Página 3 dos resultados de 132242 itens digitais encontrados em 0.059 segundos

JC virus-associated central nervous system diseases in HIV-infected patients in Brazil: clinical presentations, associated factors with mortality and outcome

Piza, Felipe; Fink, Maria Cristina Domingues da Silva; Nogueira, Gilberto S.; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Oliveira, Augusto C. Penalva de; Vidal, Jose Ernesto
Fonte: Elsevier Editora Ltda.; SALVADOR Publicador: Elsevier Editora Ltda.; SALVADOR
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Introduction: Several presentations of neurologic complications caused by JC virus (JCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have been described and need to be distinguished from the "classic" form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the spectrum and frequency of presentations of JCV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases; 2) identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality of patients with JCV-associated CNS disease; and 3) to estimate the overall mortality of this population. Material and methods: This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients admitted consecutively for JCV-associated CNS diseases in a referral teaching center in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2007. All patients with laboratory confirmed JCV-associated CNS diseases were included using the following criteria: compatible clinical and radiological features associated with the presence of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PML; 2) inflammatory PML; and 3) JC virus granule cell neuronopathy (GCN). Results: We included 47 cases. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PML: 42 (89%); 2) inflammatory PML: three (6%); and 3) JC virus GCN: four (9%). Nosocomial pneumonia (p = 0.003)...

Modelagem Bayesiana dos tempos entre extrapolações do número de internações hospitalares: associação entre queimadas de cana-de-açúcar e doenças respiratórias; Bayesian modelling of the times between peaks of hospital admissions: association between sugar cane plantation burning and respiratory diseases

Sicchieri, Mayara Piani Luna da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
As doenças respiratórias e a poluição do ar são temas de muitos trabalhos científicos, porém a relação entre doenças respiratórias e queimadas de cana-de-açúcar ainda é pouco estudada. A queima da palha da cana-de-açúcar é uma prática comum em grande parte do Estado de São Paulo, com especial destaque para os dados da região de Ribeirão Preto. Os focos de queimadas são detectados por satélites do CPTEC/INPE (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais) e neste trabalho consideramos o tempo entre dias de extrapolação do número de internações diárias. Neste trabalho introduzimos diferentes modelos estatísticos para analisar dados de focos de queimadas e suas relações com as internações por doenças respiratórias. Propomos novos modelos para analisar estes dados, na presença ou não da covariável, que representa o número de queimadas. Sob o enfoque Bayesiano, usando os diferentes modelos propostos, encontramos os sumários a posteriori de interesse utilizando métodos de simulação de Monte Carlo em Cadeias de Markov. Também usamos técnicas Bayesianas para discriminar os diferentes modelos. Para os dados da região de Ribeirão Preto, encontramos modelos que levam à obtenção das inferências a posteriori com grande precisão e vericamos que a presença da covariável nos traz um grande ganho na qualidade dos dados ajustados. Os resultados a posteriori nos sugerem evidências de uma relação entre as queimadas e o tempo entre as extrapolações do número de internações...

Medicamentos de alto custo para doenças raras no Brasil : o exemplo das doenças lisossômicas; High cost drugs for rare diseases in Brazil : the case of lysosomal storage disorders

Souza, Monica Vinhas de; Krug, Bárbara Côrrea; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Este artigo aborda, de forma crítica, aspectos das políticas públicas brasileiras para medicamentos, com ênfase nos de alto custo dirigidos às doenças raras. As doenças lisossômicas foram utilizadas como exemplo pela sua raridade e pela tendência mundial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos para seu tratamento. Três doenças foram abordadas: doença de Gaucher, doença de Fabry e mucopolissacaridose tipo I. Embora todas tenham medicamentos registrados no Brasil, a doença de Gaucher é a única com protocolo clínico e diretrizes de tratamento balizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os autores almejam, com este artigo, fomentar a discussão sobre o papel da avaliação de tecnologias em saúde para o tratamento das doenças raras no Brasil, enfatizando a necessidade de políticas legitimadas dirigidas especialmente a elas. A despeito das dificuldades de se estabelecer uma política de saúde específica para cada doença rara, é possível o estabelecimento de modelos racionais para lidar com esse crescente desafio.; This paper approaches in a critical way aspects of Brazilian public policies for drugs, emphasizing those classified as high cost and for rare diseases. The lysosomal storage diseases was taken as an example because of their rarity and the international trend for the development of new drugs for their treatment...

