Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at increased risk of antisocial conduct. We thus hypothesized that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) who report anger/irritability would show higher rates of criminal arrests. To test this, we examined data in a national survey of N=1388 Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans. We found that 9% of respondents reported arrests since returning home from military service. Most arrests were associated with nonviolent criminal behavior resulting in incarceration for less than two weeks. Unadjusted bivariate analyses revealed that veterans with probable PTSD or TBI who reported anger/irritability were most likely to be arrested. In multivariate analyses, arrests were found to be significantly related to younger age, male gender, having witnessed family violence, prior history of arrest, alcohol/drug misuse, and PTSD with high anger/irritability but were not significantly related to combat exposure or TBI. Findings show that a subset of veterans with PTSD and negative affect may be at increased risk of criminal arrest. Since arrests are more strongly linked to substance abuse and criminal history...
Drug-resistant HIV complicates management of HIV infection. Although an estimated 14% of all HIV-positive persons pass through a prison or jail in the United States each year, little is known about the overall prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance in incarcerated persons. All genotypic sequence data on HIV-positive prisoners in the North Carolina (NC) Department of Corrections (DOC) were obtained from LabCorp. Screening for major resistance mutations in protease (PI) and reverse transcriptase (NRTI and NNRTI) was done using Genosure and the Stanford HIV Database. For subjects with multiple genotype reports, each mutation was counted only once and considered present on all subsequent genotypes. Between October 2006 and February 2010, the NC DOC incarcerated 1,911 HIV+ individuals of whom 19.2% (n=367) had at least one genotype performed. The overall prevalence of a major resistance mutation was 28.3% (95% CI 23.7, 33.0). Among prisoners ever exposed to an ARV during incarceration (n=329) prevalence of a major resistance mutation was 29.8% (95% CI 24.9, 34.7); resistance by class was 20.4% (95% CI 16.0, 24.7) for NRTIs, 19.8% (95% CI 15.5, 24.1) for NNRTIs, and 8.8% (95% CI 5.8,11.9) for PIs. Single class drug resistance was most prevalent at 14.2% (10.2...
The authors present a 32-year-old male patient with incarceration of a recurrent esophageal hiatal hernia after laparoscopic repair. A life-threatening strangulation of the stomach and the transverse colon occurred within a few days after the operation. Relapse of hiatal hernias amounts to almost half of early complications characteristic for the laparoscopic approach. General recommendations regarding surgical technique as well as perioperative care have been proposed in order to decrease the risk of relapse. Also, routine contrast radiology on the first or second day following the laparoscopic operation facilitates early diagnosis of relapse of hiatal hernia with emergent reoperation. This may result in decreased morbidity and improved overall outcome of the treatment.
Washington, DC has among the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the US. Gender differences among injection drug users (IDUs) may be associated with adoption of prevention opportunities including needle exchange programs, HIV testing, psychosocial support, and prevention programming. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data on current IDUs aged ≥18 were collected from 8/09 to 11/09 via respondent-driven sampling in Washington, DC. HIV status was assessed using oral OraQuick with Western Blot confirmation. Weighted estimates were derived using RDSAT. Stata was used to characterize the sample and differences between male and female IDU, using uni-, bi-, and multivariable methods. Factors associated with HIV risk differed between men and women. Men were more likely than women to have had a history of incarceration (86.6 % vs. 66.8 %, p < 0.01). Women were more likely than men to have depressive symptoms (73.9 % vs. 47.4 %, p < 0.01), to have been physically or emotionally abused (66.1 % vs. 16.1 %, p < 0.0001), to report childhood sexual abuse (42.7 % vs. 4.7 %, p < 0.0001), and pressured or forced to have sex (62.8 % vs. 4.0 %, p < 0.0001); each of these differences was significant in the multivariable analysis. Despite a decreasing HIV/AIDS epidemic among IDU...
This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men.
Purpose. To investigate the in vivo incision architecture using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in 23-gauge and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy (TSPPV). Methods. A prospective observational study of 22 eyes of 22 patients that underwent three-port 25-gauge (10 eyes) or 23-gauge (12 eyes) TSPPV was performed. The three sclerotomies sites in each eye were analyzed by Corneal Adapter Model (CAM) RTVue SD-OCT (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) with wound cross-section images (longitudinal and transversal) on days 1, 7, and 30 postoperatively. Transversal and longitudinal length, location, angle between the conjunctival surface tangent and the incision plane, and architecture deformations were evaluated. Results. All patients (22 eyes) completed the study and surgeries lasted less than 60 minutes. All wounds were obliquely performed, 23-gauge mean angle was 23 ± 5°, and 25-gauge angule was 21 ± 4°. Twenty-three-gauge sclerotomy transversal mean length was 1122 ± 242 μm and 25-gauge transversal sclerotomy mean length was 977 ± 174 μm; 23-gauge longitudinal mean length was 363 ± 42 μm and 25-gauge longitudinal sclerotomy mean length was 234 ±19 μm; 23-gauge open wound thickness mean was 61 ± 28 μm and 25-gauge open wound thickness mean was 22 ± 6 μm. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). No vitreous incarceration or silicone oil residue was observed in incision sites with both gauges. Conclusions. The 23-gauge and 25-gauge architectural wound constructions were well visualized using CAM SD-OCT. Statistical differences between the two gauges were observed throughout the study period.
