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Summary of the Online Discussion on Linking Gender, Poverty, and Environment for Sustainable Development (May 2 - June 17, 2011)

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Gender-poverty-environment links: a focus on the links between gender disparity, poverty and environmental degradation is increasingly recognized as a key strategy for improving the lives of poor women and men. Acknowledging the ways in which relationships between the environment, society and the economy are gendered opens space for new approaches to poverty reduction, environmental conservation and gender equality. The Social Development Department (SDV) of the World Bank conducted in-depth studies in Ethiopia and Ghana to advance understanding of the dynamics underlying negative spirals of poverty, environmental degradation, and gender inequality, and how to foster a positive synergy in the sustainable development sector e.g. energy, agriculture, natural resource management, water, urban development, and transport. An important component of the study design was an online discussion within and outside World Bank on findings from the country case studies to ground truth the potential for wider application in other countries; and to collect and share additional good practice cases that address gender-environment-poverty-links from as broad a range of countries as possible.

Caught in a Productivity Trap: A Distributional Perspective on Gender Differences in Malawian Agriculture

Kilic, Talip; Palacios-Lopez, Amparo; Goldstein, Markus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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In targeting poverty gains, sub-Saharan African governments have emphasized the alleviation of gender differences in agricultural productivity. The empirical studies on the gender gap, however, have frequently used data that were limited regarding geographic and topical coverage, and/or details on intra-household dynamics. The study provides a nationally-representative analysis of the gender gap in Malawi, and decomposes it, for the first time, at the mean and at selected points of the agricultural productivity distribution into (i) a portion driven by gender differences in levels of observable attributes (the endowment effect), and (ii) a portion driven by gender differences in returns to the same set of observables (the structure effect). Sequentially, the authors unpack the relative contributions of different factors towards the gender gap, and suggest future research priorities to inform policy interventions. The authors find that while female-managed plots are, on average, 25 percent less productive...

Gender Aspects of the Trade and Poverty Nexus : A Macro-Micro Approach

Bussolo, Maurizio; De Hoyos, Rafael E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
EN_US
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This report is on the findings of a major international research project examining the links between trade, gender, and poverty. Trade liberalization can create economic opportunities, but women and men cannot take advantage of these opportunities on an equal basis. Women and men differ in their endowments, control over resources, access to labor markets, and their roles within the household. It may seem obvious that gender differences play an important role in transmitting the effects of trade expansion to poverty, especially in less developed countries, where gender inequality is usually more pronounced. Although the literature includes numerous analyses on the links between trade and poverty and between gender inequality and poverty, it seems not to have combined these two sets of studies in a consistent empirical framework. The main objective for the research project documented in this book was to fill, at least in part, this gap in the literature. This report describes the simplest conceptual framework that can be used to analyze the linkages between trade and poverty through gender. It includes two parts. The first, based on standard international trade models, considers the linkages between trade and gender. The second, based mainly on the microeconomic models of household behavior...

Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

Klasen, Stephan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4-0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.

Integrating Gender-Sensitive Disaster Risk Management into Community-Driven Development Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This note on integrating gender-sensitive disaster risk management (DRM) in community-driven development (CDD) Programs is the sixth in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in DRM in the East Asia and the Pacific region. Targeting World Bank staff, clients and development partners, this note gives an overview of the main reasons for incorporating gender-sensitive DRM into CDD programs, identifies the key challenges, and recommends strategies and tools. Poor women and men are more at risk from adverse impacts of natural hazards. Vulnerability to the risks and income shocks resulting from natural disasters is one of the fundamental dimensions of poverty (World Bank, 2009). Many of the communities in which CDD programs are being implemented are disaster-prone and sensitive to the impacts of climate change. Initiatives to strengthen the resilience of poor and vulnerable men and women to natural hazard and climate change impacts can not only contribute to improving their livelihoods and safety but also to protecting the substantial investments being made in poverty reduction...