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of hyperproliferative skin diseases - a review

dos Santos, Fernanda Kolenyak; Oyafuso, Marcia Helena; Kiill, Charlene Priscila; Daflon-Gremião, Maria Palmira; Chorilli, Marlus
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 159-167
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); The chronic hyperproliferative diseases (CHD) include cancer, precancerous lesions and diseases of unknown etiology such as psoriasis. Various drugs have been used in the treatment of CHD, such as antiproliferative and corticosteroids in general. However, some drugs have properties that limit their effectiveness, such as low solubility in water and low penetration of the skin. Thus, the control of drug release in the skin may improve efficacy and reduce side effects of many drugs used in hyperproliferative diseases. The purpose of this study was to make a systematic review of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems used against hyperproliferative skin diseases. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

JC virus-associated central nervous system diseases in HIV-infected patients in Brazil: clinical presentations, associated factors with mortality and outcome

Piza,Felipe; Fink,Maria Cristina; Nogueira,Gilberto S.; Pannuti,Claudio S.; Oliveira,Augusto C. Penalva de; Vidal,José Ernesto
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
INTRODUCTION: Several presentations of neurologic complications caused by JC virus (JCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have been described and need to be distinguished from the "classic" form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PMl). The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the spectrum and frequency of presentations of JCV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases; 2) identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality of patients with JCV-associated CNS disease; and 3) to estimate the overall mortality of this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients admitted consecutively for JCVassociated CNS diseases in a referral teaching center in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2007. All patients with laboratory confirmed JCV-associated CNS diseases were included using the following criteria: compatible clinical and radiological features associated with the presence of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PMl; 2) inflammatory PMl; and 3) JC virus granule cell neuronopathy (GCN). RESULTS: We included 47 cases. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PMl: 42 (89%); 2) inflammatory PMl: three (6%); and 3) JC virus GCN: four (9%). Nosocomial pneumonia (p = 0.003)...

Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with hematological diseases: experience at a university hospital in northeast Mexico

Jaime-Pérez,José Carlos; Chapa-Rodríguez,Adrián; Rodríguez-Martínez,Marisol; Colunga-Pedraza,Perla Rocío; Marfil-Rivera,Luis Javier; Gómez-Almaguer,David
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine includes a diverse group of medical and healthcare systems, practices and products not considered part of conventional medicine. Although there is information on unconventional practices in oncological diseases, specific data regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine by hematology patients is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to document the prevalence of this modality of unconventional therapy in patients with malignant and benign hematological diseases, particularly children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS: An observational study of adult patients and guardians of children with malignant or benign hematological diseases was carried out by applying a structured questionnaire detailing the use and results of the most prevalent complementary and alternative medicine practices. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients were included; 104 had malignant and 16 had benign hematological diseases. The use of complementary and alternative medicine was greater in benign diseases but the difference was not statistically significant (64.7% versus 41.7%; p-value = 0.08). Patients and guardians with high school or college educations used these alternative practices more than patients with less schooling (60.7% versus 54.7%; p-value = 0.032). The use of folk remedies was most prevalent followed by herbal preparations and spiritual healing. Sixty-four percent of patients that used these unconventional practices reported improvement in their symptoms and increased capacity to perform daily activities. CONCLUSION: No significant difference was documented between patients with malignant or benign hematological diseases using these alternative practices. The majority of complementary and alternative medicine users reported improvement of the disease or chemotherapy-related symptoms.

