People with both HIV and alcohol use disorders are disproportionately concentrated within the U.S. criminal justice system; approximately one-quarter of all people with HIV cycle through the system each year. HIV-infected prisoners with alcohol problems face many obstacles as they transition back to the community. Specifically, although they have impressive HIV treatment outcomes during the period of incarceration while they are free from alcohol, upon release, however, they face inordinate challenges including relapse to alcohol use resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Randomized controlled trials affirm the role of pharmacotherapy using naltrexone (NTX) as the therapeutic option conferring the best treatment outcome for alcohol use disorders within the community. Absent from these trials were inclusion of prisoners or HIV-infected individuals. Relapse to alcohol use among HIV-infected prisoners is associated with reduced retention in care, poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy with consequential poor HIV treatment outcomes and higher levels of HIV risk behaviors. Untreated alcohol dependence, particularly for released HIV-infected prisoners, has both negative consequences for the individual and society and requires a concentrated effort and rethinking of our existing approaches for this vulnerable population. The specific aim of this manuscript is to review the existing literature regarding the relationship of HIV and treatment for alcohol use disorders in criminal justice populations in an effort to determine “best practices” that might effectively result in improved treatment of HIV and alcohol disorders for released prisoners.
The present study examines the predictive and incremental validity of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide scores in a sample of 328 male and 145 female jail inmates held on felony charges. Significant gender differences were observed in VRAG item and total score means, as well as in correlations between the VRAG and concurrent measures of aggression. VRAG scores significantly predicted institutional misconduct during incarceration and recidivism in the first year post-release for male inmates, but not for female inmates. In terms of incremental validity, VRAG scores predicted institutional misconduct and recidivism beyond that accounted for by psychopathy for male inmates, but not for female inmates. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
This paper describes our attempt to import social-personality theory and research on moral emotions and moral cognitions to applied problems of crime, substance abuse, and HIV risk behavior. Thus far, in an inmate sample, we have evidence that criminogenic beliefs and proneness to guilt are each predictive of re-offense after release from jail. In addition, we have evidence that jail programs and services may reduce criminogenic beliefs and enhance adaptive feelings of guilt. As our sample size increases, our next step is to test the full mediational model, examining the degree to which programs and services impact post-release desistance via their effect on moral emotions and cognitions. In addition to highlighting some of the key findings from our longitudinal study of jail inmates over the period of incarceration and post-release, we describe the origins and development of this interdisciplinary project, highlighting the challenges and rewards of such endeavors.
“Reduction en masse of inguinal hernia” means reduction/migration of a hernial sac into the properitoneal space. We report the CT findings in a case of reduction en masse with strangulated obstruction. CT scan demonstrated a hernial sac with fibrous constriction band at the neck, situated in the properitoneal space superior to the inguinal region, causing closed-loop obstruction. The hernial sac contained thickened bowel loop with wall enhancement and fluid suggestive of incarceration/strangulation. We propose to call this, ‘The properitoneal hernial sac sign’, defined as “Presence of a hernial sac in the properitoneal space (and not in the inguinal/femoral canal) containing an obstructed/incarcerated bowel loop and causing small bowel obstruction” to identify “reduction en masse of inguinal hernia”.
This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities.
The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release.
Criminal justice-related outcomes for youth who have been served in out-of-home mental health settings such as residential treatment and inpatient hospitalization are unclear. This study longitudinally modeled the changing probability of being charged with a crime from age 16 to 25, including being served in out-of-home treatment and aging into adulthood, while controlling for person-level covariates such as gender, race, past criminal charges, and mental health diagnoses. Results indicated that out-of-home treatment was related to a decreased probability of being charged with a crime during treatment, but it had no relationship to post-treatment probability. Longitudinal probability of being charged was moderated by gender; females did not experience a peak probability time whereas males peaked at age 19. Other significant contributors to being charged included having a substance use diagnosis and having an offense record prior to age 16. Evidence indicated that out-of-home treatment was used as an alternative to detention and incarceration for both juveniles and adults.
Patients who have diagnoses of a major mental illness and an antisocial personality disorder present administrative, clinical, legal, and ethical challenges. Based on an actual case, the authors discuss how clinicians could fulfill the obligation to the patient, mental health system, judicial system, and the community under these circumstances. We explore how clinical presentation of symptomatology and criminal behavior contribute to challenges in determining psychiatric care.