Making Livelihoods and Social Protection Gender-Sensitive

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This note on making livelihoods and social protection approaches gender- sensitive is the seventh in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in disaster risk management (DRM) in the East Asia and the Pacific region. Targeting World Bank staff, clients and development partners, this note gives an overview of the main reasons for including gender sensitive social protection and livelihoods approaches in DRM; it identifies the key challenges, and recommends strategies and tools for incorporating gender-sensitive social protection and livelihoods into DRM programs and strengthening the linkages between these disciplines.

Addressing Gender Inequalities in Curriculum and Education : Review of Literature and Promising Practices to Inform Education Reform Initiatives in Thailand

Levtov, Ruti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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In Thailand and worldwide, despite increases in educational enrollment, rigid gender norms dictating appropriate roles and behaviors contribute to the persistence of the gender inequalities. Since education systems are embedded in the broader social context, they reflect the inequalities that exist in society. The structure and content of schooling, textbooks, curricular choices, sex distribution of teachers and administrators, teacher attitudes and behaviors, classroom and discipline practices, and the presence of violence, reflect discriminatory and harmful social norms about the appropriate roles and opportunities for boys and girls (Connell, 1996, 2000, 2010). At the same time, schools have enormous potential to effect social change, transform gender relations, expanding the range of possibilities for both boys and girls (UNGEI, 2012a). This report provides a brief review of the literature and of interventions to promote gender equity through education in several specific areas: textbooks and curriculum; teacher distribution...

Tajikistan Country Gender Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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The aim of this report is to provide a broad overview of the current state of gender equality in Tajikistan. While the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region traditionally surpassed many other regions in terms of gender equality, this advantage has been eroding in recent decades. Particularly in Tajikistan, concerns have been raised that men and women have unequally born the consequences of economic, political, and social transitions after independence in 1991. The report examines several dimensions of gender equality both quantitatively and qualitatively. Tajikistan has set up a legal framework that enshrines principles of equality and non-discrimination, but better implementation results require continued efforts. Prevailing social norms and patriarchal systems of decision-making limit women s ability to make effective choices be it at home or at work. The paper is structured along the following lines. The first section introduces the idea of agency that will remain an important issue throughout the report. This is followed by an analysis of disparities in human capital endowment...

Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that context matters and question gender quota as a universal strategy to achieve gender equality. The empirical focus of the paper is placed on three arenas: 1) gender quota in political governance; 2) gender quota in parental leave policies; and 3) gender quota in economic governance. The paper is primarily concerned with analyses of Danish discourses and policies in relation to the three policy areas and only to a limited extent addresses the impact of these policies and their implications for lived practice. One issue concerns the paradox of the relatively high female representation in politics without the adoption of gender quotas. A second issue concerns the gap between gender equality policies. Denmark lacks behind the other Scandinavian countries’ discourses and policies about gender quota but in practice the picture is much more complex. A third issue concerns the European perspective. In relation to women’s labour market participation and gender parity in politics Denmark is ahead of other European countries but lacks behind in relation to equal representation on corporate boards.

Gender and Economic Growth in Uganda : Unleashing the Power of Women

Ellis, Amanda; Manuel, Claire; Blackden, C. Mark
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Uganda is a leader in Sub-Saharan Africa, in recognizing linkages between economic growth and gender issues. These linkages are critical for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The study assesses the legal and administrative barriers faced by women, as identified by the Bank's Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) and the International Finance Corporation's (IFC) Gender-Entrepreneurship-Markets Unit. The structure of the report mirrors that of the FIAS 2003 Administrative Barriers to Investment Report, and is designed to highlight the gender dimensions of that research to encourage further replication. The findings of this report indicate the considerable potential for economic growth that exists, if Uganda is to unleash the power of women, and support their full economic participation in the private sector. This assessment considers the relationship between gender and economic growth in Uganda in the context of promoting women's participation in business and entrepreneurship. Men and women both play substantial...