Saúde ambiental e as doenças respiratórias na cidade de Caldas Novas (GO); Environmental health and respiratory diseases in the city of Caldas Novas (GO)

SANTOS, Flávia de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Geografia - Campus Catalão; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Geografia - Campus Catalão; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Today the cities are environments conducive to the development of diseases, especially respiratory diseases, as a function of their growth is common to see suspended particulate materials from industrial, transport, burning of vegetation, burning of refuse, which is aggravated the occurrence of houses without ventilation and excess moisture, especially in outlying areas. As this research scenario, the city of Caldas Novas is located in Goias State, holds the largest source of thermal waters of Brazil, has a fragile physical environment in relation to the occupation process, mainly due to the water table to drop in approximately 60% of urban area varies between 0 and 5 m deep. Sector West of the city, which sits at the foot of the Serra de Caldas, and is the subject of this research study, occupies an area of about 14km ² and a population of about 1634 people. This study aims to understand the social and environmental influence on the incidence of respiratory diseases in Caldas Novas (GO). To carr y out this work we chose to do a study of integrated analysis of landscape elements (Geosystem), it was possible to perform diagnosis of environmental health (respiratory diseases) in Sector West of the city of Caldas Novas (GO). The integrated analysis shows correlation between rainfall...

Elementos climáticos e internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em Uberlândia (MG): perspectivas e desafios nos estudos de clima e saúde; Climate elements and respiratory diseases in hospitalizations in Uberlândia (MG): propsects and challenges in studies of climate and health

Oliveira, Súelem Marques de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (RC); Regional de Catalão (RC) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (RC); Regional de Catalão (RC)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Since the Federal Constitution in 1988, are "granted "to individuals various social rights, including the right to health. A right which should be guaranteed by the state through measures that ensure the humane treatment of Brazilians, regardless of social class, race or religion. Faced with various transformations and increasingly complex demands of modern society, it is necessary a more accurate understanding of the environmental issues of today. Through this research, it was found that, in Uberlândia (MG), from 2005 to 2011, a total of 26, 934 hospitalizations for respiratory complications. In this research it appears that there is a correlation between the air temperature, relative humidity and human health. The diseases with the highest occurrence is pneumonia (which amounts to more than 45% of total inpatient cases), followed by other diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses; bronchitis, emphysema; chronic diseases of tonsils; influenza [Flu] and asthma. The correlation of these diseases with the weather elements is evident in the months of March, April, May, June and July, in which are recorded the highest number of admissions for respiratory diseases. During these periods there is the transition from autumn season - winter...

Effective Responses to Non-communicable Diseases : Embracing Action Beyond the Health Sector

Meiro-Lorenzo, Montserrat; Villafana, Tonya L.; Harrit, Margaret N.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Effective responses to non-communicable disease: Embracing action beyond the health sector focuses on solutions, indicating opportunities for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the kinds of actions that will achieve it. NCDs exact a heavy toll on individuals and society. They cause disease, disability, and death, and reduce productivity which is vital for development. They also impose hefty costs on health services, particularly since NCDs frequently lead to ongoing disability and need for long-term care. Prevention that results in healthy aging and the reduction of morbidity is far more cost-effective and financially sustainable than treatment alone. A small number of proven prevention measures could stem the rise of the NCD epidemic. Data indicate the potential of affordable, potent, prevention tools focused on five key areas: tobacco, alcohol, diet, exercise and nutrition. Together, programs targeting these areas could reduce the burden of NCDs by more than half, while costing only a tiny fraction of current health spending. Since successful prevention involves multiple sectors and actors...

