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Avaliação da posição condilar e disfunção temporomandibular em pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II submetidos à protrusão mandibular ortopédica; Evaluation of condylar position and temporomandibular dysfunction in Class II patients treated with mandibular orthopedic advancement

CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; FREITAS, Marcos Roberto de; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues
Fonte: Dental Press Editora Publicador: Dental Press Editora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.53%
OBJETIVO: avaliar a participação da protrusão mandibular ortopédica e da posição condilar na prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM). METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi composta por 60 indivíduos divididos em 3 grupos, sendo o grupo I correspondente a indivíduos não tratados; o grupo II composto por jovens em tratamento com o Bionator; e o grupo III por jovens já tratados com este aparelho. Os indivíduos da amostra responderam a um questionário relativo aos principais sintomas de DTM, permitindo a classificação dos mesmos de acordo com a presença e severidade dessas disfunções. Esses jovens também se submeteram à avaliação da movimentação mandibular, palpação dos músculos mastigatórios e inspeção de ruídos articulares. Radiografias transcranianas padronizadas das ATMs direita e esquerda foram realizadas, para obtenção do grau de concentricidade condilar. RESULTADOS: os testes ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis e qui-quadrado foram utilizados para análise dos dados. De acordo com os resultados do questionário anamnésico, 66,67% da amostra foram classificados com ausência de DTM; 30% com DTM leve e apenas 3,33% com DTM moderada, sem diferença entre os grupos estudados (p > 0,05). Quanto à concentricidade condilar...

Reduced Adipose Tissue Macrophage Content Is Associated With Improved Insulin Sensitivity in Thiazolidinedione-Treated Diabetic Humans

Koppaka, Sudha; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Carey, Michelle; Li, Weijie; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Lee, Do-Eun; Lee, Hanna; Chen, Julie; Carrasco, Emilce; Kishore, Preeti; Zhang, Kehao; Hawkins, Meredith
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration, and rodent studies suggest that inflammatory factors produced by ATMs contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, a relationship between ATM content and insulin resistance has not been clearly established in humans. Since thiazolidinediones attenuate adipose tissue inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity, we examined the temporal relationship of the effects of pioglitazone on these two parameters. The effect of 10 and 21 days of pioglitazone treatment on insulin sensitivity in 26 diabetic subjects was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Because chemoattractant factors, cytokines, and immune cells have been implicated in regulating the recruitment of ATMs, we studied their temporal relationship to changes in ATM content. Improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity was seen after 21 days of pioglitazone. We found early reductions in macrophage chemoattractant factors after only 10 days of pioglitazone, followed by a 69% reduction in ATM content at 21 days and reduced ATM activation at both time points. Although markers for dendritic cells and neutrophils were reduced at both time points, there were no significant changes in regulatory T cells. These results are consistent with an association between adipose macrophage content and systemic insulin resistance in humans.

In Vitro Testing of African Traditional Medicines for Cytotoxic, Immune Modulatory and Anti-HIV Activities

Gqaleni, Nceba; Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Parboosing, Raveen; Naidoo, Anneta
Fonte: African Networks on Ethnomedicines Publicador: African Networks on Ethnomedicines
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view supported by Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity, immune modulatory and anti-HIV activities of traditional multiple herbal preparations from local THPs. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene, Product Blue, SPNa and SDKc ATM were supplied by local THPs. Changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) & glutathione (GSH) over 24 hours were measured using luminometry. Changes in 12 cytokines were assayed using an ELISA-based absorbance assay. Protective effects against HIV killing of MT-4 cells were tested using the XTT assay and antiviral activity was measured using an HIV-1 viral load assay. Cyclosporine and AZT were used as positive controls. Ugambu, Ihashi, Product Nene and SDKc induced a dose dependent toxicity on treated PBMCs by reducing ATP and GSH at high doses (p< 0.001). These medicinal preparations, along with SPNa, showed immunomodulatory activity by significantly (p< 0.001) changing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Product Blue stimulated the levels of ATP and GSH in treated PBMCs at all doses however this product did not show any immunomodulatory activity on cytokine secretion when compared to control cells. Ugambu...

