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Vitamin K prophylaxis in less developed countries: policy issues and relevance to breastfeeding promotion.

Victora, C G; Van Haecke, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 EN
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Vitamin K prophylaxis prevents hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. The present review estimates the potential magnitude of this problem in less developed countries, assessing the need for prophylaxis, along with its cost-effectiveness and feasibility. Late hemorrhagic disease, occurring between 2 and 12 weeks, often leads to death or permanent disability. Its median incidence in developed countries is 7 per 100,000 births. Incidences in less developed countries may be much higher. Three incidence scenarios are proposed and the corresponding losses of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) calculated. Under the intermediate scenario, late hemorrhagic disease accounts for 0.1% to 0.2% of DALYs lost to children less than 5 years of age. Assuming a cost of +1.00 per injection, each DALY saved would cost +133. Decisions on prophylaxis must be made on a national basis, considering mortality levels and causes, health budgets, and feasibility. Comparison with the impact of diseases prevented by breast-feeding shows that concern with hemorrhagic disease should not affect breast-feeding promotion efforts, although strategies for supplementing breast-fed infants must be explored.

Measles control in developing and developed countries: the case for a two-dose policy.

Tulchinsky, T. H.; Ginsberg, G. M.; Abed, Y.; Angeles, M. T.; Akukwe, C.; Bonn, J.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 EN
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45.96%
Despite major reductions in the incidence of measles and its complications, measles control with a single dose of the currently used. Schwarz strain vaccine has failed to eradicate the disease in the developed countries. In developing countries an enormous toll of measles deaths and disability continues, despite considerable efforts and increasing immunization coverage. Empirical evidence from a number of countries suggests that a two-dose measles vaccination programme, by improving individual protection and heard immunity can make a major contribution to measles control and elimination of local circulation of the disease. Cost-benefit analysis also supports the two-dose schedule in terms of savings in health costs, and total costs to society. A two-dose measles vaccination programme is therefore an essential component of preventive health care in developing, as well as developed countries for the 1990s.

Traffic-related mortality in industrialized and less developed countries.

Söderlund, N.; Zwi, A. B.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
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Road traffic-related mortality has traditionally been regarded as a problem primarily of industrialized countries. There is, however, growing evidence of a strong negative relationship between economic development and exposure-adjusted traffic-related death rates. Cross-sectional data on road traffic-related deaths in 1990 were obtained from 83 countries. The relationship between such mortality and a number of independent variables was examined at the individual country level by means of multiple regression techniques. These were also used to elucidate factors associated with variations in age, sex, and case-fatality patterns of road traffic mortality. Countries were grouped according to region and socioeconomic features, and the mortality data were summarized by these groups. The gross national product per capita was positively correlated with traffic-related mortality/100,000 population/year (P = 0.01), but negatively correlated with traffic deaths/1000 registered vehicles (P < 0.0001). Increasing population density was associated with a proportionately greater number of traffic-related deaths in the young and the elderly (P = 0.036). Increasing GNP per capita and increased proportional spending on health care were associated with decreasing case-fatality rates among traffic-accident victims (P = 0.02 and 0.017...

Modeling rotavirus strain dynamics in developed countries to understand the potential impact of vaccination on genotype distributions

Pitzer, Virginia E.; Patel, Manish M.; Lopman, Ben A.; Viboud, Cécile; Parashar, Umesh D.; Grenfell, Bryan T.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Understanding how immunity shapes the dynamics of multistrain pathogens is essential in determining the selective pressures imposed by vaccines. There is currently much interest in elucidating the strain dynamics of rotavirus to determine whether vaccination may lead to the replacement of vaccine-type strains. In developed countries, G1P[8] strains constitute the majority of rotavirus infections most years, but occasionally other genotypes dominate for reasons that are not well understood. We developed a mathematical model to examine the interaction of five common rotavirus genotypes. We explored a range of estimates for the relative strength of homotypic vs. heterotypic immunity and compared model predictions against observed genotype patterns from six countries. We then incorporated vaccination in the model to examine its impact on rotavirus incidence and the distribution of strains. Our model can explain the coexistence and cyclical pattern in the distribution of genotypes observed in most developed countries. The predicted frequency of cycling depends on the relative strength of homotypic vs. heterotypic immunity. Vaccination that provides strong protection against G1 and weaker protection against other strains will likely lead to an increase in the relative prevalence of non-G1 strains...