The Economic Costs of Noncommunicable Diseases in the Pacific Islands : A Rapid Stocktake of the Situation in Samoa, Tonga, and Vanuatu

Anderson, Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
There is increasing recognition that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an important international and development issue globally, undermining health gains and imposing financial and economic costs on governments and households. NCDs are an important health challenge in the Pacific. First, (NCDs) can impose large but often preventable health, financial, and economic costs on countries. This is particularly important in the Pacific, where government already finances and provides the bulk of health services. Second, risk factors in the Pacific are feeding a pipeline of potentially expensive-to-treat NCDs, including diabetes and heart disease, but governments are already fiscally constrained in how much more they can provide to the health system. Third, from a public health and public finance perspective, many of the NCDs are avoidable or their health and financial costs can at least be postponed through good primary and secondary prevention. This will require a more coherent approach to health system financing and to health system operations...

Association between NOx exposure and deaths caused by respiratory diseases in a medium-sized Brazilian city

César,A. C. G.; Carvalho Jr.,J. A.; Nascimento,L. F. C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by burning fossil fuels has been associated with respiratory diseases. We aimed to estimate the effects of NOx exposure on mortality owing to respiratory diseases in residents of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil, of all ages and both sexes. This time-series ecological study from August 1, 2011 to July 31, 2012 used information on deaths caused by respiratory diseases obtained from the Health Department of Taubaté. Estimated daily levels of pollutants (NOx, particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide) were obtained from the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. These environmental variables were used to adjust the multipollutant model for apparent temperature. To estimate association between hospitalizations owing to asthma and air pollutants, generalized additive Poisson regression models were developed, with lags as much as 5 days. There were 385 deaths with a daily mean (±SD) of 1.05±1.03 (range: 0-5). Exposure to NOx was significantly associated with mortality owing to respiratory diseases: relative risk (RR)=1.035 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.008-1.063) for lag 2...

Economics of Chronic Diseases Protocol: Cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe

Divajeva, D.; Marsh, T.; Logstrup, S.; Kestens, M.; Vemer, P.; Kriaucioniene, V.; Peresson, S.; O’Kelly, S.; Rito, A.; Webber, L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Background: The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method: This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease...

Brazil : Addressing the Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases in Brazil; Enfrentando o Desafio das Doencas Nao Transmissiveis no Brasil

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Non-communicable diseases account for a large and growing share of Brazil's burden of disease. Currently, about 66 percent of the disease burden in Brazil is due to non-communicable diseases, compared to 24 percent from communicable diseases and 10% from injuries. Brazil's shift towards non-communicable diseases is a consequence of urbanization, improvements in health care, changing lifestyles, and globalization. Most of this disease burden i s not an inevitable result of a modern, aging society, but preventable-often at low cost. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the changing non-communicable disease burden in Brazil and its root causes, to examine costs and effectiveness of alternative policy interventions to address this growing burden, and the costs disease and potential returns from expanding non-communicable disease prevention and control activities, and to consider policy implication of expanding activities to effectively address the shifting burden.

Factors Influencing Performance of Internet-Based Biosurveillance Systems Used in Epidemic Intelligence for Early Detection of Infectious Diseases Outbreaks

Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Le Strat, Yann; Hartley, David M.; Nelson, Noele P.; Mawudeku, Abla; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Linge, Jens P.; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S.; Astagneau, Pascal
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Background: Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. Method and Findings Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources): Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR), crude sensitivity rates (C-Se) and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se) were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems’ performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard) 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports) related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001). I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p = 0001) whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p = 020; C-Se...

