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Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Isolates in Urban Detroit▿

Chua, Thea; Moore, Carol L.; Perri, Mary B.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Masch, William; Vager, Dora; Davis, Susan L.; Lulek, Kaitlin; Zimnicki, Benjamin; Zervos, Marcus J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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To gain a better understanding of epidemiology of resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, we describe the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates in urban Detroit. Bloodstream isolates from July 2005 to February 2007 were characterized. Two hundred ten bloodstream isolates from 201 patients were evaluated. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age, 54 years; 56% male; and 71% African-American. Seventy-six percent of infections were health care associated, with 55% being community-onset infections and 21% hospital acquired, and 24% were community associated. The most common sources were skin/wound (25%), central venous catheters (24%), unknown source (20%), and endocarditis (9%). Ninety percent and 5% of isolates had a MIC of vancomycin of ≤1.0 mg/liter, using automated dilution testing and E-test, respectively. Six percent of isolates showed heteroresistance to vancomycin, all occurring with isolates having a vancomycin E-test MIC of ≥1.5 mg/liter. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed 17 strain types. The predominant strains were USA100 (104 isolates) and USA300 (74 isolates). Forty-nine percent of the isolates had staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec II...

Illicit drugs and the rise of epidemiology during the 1960s

Mold, Alex
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2007 EN
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Epidemiology has been crucial to the understanding of both tobacco smoking and illicit drug taking as public health issues in Britain since the 1960s. There were, however, siginificant differences in the way in which epidemiology was used between the two psychoactive substances.

One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana

Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/12/2011 EN
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The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians...

Epidemiology of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis: a Case-Case-Control Study

Hayakawa, Kayoko; Marchaim, Dror; Palla, Mohan; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Alshabani, Khaled; Govindavarjhulla, Aditya; Mallad, Ashwini; Abbadi, Deepika Reddy; Chowdary, Deepti; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Guddati, Harish; Das, Manoj; Ka
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
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Although much is known about vancomycin-resistant (VR) Enterococcus faecium, little is known about the epidemiology of VR Enterococcus faecalis. The predilection of VR E. faecalis to transfer the vancomycin resistance determinant to Staphylococcus aureus is much greater than that of VR E. faecium. The epidemiology of VR E. faecalis has important implications regarding the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA); 8 of 13 reported VRSA cases have been from Michigan. A retrospective case-case-control study was conducted at the Detroit Medical Center, located in southeastern Michigan. Unique patients with VR E. faecalis infection were matched to patients with strains of vancomycin-susceptible (VS) E. faecalis and to uninfected controls at a 1:1:1 ratio. Five hundred thirty-two VR E. faecalis cases were identified and were matched to 532 VS E. faecalis cases and 532 uninfected controls. The overall mean age of the study cohort (n = 1,596) was 63.0 ± 17.4 years, and 747 (46.8%) individuals were male. Independent predictors for the isolation of VR E. faecalis (but not VS E. faecalis) compared to uninfected controls were an age of ≥65 years, nonhome residence, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, exposure to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in the prior 3 months...

Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Taiwan

Huang, Chia-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2014 EN
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Our multicenter nationwide surveillance data indicated that erythromycin (ERY) resistance among group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates in Taiwan declined from 53.1% in 1998 and 2000 to 14.6% in 2002 and 2004 and 10.7% in 2006 to 2010 (P < 0.01). The present study aimed to assess the epidemiology of GAS in Taiwan and identify factors associated with ERY resistance. All 127 ERY-resistant (ERYr) isolates and 128 randomly selected ERY-susceptible (ERYs) isolates recovered from 1998 to 2010 were emm typed. ERYr isolates were also characterized by ERY resistance phenotype and mechanisms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Multilocus sequence typing was performed on selected ERYr isolates. The predominant emm types in ERYr isolates were emm22 (n = 33, 26.0%), emm12 (n = 24, 18.9%), emm4 (n = 21, 16.5%), and emm106 (n = 15, 11.8%). In ERYs isolates, emm12 (n = 27, 21.9%), emm1 (n = 18, 14.1%), emm106 (n = 16, 12.5%), and emm11 (n = 9, 7.1%) predominated. The most common ERY resistance phenotype was the M phenotype (resistant to macrolides) (70.9%), with all but one isolate carrying mef(A), followed by the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (cMLSB) phenotype (26.8%), with isolates carrying erm(B) or erm(TR). ERYr isolates of the emm12-sequence type 36 (ST36) lineage with the cMLSB phenotype were mostly present before 2004...