Adipose tissue macrophages promote myelopoiesis and monocytosis in obesity

Nagareddy, Prabhakara R.; Kraakman, Michael; Masters, Seth L.; Stirzaker, Roslynn A.; Gorman, Darren J.; Grant, Ryan W.; Dragoljevic, Dragana; Hong, Eun Shil; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Smyth, Susan S.; Choi, Sung Hee; Korner, Judith; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Fisher
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2014 EN
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Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue (AT), contributing to insulin resistance and diabetes. However, relatively little is known regarding the origin of AT macrophages (ATMs). We discovered that murine models of obesity have prominent monocytosis and neutrophilia, associated with proliferation and expansion of bone marrow (BM) myeloid progenitors. AT transplantation conferred myeloid progenitor proliferation in lean recipients, while weight loss in both mice and humans (via gastric bypass) was associated with a reversal of monocytosis and neutrophilia. Adipose S100A8/A9 induced ATM TLR4/MyD88 and NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β production. IL-1β interacted with the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) on BM myeloid progenitors to stimulate the production of monocytes and neutrophils. These studies uncover a positive feedback loop between ATMs and BM myeloid progenitors, and suggest that inhibition of TLR4 ligands or the NLRP3-IL-1β signaling axis could reduce AT inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.

Adipose tissue macrophages in the Development of Obesity-induced Inflammation, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Lee, Jongsoon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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It has been increasingly accepted that chronic subacute inflammation plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes in animals and humans. Particularly supporting this is that suppression of systemic inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes improves glycemic control; this also points to a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Recent studies strongly suggest that obesity-induced inflammation is mainly mediated by tissue resident immune cells, with particular attention being focused on adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). This review delineates the current progress made in understanding obesity-induced inflammation and the roles ATMs play in this process.

On the Method of Realistic Four-Body Systems

Nakaichi-Maeda, Shuji; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hajime
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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The ATMS method is applied to the 3α and the 4α systems under a phenomenological α-α potential. Very accurate wave functions are obtained which give an upper bound of -5.18MeV and a Temple lower bound of -5.3MeV for the ground state energy of the 3α system, and an upper bound of -11.1MeV and a Temple lower bound of -11.9MeV for the ground state energy of the 4α system. The Faddeev-Yakubovsky formalism is applied to these systems within the S-wave transition amplitudes of subsystems. The effect of including higher partial wave components of these transition amplitudes contributes to the binding energy by 1.05MeV in the 3α system and by 2.8MeV in the 4α system. It also moves the dips of the elastic charge form factor to larger momentum transfers and enhances the height significantly at large momentum transfers. This effect is enhanced and is not negligible, in the 4α system. In order to treat a wide region of few-body systems it is very practical to stand on the picture of ATMS.

O impacto das tecnologias da informa??o e comunica??o na localiza??o dos servi?os banc?rios e sua rela??o com a estrutura intraurbana da Regi?o Metropolitana de Bel?m

SOUZA, Rosa Maria Chaves da Cunha e
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Trata-se de uma pesquisa explorat?ria sobre a rela??o entre novas tecnologias da comunica??o e informa??o (TICs), servi?os banc?rios e estrutura intraurbana, mediante a an?lise das transforma??es observadas nesses servi?os nas tr?s ?ltimas d?cadas e na distribui??o espacial de seus canais de atendimento na Regi?o Metropolitana de Bel?m (RMB). A partir de an?lises conceituais sobre as novas TICs, s?o abordadas as rela??es que v?m sendo estabelecidas entre essas tecnologias e o espa?o urbano, situando os servi?os banc?rios no contexto das transforma??es por elas induzidas e analisando-as em rela??o ao Brasil. Entre os trabalhos que discutem a estrutura do espa?o urbano, n?o foram identificados estudos abordando especificamente os reflexos das TICs sobre esse espa?o; tampouco foram identificadas an?lises sobre o processo de estrutura??o intraurbana da RMB. Buscou-se apoio em teorias de localiza??o da firma banc?ria em espa?o intraurbano, busca que tamb?m resultou infrut?fera. Decidiu-se desenvolver uma pesquisa emp?rica a partir dos endere?os dos canais de atendimento em duas etapas: a que trata das ag?ncias no per?odo de 1980 a 2010 e a que abrange todos os canais de atendimento no ano de 2010. A an?lise dos mapas, gr?ficos e tabelas...

Freeway travel time estimation and prediction using dynamic neural networks

Shen, Luou
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Providing transportation system operators and travelers with accurate travel time information allows them to make more informed decisions, yielding benefits for individual travelers and for the entire transportation system. Most existing advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) use instantaneous travel time values estimated based on the current measurements, assuming that traffic conditions remain constant in the near future. For more effective applications, it has been proposed that ATIS and ATMS should use travel times predicted for short-term future conditions rather than instantaneous travel times measured or estimated for current conditions. ^ This dissertation research investigates short-term freeway travel time prediction using Dynamic Neural Networks (DNN) based on traffic detector data collected by radar traffic detectors installed along a freeway corridor. DNN comprises a class of neural networks that are particularly suitable for predicting variables like travel time, but has not been adequately investigated for this purpose. Before this investigation, it was necessary to identifying methods for data imputation to account for missing data usually encountered when collecting data using traffic detectors. It was also necessary to identify a method to estimate the travel time on the freeway corridor based on data collected using point traffic detectors. A new travel time estimation method referred to as the Piecewise Constant Acceleration Based (PCAB) method was developed and compared with other methods reported in the literatures. The results show that one of the simple travel time estimation methods (the average speed method) can work as well as the PCAB method...

Freeway Travel Time Estimation and Prediction Using Dynamic Neural Networks

Shen, Luou
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Providing transportation system operators and travelers with accurate travel time information allows them to make more informed decisions, yielding benefits for individual travelers and for the entire transportation system. Most existing advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) use instantaneous travel time values estimated based on the current measurements, assuming that traffic conditions remain constant in the near future. For more effective applications, it has been proposed that ATIS and ATMS should use travel times predicted for short-term future conditions rather than instantaneous travel times measured or estimated for current conditions. This dissertation research investigates short-term freeway travel time prediction using Dynamic Neural Networks (DNN) based on traffic detector data collected by radar traffic detectors installed along a freeway corridor. DNN comprises a class of neural networks that are particularly suitable for predicting variables like travel time, but has not been adequately investigated for this purpose. Before this investigation, it was necessary to identifying methods for data imputation to account for missing data usually encountered when collecting data using traffic detectors. It was also necessary to identify a method to estimate the travel time on the freeway corridor based on data collected using point traffic detectors. A new travel time estimation method referred to as the Piecewise Constant Acceleration Based (PCAB) method was developed and compared with other methods reported in the literatures. The results show that one of the simple travel time estimation methods (the average speed method) can work as well as the PCAB method...

Função mastigatória: proposta de protocolo de avaliação clínica; Masticatory function: a proposal of clinical evaluation

Whitaker, Melina Evangelista
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2005 PT
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Objetivo: Tendo em vista as divergências de informações quanto à avaliação da função mastigatória quanto aos aspectos investigados e a forma de avaliação dos mesmos, bem como a necessidade de padronização para fins de comparação, sentiu-se a necessidade de se elaborar uma proposta de avaliação clínica da função mastigatória. Material e Método: Foi elaborado um questionário e encaminhado via endereço eletrônico para fonoaudiólogos de vários locais do país. Este continha questões sobre a formação e atuação dos profissionais e informações sobre os aspectos investigados na história clínica da função mastigatória e na avaliação desta função quanto aos aspectos morfofuncionais investigados e forma de avaliação da mesma, além da verificação de outras funções orais. Foram respondidos e analisados 70 questionários, utilizados na elaboração da proposta de avaliação, além da análise da literatura e da experiência dos fonoaudiólogos do Laboratório de Fisiologia do HRAC/USP. Resultados: A partir das análises realizadas, um protocolo de avaliação da função mastigatória foi proposto, contemplando os seguintes aspectos: alimentos testados, quantidade do mesmo, preensão, movimento mandibular...

Avanço máxilo-mandibular e reposicionamento simultâneo dos discos articulares: avaliação tridimensional

Porciúncula, Guilherme Machado da
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 135 f. : il. color. + anexo
POR
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17.1%
Pós-graduação em Ciências Odontológicas - FOAR; This study assessed three-­‐dimensional displacements and adaptive morphological responses following maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) with or without simultaneous repositioning of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular discs. The sample was composed of CBCT files of cone-­‐beam computed tomography images from 32 subjects (23 females and 9 males) that were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=12) -­‐ subjects without disc displacement underwent MMA with no TMJ intervention; group 2 (n=20) – subjects with bilateral disc displacements underwent MMA with simultaneous TMJ articular disc repositioning. An automatic cranial base superimposition method was used to register the CBCT's files in three time points: T1 (pre-­‐surgery), T2 (immediate postoperative) and T3 (at least 11 months follow-­‐up). To assess surgical changes (T2-­‐T1) and adaptive responses (T3-­‐T2), the CBCT's files were compared using the shape correspondence (SPHARM-­‐PDM) quantitative method. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Student t test and Pearson correlation coeficient. We observed that surgical displacements (T2-­‐ T1) were similar in both groups for all the regions of interest...

Influência da terapia com laser de baixa potência e hialuronato de sódio de alto peso molecular na ATM de ratos, com artrite, após indução por CFA; Influence of therapy with low-level laser and hight molecular weight sodium hyaluronate in the TMJ of rats with induced arthritis by CFA

George Azevêdo Lemos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
A Disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) é uma expressão coletiva que engloba vários sinais e sintomas clínicos relacionados aos músculos da mastigação, articulações temporomandibulares (ATMs) e estruturas associadas. As principais queixas relatadas são ruídos e dor na região da ATM, com maior prevalência em adultos jovens, especialmente mulheres. A inflamação intra-articular é considerada uma das mais importantes fontes de dor nesta disfunção. O processo inflamatório pode se localizar na membrana sinovial, cápsula articular ou tecidos retrodiscais, e na presença de alterações degenerativas articulares recebe o nome de artrite. Assim, o laser de baixa potência (LBP) e o hialuronato de sódio de alto peso molecular (HSAPM) tem sido utilizados para o tratamento de distúrbios inflamatórios da ATM e, resultados clínicos promissores têm sido descritos. Estudos experimentais, sob a óptica da biologia celular e molecular, fazem-se necessários para melhor compreensão de seus respectivos efeitos biológicos e elaboração de protocolos clínicos seguros. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a ação morfológica e bioquímica da terapia com LBP e HSAPM sobre a artrite induzida na ATM. Utilizou-se 48 ratos machos...

Estudo histologico da interface de inserção dos musculos pterigoideos lateral superior e inferior no condilo e no disco da ATM humana

Casimiro Manoel Martins Filho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2000 PT
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Este estudo histológico analisou a inserção dos músculos pterigoideos lateral superior e inferior no côndilo e no disco da ATM humana, (articulação temporomandibular) através de microscopia ótica com técnica de coloração HE e tricrômio de Gomory, tendo como meta a interface dos músculos pterigoideos lateral superior e inferior em cortes lateromediais. O material consistiu de doze ATMs humanas de cadáveres. A análise das peças mostrou que, no terço mediano da região central do complexo côndilo-disco, o epimísio que separa os dois músculos não é visualizado em algumas ATMs, dificultando a definição do músculos pterigoideos lateral superior e inferior nessa região. O músculo pterigoideo lateral superior não apresenta inserção em disco articular na região lateral, sendo que inicia essa inserção apenas no terço mediano da região central. Também apresenta inserção através de tendão na fóvea mandibular a qual é bem evidenciada em todos os cortes, sendo que, com o desaparecimento do tecido ósseo, ainda pode-se observar esse tendão inserindo-se em tecido conjuntivo bastante abundante no terço medial da região medial. Também mantém inserção na porção inferior da fóvea, diretamente em periósteo...