Doenças crônicas não transmissíveis no Brasil: prioridade para enfrentamento e investigação; Enfermedades crónica no transmisibles en Brasil: prioridad para enfrentar e investigar; Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research

Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Álvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
As Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis representam a maior carga de morbimortalidade no Brasil. Em 2011, o Ministério da Saúde lançou seu Plano de Ações Estratégicas para o Enfrentamento das Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis, enfatizando ações populacionais para controlar as doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes, câncer e doença respiratória crônica, predominantemente pelo controle do fumo, inatividade física, alimentação inadequada e uso prejudicial de álcool. Apesar da produção científica significativa sobre essas doenças e seus fatores de risco no Brasil, poucos são os estudos de coorte nessa temática. Nesse contexto, o Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) acompanha 15.105 servidores públicos do País. Seus dados espelham a realidade brasileira de altas prevalências de diabetes e hipertensão e dos fatores de risco. A diversidade das informações produzidas permitirá aprofundar o entendimento causal dessas doenças e subsidiar políticas públicas para seu enfrentamento.; Las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles representan la mayor carga de morbimortalidad en Brasil. En 2011, el Ministerio de Salud Brasileño lanzó un Plan de Acciones Estratégicas para Enfrentar las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles...

Tendência secular da doença respiratória na infância na cidade de São Paulo (1984-1996); Secular trends in child respiratory diseases in S. Paulo City, Brazil (1984-1996)

Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson da Cruz; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e a distribuição social da doença respiratória na infância, estabelecer a tendência secular dessa enfermidade e analisar sua determinação, com base nos dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares realizados na cidade de São Paulo, SP, em 1984/85 e em 1995/96. MÉTODOS: Os inquéritos estudaram amostras probabilísticas da população residente na cidade com idades entre zero e 59 meses (1.016 em 1984/85 e 1.280 em 1995/96). Nos dois inquéritos estimou-se a prevalência instantânea da doença respiratória alta (acima da epiglote) e da doença respiratória baixa com e sem chiado à ausculta pulmonar. A ocorrência da doença respiratória foi aferida por exames clínicos realizados em dias aleatórios, nos próprios domicílios das crianças, por médicos pediatras devidamente treinados e padronizados quanto ao diagnóstico da doença. Os exames clínicos incluíam a anamnese do dia, antecedentes de doença respiratória e o exame físico completo da criança, incluindo inspeção da orofaringe, otoscopia e ausculta pulmonar. Nos dois inquéritos, os exames foram distribuídos ao longo de um período de cerca de 12 meses, de modo a garantir uma varredura uniforme das várias áreas da cidade ao longo das quatro estações. O estudo da distribuição social da doença respiratória levou em conta tercis da renda familiar per capita em cada um dos inquéritos. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da evolução da prevalência da doença na população empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade...

Tendências temporais da morbidade e da mortalidade por doenças respiratórias na cidade de São Paulo; Temporal trends in morbidity and mortality for respiratory diseases in São Paulo, Brazil

Toyoshima, Marcos Tadashi Kakitani; Ito, Gláucia Munemasa; Gouveia, Nelson
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/12/2003 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Doenças respiratórias são importante causa de morbi-mortalidade em todas as faixas etárias, com considerável impacto econômico e social. Diversos autores vêm apontando um aumento nas hospitalizações e mortes por algumas causas respiratórias, porém em nosso meio, poucos estudosanalisaram estas tendências recentemente. No presente trabalho, dados de hospitalizações para o período de 1995 a 2000 e de mortalidade para 1991-2000 foram analisados através de tabelas e gráficos descritivos, testes de correlação e de tendência linear. Observou-se que houve decréscimo na taxa de internações por doenças respiratórias entre 1995-1997 e tendência de aumento de 1997-2000 em todas as idades. Tendência crescente foi também observada na mortalidade por doenças respiratórias entre 1991-2000. Padrões específicos para diferentes grupos de doenças respiratórias, diferentes faixas etárias e sexos foramobservados. Concluímos que no período estudado, houve participação importante na morbi-mortalidade respiratória de doenças agudas, como as pneumonias, mas com tendência a diminuir a sua participação, ao contrário de doenças crônicas como a DPOC. Estes resultados indicam uma mudança no perfil destas doenças...

