN
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This study examined the relationships between jail incarceration during pregnancy and infant birth weight, preterm birth, and fetal growth restriction. We used multivariate regression analyses to compare outcomes for 496 births to women who were in jail for part of pregnancy with 4,960 Medicaid-funded births as matched community controls. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the relationship between jail incarceration and birth outcomes was modified by maternal age. Relative to controls, women incarcerated during pregnancy had progressively higher odds of low birth weight and preterm birth through age 39 years; conversely, jail detainees older than 39 years were less likely than controls to experience low birth weight or preterm birth. For women in jail at all ages, postrelease maternity case management was associated with decreased odds of low birth weight, whereas prenatal care was associated with decreased odds of preterm birth. Local jails are important sites for public health intervention. Efforts to ensure that all pregnant women released from jail have access to enhanced prenatal health services may improve perinatal outcomes for this group of particularly vulnerable women and infants.

Genital incarceration: an unusual case report

Cassidy, Darby J.; Mador, David
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
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Incarceration or strangulation of the penis is a rare clinical situation that requires emergent urologic management to prevent potentially devastating outcomes. Many different techniques have been described in the literature to remove genital foreign objects, but there is no universally successful technique. We present an unusual and challenging case involving incarceration of both the penis and scrotum by multiple metallic rings that required operative removal using an orthopedic high-speed drill.

Initiation of Buprenorphine During Incarceration and Retention in Treatment Upon Release

Zaller, Nickolas; McKenzie, Michelle; Friedmann, Peter D.; Green, Traci C.; McGowan, Samuel; Rich, Josiah D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We report here on a feasibility study of initiating buprenorphine/naloxone prior to release from incarceration and linking participants to community treatment providers upon release. Study consisted of a small number of Rhode Island (RI) prisoners (N=44) diagnosed with opioid dependence. The study design is a single arm, open-label pilot study with a 6-month follow up interview conducted in the community. However, a natural experiment arose during the study comparing pre-release initiation of buprenorphone/naloxone to initiation post-release. Time to post-release prescriber appointment (mean days) for initiation of treatment Outside Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) vs. Inside RIDOC was 8.8 and 3.9, respectively (p=.1). Median post release treatment duration (weeks) for Outside RIDOC vs. Inside RIDOC was 9 and 24, respectively (p=.007). We conclude that initiating buprenorphine/naloxone prior to release from incarceration may increase engagement and retention in community-based treatment.

Punishment and Welfare: Paternal Incarceration and Families’ Receipt of Public Assistance

Sugie, Naomi F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The United States criminal justice and welfare systems are two important government institutions in the lives of the poor. Despite many theoretical discussions about their relationship, their operation at the level of offenders and families remains poorly understood. This paper utilizes Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data to examine how recent paternal incarceration is associated with families’ receipt of TANF, food stamps, and Medicaid/SCHIP. Results robust to multiple tests find that incarceration is not related to subsequent TANF receipt but is significantly associated with increased receipt of food stamps and Medicaid/SCHIP. The findings suggest that greater government involvement among poor families is an unexpected consequence of mass imprisonment; however, increased participation does not include TANF—the cash assistance program of most concern to theorists.

The GAIN Short Screener (GSS) as a Predictor of Future Arrest or Incarceration Among Youth Presenting to Substance Use Disorder (SUD) Treatment

Garner, Bryan R.; Belur, Vinetha K.; Dennis, Michael L.
Fonte: Libertas Academica Publicador: Libertas Academica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2013 EN
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The National Institutes of Health (NIH) data harmonization project on existing measures (www.phenx.org) has recommended the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN)—Short Screener (GSS) as one of the most reliable, valid, efficient, and inexpensive general behavioral health screeners to quickly identify people with internalizing and externalizing mental health disorders, substance use disorders, and crime/violence problems. The present study examined how well the four GSS screeners and their sum predict future arrest or incarceration among individuals entering treatment for a substance use disorder. Using a cross-validation design, a diverse sample of 6,815 youth with substance use disorders was split into a development sample and a validation sample. Overall, results found the GSS’s crime and violence screener (CVScr) and the substance disorder screener (SDScr) to be the two best predictors of arrest/incarceration within the 12 months following treatment intake. Additionally, we found that these screeners could be used to categorize individuals into three groups (low risk, moderate risk, high risk) and this simplified classification had good predictive validity (Area Under the Curve = 0.601). In sum, the GSS’s predictive validity was similar to other instruments that have been developed to predict risk for recidivism; however...