Comparison of Local Features from Two Spanish Hospitals Reveals Common and Specific Traits at Multiple Levels of the Molecular Epidemiology of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas spp.

Viedma, Esther; Estepa, Vanesa; Juan, Carlos; Castillo-Vera, Jane; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Seral, Cristina; Castillo, Francisco Javier; Sáenz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
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Twenty-seven well-characterized metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas strains from two distantly located hospitals were analyzed. The results revealed specific features defining the multilevel epidemiology of strains from each hospital in terms of species, clonality, predominance of high-risk clones, composition/diversity of integrons, and linkages of Tn402-related structures. Therefore, despite the global trends driving the epidemiology of MBL-producing Pseudomonas spp., the presence of local features has to be considered in order to understand this threat and implement proper control strategies.

Towards control of avian influenza H5N1 virus in Indonesia: Human infection, and the role of live bird markets.

Samaan, Gina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
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Indonesia has been heavily affected by the emerging avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus, with continued outbreaks in farmed birds and periodic detection of human cases. The epidemiology of human AI H5N1 infection in Indonesia is poorly understood, and control measures at the animal-human interface such as in live bird markets (LBMs) have had limited impact. This thesis had two aims: (a) to examine the epidemiology of human AI H5N1 infection and, (b) to inform disease control measures in LBMs in Indonesia. Methods: For the first aim, public health surveillance data from June 2005 till July 2009 were analyzed to assess exposures and risk factors for infection, case clustering and disease transmission patterns in outbreak households. For the second aim, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess environmental contamination in LBMs and to identify risk factors and critical control points. A non-experimental field intervention trial was conducted to assess the practical application of implementing interventions in two LBMs. Results: Multivariable analyses showed that age and type of exposure to virus impact the risk of H5N1 infection and case clustering. First degree relatives to an index case, especially siblings were at most risk of becoming secondary cases in a household. The overall attack rate in households was 18.3% and the secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable with household size. The disease transmission models found that the majority of cases resulted from zoonotic transmission of the virus...

Classification, epidemiology and clinical subgrouping of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis

Watts, Richard A.; Mahr, Alfred; Mohammad, Aladdin J.; Gatenby, Paul; Basu, Neil; Flores-Suárez, Luis Felipe
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 9 pages
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It is now 25 years since the first European studies on vasculitis--the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) standardization project. Over that period of time, there have been major developments in the classification of the vasculitides, which has permitted the conduct of high-quality epidemiology studies. Studying the epidemiology of rare diseases such as the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) poses considerable challenges to epidemiologists. The first is the need for a clear definition of a case with good differentiation from similar disorders. The second is case capture. The vasculitides are rare, and therefore, a large population is required to determine the incidence and prevalence, and this poses questions of feasibility. A large population increases the risk of incomplete case detection but permits a reasonable number of cases to be collected in a practicable time frame, whereas a smaller population requires a much longer time frame to collect the necessary cases, which may also not be feasible. Statistical methods of capture-recapture analysis enable estimates to be made of the number of missing cases. The third is case ascertainment. The AAV are virtually always managed in secondary care, and therefore, hospital-based case ascertainment may be appropriate. Fourthly...

The contribution of epidemiology to the study of traumatic stress

McFarlane, A.
Fonte: Dr Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag Publicador: Dr Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a controversial construct because of the complex set of factors that have been hypothesized to influence its onset and prevalence, such as compensation and withdrawal from combat duty. Epidemiology has done much to objectively clarify these controversies in the study of stratified population samples. The symptoms characterizing PTSD have been repeatedly described in large population samples where compensation is not a confounding issue and this has done much to support the validity of the construct. Epidemiology has also highlighted that the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events is far greater than was previously estimated. Emphasizing the importance of these events is accounting for the major burden of disease. Kessler (2000) has suggested the socio-economic effects of PTSD represent a burden of disease not dissimilar to that associated with depression. Traumatic events provide a unique opportunity to implement a preventative and public health approach to the management of psychiatric morbidity. Of particular importance is the apparent longevity of the influence that these events have on psychological adjustment.; Alexander McFarlane; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Molecular epidemiology: assumptions and limitations of commonly applied methods.

Monis, P.; Andrews, R.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
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An understanding of the epidemiology of a disease (i.e. its aetiology, transmission patterns) is crucial for the development and implementation of effective management practices. This requires sound epidemiological data. It is therefore important that scientists understand the assumptions and limitations of the methods used to gather such data. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the assumptions and limitations of PCR-based methods used in studies of epidemiology. Since its development, PCR has had a major impact in the biological sciences. The ability to selectively amplify a specific region of the genome from a small amount of DNA makes this technique particularly useful as a diagnostic tool. A variety of PCR-based methods are available which can be used to identify strains and species of parasites. Some of these methods, such as random amplification of polymorphic DNA, have intrinsic properties which can limit their application. Other methods, such as PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, require the availability of a sound taxonomic or genetic framework for the development of any diagnostic system for a particular organism. The problems encountered developing diagnostic probes in the absence of such a framework will be discussed using Giardia intestinalis as an example.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00207519; Copyright © 1998 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

The epidemiology workforce: are we planning for the future?

Rumbold, A.R.; Bennett, C.M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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Epidemiology has a central role in public health practice, education and research, and is arguably the only discipline unique to public health. A strong perception exists among epidemiologists in Australia that there is a substantial shortage in epidemiological capacity within the health workforce and health research, and that there are few graduates with sufficient high-level epidemiological training to fill the educational and leadership roles that will be essential to building this capacity. It was this concern that led the Australasian Epidemiological Association (AEA)--the peak professional body for epidemiologists in Australia and New Zealand--to convene a working group in 2007 to assess and address these concerns. This article summarises the key training challenges and opportunities discussed within this group, and the larger organisation, with the intention of stimulating greater public debate of these issues.; Alice R Rumbold, Catherine M Bennett, the Australasian Epidemiological Association Epidemiology Workforce Working Group

Aprendizaje integrado de epidemiología y bioestadística en el Grado en Medicina: valoración de los estudiantes; Integrated learning of epidemiology and biostatistics in Medicine Degree : student assesment

Rubio Alonso, Margarita; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; Mohedano del Pozo, Rosa
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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Los objetivos fueron conocer la valoración de los alumnos de 2º de Medicina sobre la integración Epidemiología-Bioestadística y comparar su percepción a comienzo y final de curso. Se elaboraron dos cuestionarios con afirmaciones que los alumnos valoraron mediante una escala tipo Likert. Participaron 102 estudiantes. Para comparar los resultados a principio y final de curso se utilizó la prueba de rangos con signo de Wilcoxon. El 83% creía al finalizar el curso que comprendían la importancia de Epidemiología-Bioestadística en Medicina y les parecía interesante estudiarlas de forma integrada. Al inicio de curso, un 46,1% pensaba que la asignatura iba a ser interesante y al final este porcentaje fue 69,6%. Al inicio, el 69,6% veía la relación entre la Medicina y la Estadística y al final, el 83,3%. El 41% creía al inicio que iban a adquirir competencias fundamentales para el desempeño profesional y al final lo creía el 57,8%.; The aim of this study was to analyze how medical second-year students assessed the integration of Epidemiology and Biostatistics in a course, and to compare students´ perceptions at the onset and at the end of the academic year. Two questionnaires were administered to 102 medical students in order to explore the extent to which they agreed/disagreed with a number of statements using a Likert scale. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare results. Upon completion of the course...

The dermal leishmaniases of Brazil, with special reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Amazonia

Lainson,R.; Shaw,J. J.; Silveira,F. T.; Souza,A. A. A. de; Braga,R. R.; Ishikawa,E. A. Y.
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1994 EN
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Six species of Leishmania are at present known to cause cutaneous and/or mucocutaneous leishamniasis in Brazil, and they are all to be found in the Amazon region of this country. The eco-epidemiology of each is discussed, with the observation that the Amazonian leishmaniases are all zoonoses, with their source in silvatic mammals and phlebotomine sandfly vectors. With man's destruction of the natural forest in southern Brazil, some sandfly species have survived by adapting to a peridomestic or domiciliary habitat in rural areas. Some domestic animals, such as dogs and equines are seemingly now involved in the epidemiology of the disease. No such process has yet been reported in the Amazon region, but may well take place with the continuing devastation of its forest.

Welcome to Epidemiology and Health

Choi, Bo Youl
Fonte: Korean Society of Epidemiology Publicador: Korean Society of Epidemiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2009 EN
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The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.

Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects

Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davi
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/10/2011 EN
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As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a strategy to develop a locally trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems.

Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture

Béhague,Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves,Helen; Victora,Cesar Gomes
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
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Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline's main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of "multidisciplinarity," to the adoption of theoretically imbued "interdisciplinarity." The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other.