Assessment of a strategy for the control of respiratory diseases in children

Pereira,Julio Cesar Rodrigues; Stuginsky,Luís Antonio; Ribeiro,Theotonio Victor de Miranda
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
A programme for the control of respiratory diseases in children was conceived for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986. Its progress thereafter and the epidemiology of the diseases concerned are examined. Apart from an inquiry into the 64 existing State local health authorities, a sample of 18,255 cases of children assisted by the programme at different levels, including both in-patient and outpatient care, is analysed. Each case record included information about identification (child, doctor and health facility), reasons for calling, diagnoses made and outcome of treatment. Further data were also sought from hospitals and from State mortality records. The programme was found to be poorly implemented in the State but, where implemented, it showed itself capable of resolving problems (only 0.5% of the cases could not be handled) as also of changing ongoing trends (more than 50% reduction in hospital admission rates). Individual assessment of each item of the programme indicated its bottlenecks. Regarding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases, it is observed that the major burden to health services comes from children aged less than five, and that the most important diseases are wheezing illnesses and pneumonia. Morevoer, they were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.000) so that a child in the community presenting wheezing diseases is 5 times more likely to develop pneumonia than a child with any other respiratory diagnosis. Similarly...

Awareness of eye diseases in an urban population in southern India

Dandona,Rakhi; Dandona,Lalit; John,Rajesh K.; McCarty,Catherine A.; Rao,Gullapalli N.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of awareness of eye diseases in the urban population of Hyderabad in southern India. METHODS: A total of 2522 subjects of all ages, who were representative of the Hyderabad population, participated in the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Of these subjects, 1859 aged >15 years responded to a structured questionnaire on cataract, glaucoma, night blindness and diabetic retinopathy to trained field investigators. Having heard of the eye disease in question was defined as ‘‘awareness’’ and having some understanding of the eye disease was defined as ‘‘knowledge’’. FINDINGS: Awareness of cataract (69.8%) and night blindness (60.0%) was moderate but that of diabetic retinopathy (27.0%) was low, while that of glaucoma (2.3%) was very poor. Knowledge of all the eye diseases assessed was poor. Subjects aged > 30 years were significantly more aware of all eye diseases assessed except night blindness. Multivariate analysis revealed that women were significantly less aware of night blindness (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.97). Education played a significant role in awareness of these eye diseases. Study subjects of upper socioeconomic status were significantly more aware of night blindness (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.29-3.74) and those belonging to upper and middle socioeconomic strata were significantly more aware of diabetic retinopathy (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 2.19-3.56). Muslims were significantly more aware of cataract (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.84-3.02) and less aware of night blindness (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.42-0.64). The major source of awareness of the eye diseases was a family member/friend/relative suffering from that eye disease. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that there is a need for health education in this Indian population to increase their level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases. Such awareness and knowledge could lead to better understanding and acceptance of the importance of routine eye examinations for the early detection and treatment of eye diseases...

Trends in hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998-2009

Antunes,Fernanda Pedro; Costa,Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim,Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva,Ligia Maria; Santos,Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Cruz,Álvaro Augusto; Barreto,Mauricio L.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Respiratory diseases are the leading cause of hospitalizations in Brazil (excluding hospital admissions related to childbirth, pregnancy, and postpartum). To analyze the trend and seasonality of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998-2009, a time trend study was performed using simple linear regression. Hospitalization rates for all respiratory diseases and specifically for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia were calculated by year and age group. Hospitalizations for all respiratory diseases decreased by 45.6% (β = -2.2; p < 0.001); those due to asthma showed the largest decline (annual average 1.2/10,000), pneumonia showed the largest reduction until 2002, subsequently tending to stabilize, and COPD remained unchanged. The under-5-year age group showed the largest decline in hospitalizations for all respiratory diseases. There was no seasonality in hospitalizations for COPD. There was a reduction in the burden of hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases in Salvador, mainly due to the drop in asthma and pneumonia in children < 5 years. However, the city still has hospitalization rates for respiratory diseases that are higher than in other large Brazilian cities.