Improving Assumption based Distributed Belief Revision

Malheiro, Benedita; Oliveira, Eugénio
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //1995 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Belief revision is a critical issue in real world DAI applications. A Multi-Agent System not only has to cope with the intrinsic incompleteness and the constant change of the available knowledge (as in the case of its stand alone counterparts), but also has to deal with possible conflicts between the agents’ perspectives. Each semi-autonomous agent, designed as a combination of a problem solver – assumption based truth maintenance system (ATMS), was enriched with improved capabilities: a distributed context management facility allowing the user to dynamically focus on the more pertinent contexts, and a distributed belief revision algorithm with two levels of consistency. This work contributions include: (i) a concise representation of the shared external facts; (ii) a simple and innovative methodology to achieve distributed context management; and (iii) a reduced inter-agent data exchange format. The different levels of consistency adopted were based on the relevance of the data under consideration: higher relevance data (detected inconsistencies) was granted global consistency while less relevant data (system facts) was assigned local consistency. These abilities are fully supported by the ATMS standard functionalities.

Estudo de prevalência de sintomas de distúrbios da articulação temporomandibular em estudantes de medicina da Universidade da Beira Interior

Costa, Maria Elisa Campos
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /05/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUÇÃO E OBJECTIVOS: Os Distúrbios Temporomandibulares (DTM) englobam todos os distúrbios funcionais do complexo crânio-cervico mandibular (CCCM) e têm elevada prevalência na população geral. A etiologia dos DTM é complexa e multifactorial, destacando-se as alterações na morfologia das superfícies articulares, os traumatismos, as alterações da oclusão, os factores psicossociais e emocionais e os factores sistémicos. As estruturas mais afectadas são os músculos, as articulações temporomandibulares (ATMs) e os dentes. Como sintomas mais comuns, assinalam-se o desgaste dentário, a mobilidade dos dentes, a dor nos músculos da mastigação, a dor na ATM, a limitação no movimento da mandíbula, os sons na ATM, a otalgia e a cefaleia. O objectivo principal deste trabalho é a determinação da prevalência de sintomas de DTM nos estudantes de Medicina da Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI). Pretende-se, ainda, verificar a existência de uma relação entre os DTM e o seu grau com as características sócio-demográficas da amostra. MÉTODOS: Este estudo populacional transversal consistiu na aplicação online de um questionário anónimo, que esteve disponível entre 15 de Setembro e 15 de Dezembro de 2009, constituído por duas secções: I. Dados sócio-demográficos; II. Questionário Fonseca et al. (1994)6. Os resultados foram analisados nos programas Microsoft Excel 2007® e SPSS® versao 17.0...

A Logical Interpretation of Dempster-Shafer Theory, with Application to Visual Recognition

Provan, Gregory M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We formulate Dempster Shafer Belief functions in terms of Propositional Logic using the implicit notion of provability underlying Dempster Shafer Theory. Given a set of propositional clauses, assigning weights to certain propositional literals enables the Belief functions to be explicitly computed using Network Reliability techniques. Also, the logical procedure corresponding to updating Belief functions using Dempster's Rule of Combination is shown. This analysis formalizes the implementation of Belief functions within an Assumption-based Truth Maintenance System (ATMS). We describe the extension of an ATMS-based visual recognition system, VICTORS, with this logical formulation of Dempster Shafer theory. Without Dempster Shafer theory, VICTORS computes all possible visual interpretations (i.e. all logical models) without determining the best interpretation(s). Incorporating Dempster Shafer theory enables optimal visual interpretations to be computed and a logical semantics to be maintained.; Comment: Appears in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI1989)

SFAMSS: a secure framework for atm machines via secret sharing

Ghafari, Zeinab; Arian, Taha; Analoui, Morteza
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/05/2015
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As ATM applications deploy for a banking system, the need to secure communications will become critical. However, multicast protocols do not fit the point-to-point model of most network security protocols which were designed with unicast communications in mind. In recent years, we have seen the emergence and the growing of ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) in banking systems. Many banks are extending their activity and increasing transactions by using ATMs. ATM will allow them to reach more customers in a cost effective way and to make their transactions fast and efficient. However, communicating in the network must satisfy integrity, privacy, confidentiality, authentication and non-repudiation. Many frameworks have been implemented to provide security in communication and transactions. In this paper, we analyze ATM communication protocol and propose a novel framework for ATM systems that allows entities communicate in a secure way without using a lot of storage. We describe the architecture and operation of SFAMSS in detail. Our framework is implemented with Java and the software architecture, and its components are studied in detailed.

Combining Symbolic and Numeric Approaches to Uncertainty Management

D'Ambrosio, Bruce
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A complete approach to reasoning under uncertainty requires support for incremental and interactive formulation and revision of, as well as reasoning with, models of the problem domain capable of representing our uncertainty. We present a hybrid reasoning scheme which combines symbolic and numeric methods for uncertainty management to provide efficient and effective support for each of these tasks. The hybrid is based on symbolic techniques adapted from Assumption-based Truth Maintenance systems (ATMS), combined with numeric methods adapted from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence, as extended in Baldwin's Support Logic Programming system. The hybridization is achieved by viewing an ATMS as a symbolic algebra system for uncertainty calculations. This technique has several major advantages over conventional methods for performing inference with numeric certainty estimates in addition to the ability to dynamically determine hypothesis spaces, including improved management of dependent and partially independent evidence, faster run-time evaluation of propositional certainties, the ability to query the certainty value of a proposition from multiple perspectives, and the ability to incrementally extend or revise domain models.; Comment: Appears in Proceedings of the Third Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI1987)

Chip and Skim: cloning EMV cards with the pre-play attack

Bond, Mike; Choudary, Omar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Skorobogatov, Sergei; Anderson, Ross
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2012
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EMV, also known as "Chip and PIN", is the leading system for card payments worldwide. It is used throughout Europe and much of Asia, and is starting to be introduced in North America too. Payment cards contain a chip so they can execute an authentication protocol. This protocol requires point-of-sale (POS) terminals or ATMs to generate a nonce, called the unpredictable number, for each transaction to ensure it is fresh. We have discovered that some EMV implementers have merely used counters, timestamps or home-grown algorithms to supply this number. This exposes them to a "pre-play" attack which is indistinguishable from card cloning from the standpoint of the logs available to the card-issuing bank, and can be carried out even if it is impossible to clone a card physically (in the sense of extracting the key material and loading it into another card). Card cloning is the very type of fraud that EMV was supposed to prevent. We describe how we detected the vulnerability, a survey methodology we developed to chart the scope of the weakness, evidence from ATM and terminal experiments in the field, and our implementation of proof-of-concept attacks. We found flaws in widely-used ATMs from the largest manufacturers. We can now explain at least some of the increasing number of frauds in which victims are refused refunds by banks which claim that EMV cards cannot be cloned and that a customer involved in a dispute must therefore be mistaken or complicit. Pre-play attacks may also be carried out by malware in an ATM or POS terminal...

Hallazgos clínico-radiológicos de la articulación temporomandibular en pacientes con artritis reumatoide: Clinicoradiological findings

Chávez Andrade,Gisselle M.; Tavares da Silva,Regina H. B.; Villela de Berbert,Fabio; D. Ribeiro,Ana Paula
Fonte: Revista Cubana de Estomatología Publicador: Revista Cubana de Estomatología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 ES
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Se realiza este estudio con el propósito de describir y evaluar los hallazgos clínico-radiológicos de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) en un grupo de pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide (AR). La muestra fue de 61 pacientes, con una edad media de 54 años y 5 meses. Todos fueron interrogados y examinados clínicamente, luego sometidos al examen radiográfico de ambas ATMs, utilizando la técnica de proyección transcraneal, con boca cerrada y en máxima apertura. El estudio recoge los signos y síntomas de la ATM hallados, tales como dolor, tumefacción, luxación, clicking y limitada apertura bucal. El estudio de los aspectos radiográficos indicó cambios en las superficies del cóndilo y la fosa temporal, en la movilidad condilar y espacio articular. Se concluyó que en pacientes con artritis reumatoide es frecuente la presencia de hallazgos clínicos-radiológicos en la articulación temporomandibular y que tanto la edad y género del paciente como el grado de actividad y tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad (AR), son factores que influyen en el estado general de las ATMs.