Hispanics, Incarceration, and TB/HIV Screening: A Missed Opportunity for Prevention

Dumont, Dora M.; Gjelsvik, Annie; Chen, Nadine; Rich, Josiah D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
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Disparities in incarceration rates and in prison-based TB/HIV testing may contribute to health disparities in the communities most affected by incarceration. We analyzed Bureau of Justice Statistics surveys of federal and state prison inmates to assess TB and HIV screening rates for US-born Hispanics, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. Screening rates were high overall but foreign-born Hispanic inmates had significantly lower odds of being tested for TB in both state (AOR 0.55) and federal prisons (AOR 0.31) compared to white inmates. Foreign-born Hispanics also had lower odds of being tested for HIV in state prisons and Hispanics had lower odds of being tested for HIV in federal prisons compared to white inmates. Screening for infectious diseases in state and federal prisons is high but Hispanics have higher odds of going untested; this has important consequences for prevention of further transmission in the communities to which they return.

The Cycle of Social Exclusion for Urban, Young Men of Color in the United States: What is the Role of Incarceration?

RAMASWAMY, MEGHA; FREUDENBERG, NICHOLAS
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This article explores how incarceration amplifies the disconnection from school and work experienced by urban, young men of color in the United States and ultimately leads to their social exclusion. The authors draw on longitudinal data collected in interviews with 397 men age 16 to 18 in a New York City jail and then again one year after their release. Using logistic regression analysis, the authors found that though incarceration did not appear to exacerbate disconnectedness directly, it was associated with unstable housing, which in turn may contribute to several negative outcomes related to social exclusion. These findings may inform advocates, policy makers, and researchers in their efforts to meet the needs of socially excluded youth, in particular those with criminal justice histories.

Correlates of the Sex Trade among African–American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing: Assessing the Role of Parental Incarceration and Parental Substance Use

Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M.; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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African–American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African–American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African–American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general.

Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests? Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality Between Arrest and Incarceration

Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffrey T.; Painter-Davis, Noah
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Do large racial and ethnic disparities in prison populations reflect systematic racial and policy discrimination in the criminal justice system, or do they reflect disproportionate involvement of blacks and Hispanics in “serious” or street crime? Our investigation of this question keys off the approach initiated by Alfred Blumstein is his pioneering studies on the topic. While yielding important findings, there are, however, substantial gaps in the empirical literature on the racial disproportionality issue. We attempt to fill those gaps by (1) using both data on prison admission as well as in-stock prison populations, (2) presenting more recent racially and ethnically disaggregated arrest and incarceration data from Pennsylvania for 2003–2007, and (3) including Hispanic offenders in our racial and ethnic disproportionality comparisons. Our results indicate, first, that the representation of blacks, whites, and Hispanics among offenders admitted to state prison and in the prison population corresponds closely to their representation in arrest statistics. Second, using arrests as a marker of violent offending, the overrepresentation of blacks among offenders admitted to state prisons occurs because they commit a disproportionate number of frequently imprisoned (i.e....

Emergency treatment of esophageal varix incarceration in the endoscope and ligation device during endoscopic variceal rubber band ligation

Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Jilin; Xu, Yahong; Lu, Cuili; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Shi, Yuxin
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/2014 EN
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Sclerotherapy and endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation (EVL) are commonly used to treat and prevent variceal bleeding. As of today, there has been no report on an unexpected incarceration of a varix hooked on with the bands from the endoscopic EVL device. We recently experienced this emergency while using the 7-band ring endoscopic EVL device (Boston Scientific Corp., Boston, MA) for prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In this case, the varix body itself was accidently incarcerated in the crevice of the esophageal endoscope after highly negative pressure of absorption was applied on the endoscope. In this situation, using force to take out the gastroscope was not an option as it would tear the vein and cause massive hemorrhage. We were managed to ligate the varix with rubber bands while releasing the incarceration. We observed that ligation of the varix at the same position using all seven ligation bands resulted in disappearance of the targeted varix. The surrounding esophageal mucosa became smooth after the treatment.

Prison Exit Samples as a Source for Indicators of Pretrial Detention

Foglesong, Todd S; Stone, Christopher
Fonte: Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management, Harvard Kennedy School Publicador: Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management, Harvard Kennedy School
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
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Many governments, civil society organizations, and international development agencies today seek to limit the use of pretrial detention in criminal justice. Motivations vary. Some believe that pretrial detention is ordered indiscriminately and employed for unreasonably long periods; others are concerned with the conditions of confinement and the burdens detention places on families; still others worry about the criminogenic effects of pretrial incarceration. But whatever the motive to limit the use of pretrial detention, it is difficult to imagine the effort succeeding without a good indicator of the extent of its use. Such an indicator has proven surprisingly elusive in countries at every income level. Indeed, it is possible that the effort to reduce pretrial detention in developing countries may actually be hindered by the indicator most commonly used there: the proportion of prison inmates on any given day that is not sentenced. This paper describes some of the flaws with this and other indicators, and shows how domestic governments and their development partners can use a basic and better indicator—the median duration of detention—as a catalyst for change. This paper demonstrates a simple and inexpensive way of developing this indicator – by obtaining administrative data already collected in most prisons and jails about the people who leave detention each month. Everywhere in the world...

L’association entre les divers types de services de santé et l’initiation du traitement de l’hépatite C chez les utilisateurs de drogues par injection.

Bégin, Marc-Antoine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Introduction: Malgré des taux d’efficacité comparable du traitement antiviral de l’hépatite C (VHC) entre utilisateurs de drogues par injection (UDIs) et non-UDIs, il y a encore d’importantes barrières à l’accessibilité au traitement pour cette population vulnérable. La méfiance des UDIs à l’égard des autorités médicales, ainsi que leur mode de vie souvent désorganisé ont un impact sur l’initiation du traitement. L’objectif de cette étude est d’examiner les liens entre l’initiation du traitement du VHC et l’utilisation des services de santé chez les UDIs actifs. Methode: 758 UDIs actifs et séropositifs aux anticorps anti-VHC ont été interrogés durant la période de novembre 2004 à mars 2011, dans la région de Montréal. Des questionnaires administrés par des intervieweurs ont fourni des informations sur les caractéristiques socio-économiques, ainsi que sur les variables relatives à l’usage de drogues et à l’utilisation des services de santé. Des échantillons sanguins ont été prélevés et testés pour les anticorps anti-VHC. Une régression logistique multivariée a permis de générer des associations entre les facteurs relatifs aux services de santé et l’initiation du traitement contre le VHC. Resultats: Parmi les 758 sujets...

The Impact of Incarceration on Obesity: Are Prisoners with Chronic Diseases Becoming Overweight and Obese during Their Confinement?

Gates, Madison L.; Bradford, Robert K.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Introduction. The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration's impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Methods. Objective data for weight, height, and chronic diseases, along with demographics, were extracted from an electronic health record. These data were analyzed statistically to determine changes over time and between groups. Results. As a total population, prisoners not only gained weight, but also reflected the distribution of BMIs for the state. There were differences within the population. Male prisoners gained significantly less weight than females. The population with chronic diseases gained less weight than the population without comorbid conditions. Prisoners with diabetes lost weight while hypertension's impact was negligible. Conclusion. This study found that weight gain was a problem specifically to females. However, this prison system appears to be providing effective chronic disease management...

Effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals.

Griffin, M. M.; Ryan, J. G.; Briscoe, V. S.; Shadle, K. M.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1996 EN
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a critical problem among the incarcerated population, with rates as high as 17% being reported for prison systems in New York. The literature suggests that stressful living conditions and inherent defects in the immune system associated with HIV infection make prison populations more susceptible to a disproportionate decrease in their CD4 counts. To determine the effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals, the charts of 800 inmates were reviewed. Baseline (draw 1), 2- to 5-month (draw 2), and 6- to 12-month (draw 3) CD4 cell counts were obtained. Mean cell counts were calculated, and paired t-tests were used to identify differences. The group receiving antiretrovirals throughout showed no difference in mean CD4 cell count between draws 1 and 2 or between draws 1 and 3. The group not receiving HIV medications did not show a significant difference in CD4 cell counts between draws 1 and 2, but did show a significant difference between draws 1 and 3. For this group, the rate of decline in CD4 cells was greater than among an outpatient setting. The subsample of subjects initiating therapy prior to the second blood draw showed a significant increase in mean CD4 cell counts at draw 1 versus draw 2...

Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals.

Stephenson, Becky L.; Wohl, David A.; Golin, Carol E.; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Stewart, Paul; Kaplan, Andrew H.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of release from prison and subsequent re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Fifteen re-incarcerated HIV-infected prisoners on HAART were identified from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected prison inmates released from January 1, 1997, to August 31, 1999. The re-incarcerated prisoners were matched (1:2) to 30 HIV-infected incarcerated prisoners on HAART who remained incarcerated during the re-incarcerated participants' release time period. The outcomes measured were plasma HIV RNA levels, CD4+ lymphocyte counts, percentage of re-incarcerated and incarcerated participants with plasma HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL, and the median change in plasma HIV RNA levels of the re-incarcerated and incarcerated participants at the end of the study. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study, 8/15 re-incarcerated participants had plasma HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL, compared with 15/30 incarcerated participants. At the end of the study, only three of those eight re-incarcerated participants had plasma HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL, compared with 14/15 incarcerated participants (p=0.0086). The median change in plasma HIV RNA levels of the re-incarcerated participants was 1.29 log10 copies/mL (interquartile range 0.04 to 1.70)...