Truly Teaming : Partnering to Integrate Gender in Kenya’s Water Sector

Torkelsson, Asa; Rop, Rosemary; Wasike, Theresa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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In spite of its importance in development and poverty reduction, the water sector has had one of the largest gaps between what women do and the influence they actually have. In Kenya, women are still underrepresented in water governance structures at all levels, yet they are the most negatively affected by unavailability of water. To substantially boost gender integration in the country's water sector, a team of professionals from the World Bank, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MoWI) pooled their resources and energies. This smart lesson illustrates how forging nurturing partnerships with a wide variety of development partners can result in effective strategies for gender mainstreaming allowing us to do far more together than any one of us could do alone.

Country Gender Assessment for Lao PDR : Reducing Vulnerability and Increasing Opportunity

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: Manila Publicador: Manila
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Since the introduction of economic reforms in the mid-1980s, strong growth and development have lifted thousands of poor women and men out of poverty, changing traditional ways of life in Lao PDR. In this environment of change, gender relations, within the family, village and society at large, are changing too. Gender equality is a core development objective. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. As Lao PDR continues its development, the empowerment of women and girls will be a key to translating the country's economic growth and the energies of its young people into improved living standards that benefit women and men alike. This assessment synthesizes information and findings from recent literature and research on gender issues in Lao PDR for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank's (WB) country partnership strategies. The assessment is planned to contribute not only to the work of the ADB and the WB...

Regional Gender Action Plan for the Middle East and North Africa Region, FY13-FY16

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is experiencing a time of momentous change. Some countries are in the midst of a profound political, economic, and demographic transition, others are striving to emerge from protracted conflict, yet others are experiencing internal tensions and rising demands for more citizen voice. This period of change and uncertainty presents challenges and opportunities, including with regard to gender issues. Yet some governments may not prioritize gender issues, while in others there could be a regression. MENA Regional Gender Action Plan (RGAP) is part of the World Bank's institutional commitment to operationalize the policy priorities identified in the WDR 2012 and the regional companion to the World Development Report (WDR) 2012. The MENA Regional Gender Action Plan (RGAP) will require that the Bank be nimble and practical in its approach to advancing gender equality in the region. The MENA RGAP provides a two-pronged approach to supporting MENA countries in advancing gender equality: Prong 1: through country programs; and Prong 2: championing dialogue.

World Bank Gender Transport Surveys : An Overview

Babinard, Julie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Between 2008 and 2010 the transport sector initiated several country surveys to measure road transport needs and the constraints of both men and women, and more specifically how transport is facilitating or constraining access to resources, markets, and employment. These surveys were conducted as part of a lending operation or Economic Sector Work (ESW) with financial support from the Gender Action Plan (GAP), which seeks to advance women's economic empowerment and accelerate the implementation of the Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3), promoting gender equality and women's empowerment). A report that reviews the methodology used for each country GAP-funded survey, the design and content of the questionnaires and the likely effect on the analysis shows that women tend to have access to a wider range of social and economic opportunities when transportation is available, safe and secure. The main recommendation of the analysis is that a standardized approach should be promoted for collecting and evaluating gender data in transport and the possible creation of a questionnaire module to be easily adaptable for future surveys to collect and report gender-disaggregated data that can meaningfully inform transport policy. Substantial background work in the transport sector was done to develop a transport module to be used in nationally representative surveys. This work could be expanded upon to focus on gender and transportation.

How do Women Fare in Education, Employment, and Health? A Gender Analysis of the 2006 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Along with remarkable achievements in reducing poverty during the past decade, Vietnam's social and economic development policies have placed much emphasis on promoting gender equality. From a perspective of gender equality, women in Vietnam are considered in a relatively favorable position compared with women in other developing countries or other developed Asian countries, with a high rate of women's labor force participation and a high degree of women's representation in political positions including the national assembly. With the new law on gender equality passed in November 2006, more policy efforts are called for in achieving gender equality in both public and private spheres of people's lives. In this context, it is all the more important to have up-to-date information on various indicators of gender equality in order to accurately assess the current situation of gender disparities in Vietnam. This task is essential for formulating policies that address specific problem areas of gender disparities...