Pericardial defects are infrequent congenital anomalies due to agenesis caused by premature atrophy of the common cardinal vein or Cuvier duct during the 5th or 6th week of embryonic life. These congenital defects are rare, typically observed as an incidental finding and usually remain asymptomatic. Nevertheless, the more widespread use of modern imaging techniques has contributed to an increase of its incidence in recent years. There is currently no consensus regarding therapeutic options, all of which are based on small retrospective studies that evaluate the risk of developing a life-threatening complication such as herniation and incarceration of the myocardium. We report on a 22-year-old male who presented with sudden onset of sharp chest pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance scan revealed a pericardial defect adjacent to the lateral free wall of the left atrium with associated herniation of the left atrial appendage. The patient was managed conservatively and had an uneventful clinical progress.
Preventing the onset of injection drug use is important in controlling the spread of HIV and other blood borne infections. Undocumented migrants in the United States face social, economic, and legal stressors that may contribute to substance abuse. Little is known about undocumented migrants’ drug abuse trajectories including injection initiation. To examine the correlates and contexts of U.S. injection initiation among undocumented migrants, we administered quantitative surveys (n=309) and qualitative interviews (n=23) on migration and drug abuse experiences to deported male injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. U.S. injection initiation was independently associated with ever using drugs in Mexico pre-migration, younger age at first U.S. migration, and U.S. incarceration. Participants’ qualitative interviews contextualized quantitative findings and demonstrated the significance of social contexts surrounding U.S. injection initiation experiences. HIV prevention programs may prevent/delay U.S. injection initiation by addressing socio-economic and migration-related stressors experienced by undocumented migrants.
This study used baseline data on recently-released homeless paroled men who are homeless (N = 157), residing in a residential drug treatment program, and enrolled in a longitudinal study to examine personal, developmental, and social correlates of parolees who are homeless and parolees who have committed serious violent offenses. Having experienced childhood sexual abuse, poor parental relationships, and early-onset incarceration (prior to 21 years of age) were important correlates of serious violent crimes. These findings highlight the need for interventions that address offenders’ prior adult and childhood victimization, and suggest that policies for reentering violent offenders should encompass an understanding of the broader family contexts in which these patterns of maltreatment often occur.
Poor urban communities experience high rates of incarceration and prisoner reentry. This paper examines the residences where former prisoners live after prison, focusing on returns to pre-prison social environments, residential mobility, and the role of intermediate sanctions. Drawing on a unique dataset that follows a cohort of Michigan parolees released in 2003 over time using administrative records, we examine returns to pre-prison environments, both immediately after prison and in the months and years after release. We then investigate the role of intermediate sanctions – punishments for parole violations that are less severe than returning to prison – in residential mobility among parolees. Our results show low rates of return to former neighborhoods and high rates of residential mobility after prison, a significant portion of which is driven by intermediate sanctions resulting from criminal justice system supervision. These results suggest that, through parole supervision, the criminal justice system generates significant residential mobility.
A previously fit man was investigated for right-sided abdominal pain and an appendicular foreign body (FB) caused by ingested lead shot was found. He had associated urinary tract infection causing his symptoms and hence was treated conservatively. We present this rare case, followed by discussion of the causes, investigations, clinical significance and management of appendicular FBs.
Chronically ruptured diaphragms are difficult to diagnose. Often they are asymptomatic but convey a high risk for incarceration, and therefore surgical repair is mandatory. In the following case report, we present an abnormal 10×12 cm diaphragmatic defect whereby there was no anterior edge to the defect. This posed a challenge as to how to repair. We present a novel technique that facilitates sound solution through a thoracotomy approach.
In accordance with the chronic disease model of opioid dependence, cessation is often observed as a longitudinal process rather than a discrete endpoint. We aimed to characterize and identify predictors of periods of heroin abstinence in the natural history of recovery from opioid dependence. Data were collected on participants from California who were enrolled in the Civil Addict Program from 1962 onward by use of a natural history interview. Multivariate regression using proportional hazards frailty models was applied to identify independent predictors and correlates of repeated abstinence episode durations. Among 471 heroin-dependent males, 387 (82.2%) reported 932 abstinence episodes, 60.3% of which lasted at least 1 year. Multivariate analysis revealed several important findings. First, demographic factors such as age and ethnicity did not explain variation in durations of abstinence episodes. However, employment and lower drug use severity predicted longer episodes. Second, abstinence durations were longer following sustained treatment versus incarceration. Third, individuals with multiple abstinence episodes remained abstinent for longer durations in successive episodes. Finally, abstinence episodes initiated >10 and ≤20 years after first use lasted longer than others. Public policy facilitating engagement of opioid-dependent individuals in maintenance-oriented drug treatment and employment is recommended to achieve and sustain opioid abstinence.