Trade and Economic Growth : Evidence on the Role of Complementarities for CAFTA-DR Countries

Calderón, César; Poggioa, Virginia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper examines the effects of trade on growth among Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement countries. To accomplish this task, the authors collected a panel data set of 136 countries over 1960-2010, and estimated cross-country growth regressions using an econometric methodology that accounts for unobserved effects and the likely endogeneity of the growth determinants. Following recent empirical efforts, they tested whether the impact of trade openness on growth may be more effective after surpassing a "minimum threshold" in specific areas closely related to economic development. The analysis finds not only that there is a robust causal link from trade to growth, but also that the growth benefits from trade are larger in countries with higher levels of education and innovation, deeper financial markets, a stronger institutional framework, more developed infrastructure networks, a high level of integration with world capital markets, and less stringent economic regulations. On average...

Export Surges : The Power of a Competitive Currency

Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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How can countries stimulate and sustain strong export growth? To answer this question, the authors examine 92 episodes of export surges, defined as significant increases in manufacturing export growth that are sustained for at least seven years. They find that export surges in developing countries tend to be preceded by a large real depreciation-which leaves the exchange rate significantly undervalued-and a reduction in exchange rate volatility. In contrast, in developed countries, the role of the exchange rate is less pronounced. The authors examine why the exchange rate is so important in developing countries and find that the depreciation leads to a significant reallocation of resources in the export sector. In particular, depreciation generates more entries into new export products and new markets, and the percentage of new entries that fail after one year declines. These new products and new markets are important, accounting for 25 percent of export growth during the surge in developing countries. The authors argue that maintaining a competitive currency leads firms to expand the product and market space for exports...

Exporter Dynamics Database

Cebeci, Tolga; Fernandes, Ana M.; Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
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This paper introduces the Exporter Dynamics Database. The database includes exporter characteristics and measures of exporter growth based on firm-level customs information from 38 developing and seven developed countries, primarily for the period between 2003 and 2010. The measures are available at different levels of aggregation, including: a) country-year, b) country-year-product, and c) country-year-destination. Several new stylized facts about exporter behavior across countries emerge from the database. (i) Larger or more developed economies have more exporters, larger and more diversified exporters, and lower entry and exit rates than smaller or developing economies. (ii) In the short run, expansions along the intensive margin (exporter size) contribute more to export growth than expansions along the extensive margin (number of exporters). (iii) Exit rates are highly correlated with entry rates and both are negatively correlated with survival rates, average exporter size, and diversification. (iv) The number of exporters and the entry and exit rates in a country-product group are partially driven by country and product-group effects; however...

Trade Costs in the Developing World : 1995 - 2010

Arvis, Jean-François; Duval, Yann; Shepherd, Ben; Utoktham, Chorthip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The authors use newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. The data show that trade costs are strongly declining in per capita income. Moreover, the rate of change of trade costs is largely unfavorable to the developing world: trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, which serves to increase the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low-income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs. In terms of policy implications, the analysis finds that maritime transport connectivity and logistics performance are very important determinants of bilateral trade costs: in some specifications, their combined effect is comparable to that of geographical distance. Traditional and non-traditional trade policies more generally, including market entry barriers and regional integration agreements, play a significant role in shaping the trade costs landscape.

Greening Global Value Chains : Innovation and the International Diffusion of Technologies and knowledge

Glachant, Matthieu; Dussaux, Damien; Ménière, Yann; Dechezleprêtre, Antoine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Using novel data on patents, trade of equipment goods, and foreign direct investments and insights from the economic literature, the paper seeks to lay out the state of knowledge on the role of innovation and the diffusion of technologies in the greening of global value chains as well as some of the main policy issues. A special emphasis is put on developing countries -- distinguishing emerging economies and least-developed countries -- and on climate-mitigation technologies. Emerging economies are already reasonably well integrated in the global economy. As a consequence, technologies flow in through the imports of capital goods and local investments by multinational enterprises owning technologies. Pushing further technology transfer requires strengthening intellectual property rights, lowering barriers to trade and investments and improving technological absorptive capacities. In contrast, their role in innovation is limited. Standard tools of innovation policy - public research and development, public support to private research and development...

All-cause 30-day postoperative mortality for older patients in developed countries presenting for elective colorectal surgery: a systematic review protocol

Sutherland, J.; Roberston-Malt, S.; Stern, C.J.
Fonte: The Joanna Briggs Institute and The University of Adelaide Publicador: The Joanna Briggs Institute and The University of Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Review question/objective: The objective of this review is to provide an estimate of the prevalence of all-cause 30-day postoperative mortality for older patients in developed countries presenting for elective colorectal surgery. Inclusion criteria: As this review will report on the prevalence of mortality as an adverse outcome of a surgical intervention, the format does not conform to the standard PICO/PIO question. Types of participants: This review will consider studies that include patients aged 65 years and over from developed countries, presenting for elective colorectal surgical resection. For the purposes of this review, developed countries will include only counties with a very high Human Development Index25. Studies including patients from countries without a very high HDI will be excluded. Patients having colorectal resection with or without anastomosis (joining of the ends of resected bowel) will be included. Patients having exploratory or diverting procedures (for example, patients who at surgery are found to have widespread disease which is unsuitable for operation) will be excluded from this review. Types of outcomes: This review will consider studies that include the following outcome measures: rates of 30-day all-cause postoperative mortality (that is...

All-cause 30-day postoperative mortality for older patients in highly developed countries having elective colorectal surgery: a systematic review

Sutherland, J.; Robertson-Malt, S.; Stern, C.J.; Engel, A.
Fonte: The Joanna Briggs Institute and The University of Adelaide Publicador: The Joanna Briggs Institute and The University of Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Background: Death after surgery is an acknowledged outcome reflecting the safety of a procedure. Death rates after surgery are not often routinely collected, therefore mortality rates can be difficult to quantify. Colorectal surgery is increasingly offered to older patients. The likelihood of postoperative adverse outcomes (including death) may impact decision-making at individual, institutional or health care system levels. Objectives: The objective of this review was to provide an estimate of the prevalence of all-cause 30-day postoperative mortality for older patients in highly developed countries undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Inclusion criteria: Types of participants: This review considered studies and reports that included patients aged 65 years and over from highly developed countries undergoing elective colorectal surgical resection. Only studies from countries with a very high Human Development Index were included. Types of interventions: Studies and reports including patients having colorectal resection with or without anastamosis were included. Types of studies: This review considered experimental, analytical and descriptive epidemiological study designs, including randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies...

Exporter Behavior, Country Size and Stage of Development; Evidence from the Exporter Dynamics Database

Fernandes, Ana M.; Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper presents new data on the micro structure of the export sector for 45 countries and studies how exporter behavior varies with country size and stage of development. Larger countries and more developed countries have more exporters, larger exporters, and a greater share of exports controlled by the top 5 percent. The extensive margin (more firms) plays a greater role than the intensive margin (average size) in supporting exports of larger countries. In contrast, the intensive margin is relatively more important in explaining the exports of richer countries. Exporter entry and exit rates are higher and entrant survival is lower at an early stage of development. The paper discusses the results in light of trade theories with heterogeneous firms and the empirical literature on resource allocation, firm size, and development. An implication from the findings is that developing countries export less because the top of the firm-size distribution is truncated.

A strategic management framework for eye care service delivery organisations in developing countries.

Herring, Mathew
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2170545 bytes; 61830 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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Blindness is one of the most debilitating health disorders and avoidable blindness is a major international health problem. The World Health Organization has estimated that globally, there are 45 million persons who are blind - a figure that is expected to increase to approximately 76 million by the year 2020. Approximately 80% of blindness is avoidable and can be prevented or cured with appropriate service delivery efforts. Research suggests that the combined annual global GDP loss from blindness in 2000 was more than $40 billion. Yet blindness has received relatively little attention in worldwide efforts to promote health and it is not at present a high health priority in many countries. Consequently, unless there are alternative and more efficient and extended endeavours to address this situation and model an approach that will provide a long-term solution, avoidable blindness will continue. In recent years, eye care service delivery organisations have assumed a greater level of responsibility for addressing the problem of avoidable blindness. A number of successful approaches have been designed and implemented to expand the delivery of eye care services. The approaches have focused on the development of organisational capacity and on sustainability...

The Political Economy of Fiscal Policy and Economic Management in Oil Exporting Countries

Eifert, Benn; Gelb, Alan; Borje Tallroth, Nils
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Despite massive oil rent incomes since the early 1970s, the economic performance of oil-exporting countries-with notable exceptions-is poor. While there is extensive literature on the management of oil resources, analysis of the underlying political determinants of this poor performance is more sparse. Drawing on concepts from the comparative institutionalist tradition in political science, the authors develop a generalized typology of political states that is used in analyzing the political economy of fiscal and economic management in oil-exporting countries with widely differing political systems. In assessing performance, the authors focus on issues of long-term savings, economic stabilization, and efficient use of oil rents. The comparisons of country experiences suggest that countries with strong, mature, democratic traditions have advantages in managing oil rents well because of their ability to reach consensus, their educated and informed electorates, and a high level of transparency that facilitates clear decisions on how to use rents over a long horizon. Yet even these systems...

Stress-Testing Africa's Recent Growth and Poverty Performance

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Go, Delfin S.; Maliszewska, Maryla; Osorio-Rodarte, Israel; Timmer, Hans
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
After an impressive acceleration in growth and poverty reduction since the mid-1990s, many African countries continue to register robust growth in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Will this growth persist, given the tepid recovery in developed countries, numerous weather shocks, and civil conflicts in Africa? This paper "stress tests" African economies. The findings indicate that Africa's long-term growth is fairly impervious to a prolonged recession in high-income countries. Growth is, however, much more sensitive to a disruption of capital flows to the region, and to internal shocks, such as civil conflict and drought, even if the latter follow historical patterns. The broad policy implication is that with proper domestic production conditions African countries can sustain robust long-term growth. Because of the economic dominance of the agriculture sector and the share of food in household budgets, countries will need to increase the resilience of agriculture and protect it from unfavorable climate change impacts...

Developing Countries, Dispute Settlement, and the Advisory Centre on WTO Law

Bown, Chad P.; McCulloch, Rachel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Critical appraisals of the current and potential benefits from developing country engagement in the World Trade Organization (WTO) focus mainly on the Doha Round of negotiations. This paper examines developing country participation in the WTO dispute settlement system to enforce foreign market access rights already negotiated in earlier multilateral rounds. The dispute data from 1995 through 2008 reveal three notable trends: developing countries sustained rate of self-enforcement actions despite declining use of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) by developed countries, developing countries increased use of the DSU to self-enforce their access to the markets of developing as well as developed country markets, and the prevalence of disputes targeting highly observable causes of lost foreign market access, such as antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. The paper also examines potential impacts of the Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL) into the WTO system in 2001. A close look at the data reveals evidence on at least three channels through which the ACWL may be enhancing developing countries' ability to self-enforce foreign market access: increased initiation of sole-complainant cases...

Economic growth means more road injuries in less developed countries, but fewer in those which are highly developed

Teik Hua, Law
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/10/2015 EN; EN
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Many studies have shown that there is a u-shaped relationship between road deaths and economic growth, with fatalities increasing and then decreasing as economic growth rises. In new research, Law Teik Hua finds that this relationship also holds for non-fatal road injuries in developed countries, but not in countries which are developing. He writes that an increasingly urban population, more road vehicles, and a greater number of elderly people were all likely to decrease the number of road injuries in developed countries, but do the opposite in developing countries.

Co-impacts of energy-related climate change mitigation in Africa’s least developed countries: the evidence base and research needs

Rowlands, Ian
Fonte: Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Publicador: Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2011 EN; EN
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This article analyses the debate associated with the co-impacts of climate change mitigation in developing countries, with a particular focus upon Africa’s least developed countries. While these countries’ emissions of greenhouse gases are relatively small (and they do not have emission limitation commitments in the current international regime), inattention to the mitigation agenda would mean that developing countries both miss potential funding opportunities and fail to ‘climate-proof’ their development strategies. A focus, therefore, upon the short-term, local, developmental impacts that serve to change the relative attractiveness of different mitigation options from the perspective of the developing country is in these countries’ current strategic interests. In this article, I examine three energy-related climate change mitigation options: improved cookstoves, carbon-free electricity and improved energy efficiency in industry. Following a conventional ‘climate analysis’ of each, the potential co-benefits and co-costs – drawn from the general literature and then investigated more specifically for the African countries under scrutiny – are identified. This examination reveals that relatively little work focusing explicitly...

COMPARISON OF CONTAINER HANDLING AND COSTS PORT AMONG EMERGING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; COMPARAÇÃO DA MOVIMENTAÇÃO DE CONTAINERS E CUSTOS PORTUÁRIOS ENTRE OS PAÍSES EMERGENTES E DESENVOLVIDOS

de Carvalho Sousa, Robert Ramon; de Nascimento, Alexandre Almeida; Campos, Nilo de Souza; Souza, João Gabriel de Moraes; Marques da Rocha, Carlos Henrique
Fonte: UFPB Publicador: UFPB
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2015 POR
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The article deals with the competitiveness of container handling in ports of the G7 and BRICS in terms of cost efficiency in port. Therefore, we analyzed the evolution of container handling and port costs between the period 2005 to 2011 by means of trend analysis, correlation and logistic regression. From these data and analytical tools analyzed the port competitiveness of countries comparing the group of emerging countries with the group of developed countries. The results indicated that emerging countries (BRICS) have an effect called diseconomies of scale, which results in increased cost due to an increase in the movement. Unlike the emerging group of the seven most developed countries (G7) showed a good ability to gain competitive advantages through economies of scale, a decrease of port costs by raising the volume of container handling.; O artigo trata da competitividade da movimentação de containers nos portos dos países do G7 e do BRIC em termos de eficiência no seu custo portuário. Para tanto, foram analisadas as evoluções da movimentação de container e dos custos portuários no período de 2005 a 2011 por meio de análise de tendência, correlação e pela regressão logística. A partir desses dados e do instrumental analítico analisou-se a competitividade portuária dos países...

Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda

Bryant,Leo; Carver,Louise; Butler,Colin D; Anage,Ababu
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2009 EN
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The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing "population control" programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change...