Gender Inequality in Multidimensional Welfare Deprivation in West Africa : The Case of Burkina Faso and Togo

Agbodji, Akoété Ega; Batana, Yélé Maweki; Ouedraogo, Dénis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals, but also in the World Bank's Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as well as in other treaties and actions undertaken at regional and international levels. Unlike other work on gender and poverty, which is mostly based on monetary measurement, the present study makes use of a counting approach to examine gender issues in Burkina Faso and Togo using household surveys. Focusing on six dimensions (housing, basic utilities, assets, education, employment, and access to credit) largely recognized as Millennium Development Goal targets, the main findings of the study indicate that overall individuals are the most deprived in education in Burkina Faso, while the reverse situation is true in Togo. Gender inequality is observed in all dimensions since women always seem to be more deprived than men. The situation is also marked by regional disparities. Moreover, the assessment of dimensional contributions shows different patterns for each country. While employment proves to be the main contributor of gender inequality in Burkina Faso...

Girls' Education in the 21st Century : Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth

Tembon, Mercy; Fort, Lucia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Gender equality is not just a women's issue, it is a development issue. Women's economic empowerment is essential for economic development, growth, and poverty reduction not only because of the income it generates, but also because it helps to break the vicious cycle of poverty. Educating girls and women is critical to economic development. Research conducted in a variety of countries and regions has established that educating girls is one of the most cost-effective ways of spurring development. Female education creates powerful poverty-reducing synergies and yields enormous intergenerational gains. It is positively correlated with increased economic productivity, more robust labor markets, higher earnings, and improved societal health and well-being. This book is based on the background papers developed for the symposium. Although the papers have been edited, their key messages remain intact, and the theme of the symposium respected. The overview chapter is a thematic paper prepared by the World Bank that brings out the main messages of the symposium. The subsequent chapters reflect the current state of education from a gender perspective and highlight the importance of and challenges to female education as well as the interdependence of education and development objectives. The final chapter presents five strategic directions for advancing gender equity in education.

Liberia : Gender-Aware Programs and Women's Roles in Agricultural Value Chains

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This Policy Memorandum provides policy advice to the government of Liberia (GOL) in an effort to mainstream gender issues in policies, programs, and projects supporting agricultural production and value-chain development. It is organized as follows. Section I reviews women's roles in Liberian agriculture and agricultural value chains, drawing on a variety of data sources, including the 2007 Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) and the two rounds of the Comprehensive Food Security and Nutrition Survey (CFSNS, 2006 and 2008). It also gives an overview of the agricultural sector in Liberia. Section II uses the same sources to analyze key constraints faced by women as agricultural producers and in value-adding activities, as well as key crop-specific issues in cassava, rice, and tree crops. Section III reviews the engagement of the GOL in gender-aware agriculture programs and recommends some key general principles to support gender-aware interventions, and specific recommendations aimed at supporting women as agricultural producers and increasing access to...

Belarus : Country Gender Profile

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Belarus demonstrated strong economic growth 2000-2008 and this translated into fast poverty reduction. Belarus invested a lot in the human capital of its population both in men and women. This assessment identifies and describes main gender disparities in Belarus in agency, education, health, and access to economic opportunities. The report builds on the framework of the World Bank's regional gender report, Europe and Central Asia: opportunities for men and women, as well as the World development report on gender and development. The assessment takes a quantitative approach using a wide range of different international data sources including World Bank's world development indicators, the global financial inclusion database, the life in transition survey, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-World Bank business environment and enterprise performance survey as well as local household living standards survey. The report is organized as follows: section one discusses agency and describes factors which may shape the process how men and women use their endowments and utilize economic opportunities to achieve desired outcomes. The second section analyzes gender disparities in endowments...

Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children

Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript version. The final version is available from Springer at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10508-014-0385-0.; While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore...