Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V). We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.
Once convicted, the perpetrator of serious crime embarks upon a new journey: the challenge of adjusting to long-term imprisonment. Prisoners’ views of incarceration and the meaning of this experience may affect their later adjustment to life in the community. On the basis of brief narrative responses collected during an epidemiological survey of the psychological health of prisoners in France, this study examined the impact of incarceration on psychological state in a group of 59 inmates serving long sentences. Qualitative content analysis and computer-assisted linguistic analysis (using ALCESTE software) were performed on the textual data of open responses to three standard questions. Using a combination of these two approaches, seven categories of the subjective experience of prisoners in the sample were identified: the Outside World, Others, Punishment, Time, Affects and Impulses, Self-Concept, and Speech. Further qualitative analyses were then performed to compare the responses of Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) subjects and subjects with no psychiatric disorder. These analyses revealed contrasting attitudes towards incarceration. SMI subjects spoke in more hostile and persecutory terms about their experience in prison, attributing suffering to external circumstances...
Individuals who use heroin and illicit opioids are at high risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne pathogens, as well as incarceration. The purpose of the randomized trial reported here is to compare outcomes between participants who initiated methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) prior to release from incarceration, with those who were referred to treatment at the time of release. Participants who initiated MMT prior to release were significantly more likely to enter treatment postrelease (P < .001) and for participants who did enter treatment, those who received MMT prerelease did so within fewer days (P = .03). They also reported less heroin use (P = .008), other opiate use (P = .09), and injection drug use (P = .06) at 6 months. Initiating MMT in the weeks prior to release from incarceration is a feasible and effective way to improve MMT access postrelease and to decrease relapse to opioid use.
Our paper examines service usage (e.g., shelter) as well as a typology of individuals who are most likely to use groupings of services among 249 homeless youth. Our results revealed that the majority of homeless young people have used food programs (66%) and street outreach (65%) on at least one occasion within the past year. Cluster analysis of services revealed four distinct groups: (1) basic survival service use, characterized by above average shelter, food, and outreach service use, but below average on counseling, substance abuse/ mental health services, and incarceration; (2) multiple service use, which included above average use of all six services; (3) incarceration experience, characterized by above average incarceration experience, but below average use of all other five services; and (4) minimal service use, which included slightly above average use of counseling, but below average use of all other services. These findings have the potential to provide important information that may assist with targeting services to homeless youth.
In several jurisdictions, sex offenders may be offered chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration. In some, agreement to chemical castration may be made a formal condition of parole or release. In others, refusal to undergo chemical castration can increase the likelihood of further incarceration though no formal link is made between the two. Offering chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration is often said to be partially coercive, thus rendering the offender’s consent invalid. The dominant response to this objection has been to argue that any coercion present in such cases is compatible with valid consent. In this article, we take a different tack, arguing that, even if consent would not be valid, offering chemical castration will often be supported by the very considerations that underpin concerns about consent: considerations of autonomy. This is because offering chemical castration will often increase the offender’s autonomy, both at the time the offer is made and in the future.
Each year, more than 700,000 convicted offenders are released from prison and reenter neighborhoods across the country. Prior studies have found that minority ex-inmates tend to reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods than do white ex-inmates. However, because these studies do not control for pre-prison neighborhood conditions, we do not know how much (if any) of this racial variation is due to arrest and incarceration, or if these observed findings simply reflect existing racial residential inequality. Using a nationally representative dataset that tracks individuals over time, we find that only whites live in significantly more disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison than prior to prison. Blacks and Hispanics do not, nor do all groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) as a whole live in worse neighborhoods after prison. We attribute this racial variation in the effect of incarceration to the high degree of racial neighborhood inequality in the United States: because white offenders generally come from much better neighborhoods, they have much more to lose from a prison spell. In addition to advancing our understanding of the social consequences of the expansion of the prison population, these findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for preprison characteristics when investigating the effects of incarceration on residential outcomes.
High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father–child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father–child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated—between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.
Given dramatic racial disparities in rates of HIV/STDs among African Americans, understanding broader structural factors that increase the risk for HIV/STDs is crucial. This study investigated incarceration history and unstable housing as two structural predictors of HIV risk behavior among 293 African Americans (159 men/134 women, Mage=27). Participants were recruited from an urban STD clinic in the southeastern U.S. Approximately half the sample had been incarcerated in their lifetime (54%), and 43% had been unstably housed in the past 6 months. Incarceration was independently associated with number of sex partners and the frequency of unprotected sex. Unstable housing was independently associated with the frequency of unprotected sex. However, these main effects were qualified by significant interactions: individuals with a history of incarceration and more unstable housing had more sex partners and more unprotected sex in the past three months than individuals without these structural barriers. Implications for structural-level interventions are discussed.
In 1978 the federal government restricted research on prison and jail inmates in medical studies, the result of decades of unethical research in correctional institutions. We evaluated the impact this policy has had on studies of health outcomes in minority populations, particularly studies involving black men, who are disproportionately incarcerated. Specifically, we explored the effect of incarceration on follow-up rates of fourteen prospective clinical studies funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. We estimated that during the past three decades high rates of incarceration of black men may have accounted for up to 65 percent of the loss to follow-up among black men in these studies. The impact of incarceration was far less among white men, black women, and white women. These estimates suggest that the ability of those studies to examine racial disparities in health outcomes, as well as to understand the experience of this group, could be compromised. We believe that community-recruited subjects who are incarcerated should be allowed to continue participating in observational clinical research that poses minimal risk to participants.
Objective. The influence of religion, acculturation, and incarceration on substance abuse has been studied, though predominantly among adolescents. Little research exists on how such factors influence substance use among Hispanic adults. The objective of this study was to assess key determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Methods. Public access 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted while accounting for complex survey design to obtain population-weighted estimates. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each variable. Results. Importance of religious influence in life and Spanish language interview were associated with lower odds of substance use, while history of incarceration increased the likelihood of substance use among Hispanic adults. Other factors associated with lower odds were increasing age, being female, and currently married. Other factors associated with increased odds were high school graduate and some college in addition to living above the 200% federal poverty level. Discussion. Results from this study add to the limited body of the literature on determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Health education measures should target acculturated Hispanic adults and those with incarceration history to reduce substance use.
Since the mid-1970s the United States has experienced an enormous rise in incarceration and accompanying increases in returning prisoners and in post-release community correctional supervision. Poor urban communities are disproportionately impacted by these phenomena. This review focuses on two complementary questions regarding incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities:(1) whether and how mass incarceration has affected the social and economic structure of American communities, and (2) how residential neighborhoods affect the social and economic reintegration of returning prisoners. These two questions can be seen as part of a dynamic process involving a pernicious “feedback” loop, in which mass incarceration undermines the structure and social organization of some communities, thus creating more criminogenic environments for returning prisoners and further diminishing their prospects for successful reentry and reintegration.
Individuals with a drug use history often experience drug use relapse when they are released from incarceration. This article explores the processes by which a sample of adults experienced relapse post-incarceration and consequently experienced HIV treatment interruption. Data are from in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive adults who have a self-reported history of drug use. Findings reveal that each participant relapsed post-incarceration. Some participants relapsed immediately after release; others remained drug free until something “triggered” a relapse. Once a participant relapsed, factors that contributed to HIV treatment interruption included re-incarceration, a lack of concern for HIV care, and the overlap of symptoms between addiction and HIV infection. The relationship between drug use and HIV treatment interruption was exacerbated when the participant reported also having a mental health disorder. Cessation of drug use facilitated HIV treatment engagement for participants. The implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed.
This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI) in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse.
High rates of imprisonment among American fathers have motivated an ongoing examination of incarceration’s role in family life. A growing literature suggests that incarceration creates material and socioemotional challenges not only for prisoners and former prisoners but also for their families and communities. The authors examined the relationship between fathers’ incarceration and one such challenge: the housing insecurity of the mothers of their children. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,125) and a series of longitudinal regression models, they found that mothers’ housing security was compromised following their partners’ incarceration, an association likely driven in part, but not entirely, by financial challenges following his time in prison or jail. Given the importance of stable housing for the continuity of adult employment, children’s schooling, and other inputs to healthy child development, the findings suggest a grave threat to the well-being of children with incarcerated fathers.
This study uses a data set on adolescent offending, originally collected by a team of researchers at the Vera Institute of Justice in New York City, to critically examine the role of incarceration in criminal rehabilitation. A theoretical explanation of recidivism is constructed using four criminological theories: life course theory (Sampson & Laub 1993), differential association theory (Sutherland 1939), deterrence theory, and reintegrative shaming theory (Braithwaite 1989). This thesis uses these theories to investigate societal factors that may contribute to young offenders’ recidivism (versus successful rehabilitation). It is argued that youths who: (1) come from unconventional family environments, (2) possess deviant peer associations, (3) receive incarceration as punishment, and (4) undergo a stigmatizing shaming process are more likely to recidivate. The combination of these factors is also expected to be intensified during incarceration.
An empirical examination of the effects of these factors on recidivism supports the main hypotheses advanced. Although conventional family environments and deviant peer associations are successful in determining first-time offending, results from this study suggest that these are inadequate as predictors of recidivism. Conversely...
Cultural geographers have long been interested in “the everyday,” but rarely is everyday life acknowledged in the context of incarceration. In Canada, the recent adoption of “tough-on-crime” policies has meant that increasing numbers of individuals spend their daily lives behind bars. In this dissertation, I ask: what do prisons sound like, and what is the role of sound in the way prisons are managed, conceptualised, and embodied? The recent flourishing of scholarship on carceral geographies has made crucial inroads in the study of the cultural politics and spatialities of incarceration, yet the notion of incarceration as a multi-sensory, embodied experience remains under-researched.
Drawing on Feld’s notion of acoustemologies, or auditory knowledges, I argue that one way to better understand the production of carceral space is through engagement with sonic techniques, histories, and materialities of prisons. Thinking about sound as a tangible and intangible force, I show how different conceptualisations of sound – including silence, noise, and music – (re)shape power relations in Canada’s prisons. In the midst of overcrowding and segregation in prisons, Canada’s political climate reverberates through its carceral soundscapes...
Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.
This paper examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or adolescence, father's incarceration is found to be associated with increased depression and delinquency. On the whole, results indicate that associations between father's incarceration and depression and delinquency do not vary by race and ethnicity or gender. One exception is among Hispanic respondents, for whom having a biological father incarcerated is associated with an even higher propensity of delinquency than among White and Black respondents with incarcerated fathers.
São Paulo's prison population has grown sharply. More than 30% of the country's prisoners are found in the 154 prison establishments in the state. The policy of decentralizing prisons and mass incarceration focuses on people accused of property and drug-related crimes, typically young, male and living in urban peripheries. The article explores the repercussions of mass incarceration resulting from the norms and moralities governing prison life, especially the collaboration between prison administrations, inmates and their families in managing the daily life of the prison. This collaboration extends beyond the physical limits of the prisons, influencing the mechanisms determining incarceration and the increase in prison populations. The study observed negotiations between the administrations and organized groups of inmates and their families towards the shared goal of maintaining internal order to enable the work involved in penitentiary practices. The intensification of centralized forms of repressive social control is counterbalanced by the complementary opposition of a diffuse social control, grounded in the security procedures shared among the agents participating in the management of prison life.; A população prisional de São Paulo cresce acentuadamente. Mais de 30% dos presos do país se distribui pelas 154 unidades prisionais paulistas. A política de descentralização das prisões e encarceramento em massa focaliza acusados por crimes patrimoniais e de drogas...