Apocalypse... Now? Molecular epidemiology, predictive genetic tests, and social communication of genetic contents

Castiel,Luis David
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1999 EN
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The author analyzes the underlying theoretical aspects in the construction of the molecular watershed of epidemiology and the concept of genetic risk, focusing on issues raised by contemporary reality: new technologies, globalization, proliferation of communications strategies, and the dilution of identity matrices. He discusses problems pertaining to the establishment of such new interdisciplinary fields as molecular epidemiology and molecular genetics. Finally, he analyzes the repercussions of the social communication of genetic content, especially as related to predictive genetic tests and cloning of animals, based on triumphal, deterministic metaphors sustaining beliefs relating to the existence and supremacy of concepts such as 'purity', 'essence', and 'unification' of rational, integrated 'I's/egos'.

Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization: epidemiology and clinical implications

Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Marquess, John; Yakob, Laith; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L; Foster, Niki F; Huber, Charlotte A; Clements, Archie C A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
EN
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BACKGROUND The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past decades with the emergence of highly virulent strains. The role of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization as part of the clinical spectrum of CDI is complex because many risk factors are common to both disease and asymptomatic states. In this article, we review the role of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization in the progression to symptomatic CDI, describe the epidemiology of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, assess the effectiveness of screening and intensive infection control practices for patients at risk of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, and discuss the implications for clinical practice. METHODS A narrative review was performed in PubMed for articles published from January 1980 to February 2015 using search terms ‘Clostridium difficile’ and ‘colonization’ or ‘colonisation’ or ‘carriage’. RESULTS There is no clear definition for asymptomatic CDI and the terms carriage and colonization are often used interchangeably. The prevalence of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization varies depending on a number of host, pathogen, and environmental factors; current estimates of asymptomatic colonization may be underestimated as stool culture is not practical in a clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS Asymptomatic C. difficile colonization presents challenging concepts in the overall picture of this disease and its management. Individuals who are colonized by the organism may acquire protection from progression to disease...

Explorando as múltiplas trajetórias de causalidade: colaboração entre antropologia e epidemiologia na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS; Explorando las múltiples trayectorias de causalidad: colaboración entre antropología y epidemiología en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil; Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 POR; ENG
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OBJETIVO: Embora a relação entre Epidemiologia e Antropologia tenha uma longa história, geralmente, ela tem sido compreendida por meio da integração dos métodos quantitativos e qualitativos em pesquisa. Recentemente, esses dois campos têm convergido para linhas conceituais e teóricas, enfatizando mais a explicação do que a simples descrição dos fenômenos investigados. O objetivo do estudo foi mostrar como a análise de dados etnográficos auxilia na interpretação aprofundada e teórica de dados epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: As análises antropológicas do artigo foram obtidas usando métodos etnográficos, de 1997 a 2007, de uma amostra pertencente ao estudo de coorte de nascimento de 1982 em Pelotas (RS). As análises etnográficas foram estruturadas de acordo com os resultados de dois artigos epidemiológicos sobre os determinantes de morbidade mental e da idade de iniciação sexual. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: As análises etnográficas indicam diversos caminhos de influência e causalidade presentes nas associações estatísticas e que correspondem a experiências únicas de grupos específicos. Explorando esses caminhos, observaram-se vários fatores importantes que ajudam a explicar os resultados epidemiológicos...

A epidemiologia para o enfermeiro; La epidemiología para el enfermero; Epidemiology for nurses

Gomes, Daisy Leslie Steagall
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1994 POR
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Este trabalho destaca o uso da epidemiologia pelo enfermeiro com um instrumento indispensável à prestação de serviços de assistência à saúde e sua aplicação na prática profissional. Evidencia igualmente que a disciplina oferece subsídios importantes para o planejamento, administração, execução e avaliação da prestação de serviços à saúde, sendo ainda um instrumento extremamente útil na investigação, o que a torna obrigatória na formação desse profissional.; Este trabajo resalta la utilización de la epidemiología por el enfermero como un instrumento indispensable a la prestación de servicios de asistencia a la salud u su aplicación en la práctica profesional. Evidencia similarmente que la disciplina ofrece subsídios importantes para el planeamiento, administración, ejecución y avaluación de la prestación de servicios a la salud, siendo todavía un procedimiento extremamente útil en la investigación, lo que torna obligatória en la formación de esse profesional.; The subject of this paper emphasizes the uses of Epidemiology to nurses like an essential tool to afford health service assistance and his application in practice. Equally it evidences that epidemiology offers important support to the planning...