A rare case of abdominal trauma, a handlebar hernia, is described, as well as a review of the pertinent literature. A 7-year-old boy presented to our emergency room after sustaining blunt force to the abdomen; he fell on the handlebar of his bicycle. Immediately after the accident, a bulge was noticeable at the point of impact. Handlebar hernia is a diagnosis that is easily missed, which can lead to strangulation and incarceration of the bowel. With this case report, we hope to augment the knowledge on traumatic abdominal wall hernia, hopefully leading to early diagnosis and treatment.
Whites in community samples utilize mental health services at a much higher rate than African Americans (Kessler, et al., 2005). Is this also the case among those in jails? In this study of jail inmates (229 African American, 185 White) there were no race difference in the overall need for mental health treatment (63% of participants had significant symptoms on the Personality Assessment Inventory) but race differences in the level and types of symptoms were evident. Additionally, while Whites were more likely to report pre-incarceration treatment there were no differences in treatment seeking or access to mental health programs while in jail, implying that if barriers to treatment in the community were removed (cost/insurance, location/transportation, time) racial disparities in treatment utilization may be reduced.
To determine correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among high-risk low-income urban African American women, survey responses of 337 women who had main sexual partners for over six months and reported high-risk behaviors were analyzed; 142 of these women also reported other sexual partnerships within the past 90 days. Unadjusted analyses showed that concurrency was significantly associated with relationship status, sexual debut, forced sex, incarceration of self and partners, depression, drug use, known or suspected partner nonmonogamy, and partner drug use. Age of sexual debut, relationship status, and indicators of problem drug use remained significantly associated with concurrency when controlling for individual factors, and only indicators of problem drug use and known or suspected partner nonmonogamy remained significantly associated with concurrency when also controlling for partner characteristics. Our results suggest the presence of extensive sexual networks within this population and document the need for interventions that address drug abuse and partnership instability. Moreover, the strong association between concurrency and perceptions of partners’ nonmonogamy suggest the need for intervention to target men and women in this core group.
Poor quality of sleep (QOS) is frequently reported in HIV-positive individuals; however, despite its clinical and public health significance, few studies have examined the correlation between QOS and antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep disturbances, determine the characteristics of those with poor QOS, and establish the relationship between QOS and ARV nonadherence among HIV-positive individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of 2845 HIV-positive adults taking ARV therapy from the Healthy Living Project baseline cohort. Mean self-reported ARV nonadherence was estimated using a 3-day measure. QOS was assessed using three questions regarding sleep pattern changes, amount of bother from difficulty falling/staying asleep, and amount of bother from vivid dreams. Over 68% of individuals reported sleep pattern changes, 50.3% reported difficulty falling/staying asleep, and 20.5% reported bother from vivid dreams. Depression, suicidal ideation, unemployment, use of illicit substances, history of incarceration, and HIV viral load were all independently associated with poor QOS. Individuals reporting feeling bothered about difficulty falling/staying asleep had a 1.66 higher odds of nonadherence (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.18...
This study presents the results of a pilot study of mandatory pre-release testing for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and a behavioral risk survey for male inmates at an Ohio prison. Approximately 4–6 weeks prior to scheduled release, inmates took part in a mandatory blood test and optional genital swab and physical examination to test for STDs. At the time of testing, a voluntary behavioral and knowledge survey was administered to inmates. Pre-release testing identified 53 new cases of STDs among the 916 inmates (5.5%) scheduled for release during the pilot study period. Trichomoniasis and hepatitis C were the most common infections identified through pre-release testing. Nearly all inmates participated in the required blood test. Participation rates for the other testing methods averaged less than 45%. Inmates reported engaging in various risky behaviors during incarceration such as having sex (12.1%), tattooing (36.5%), and drug use (19.5%). Pre-release testing identified several new cases of STDs not identified through existing intake and for-cause testing procedures. Substantial useful information about the prevalence of STD risk behaviors can be obtained through a pre-release survey.
Incarceration has been proposed to be a driving factor in the disproportionate impact of HIV in African-American communities. However, few data have been reported on disparities in criminal justice involvement by race among men who have sex with men (MSM). To describe history of arrest and associated factors among, we used data from CDC’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. Respondents were recruited by time–space sampling in venues frequented by MSM in 15 US cities from 2003 to 2005. Data on recent arrest (in the 12 months before the interview), risk behaviors, and demographic information were collected by face-to-face interview for MSM who did not report being HIV-positive. Six hundred seventy-nine (6.8%) of 10,030 respondents reported recent arrest. Compared with white MSM, black MSM were more likely to report recent arrest history (odds ratio (OR), 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–2.1). Men who were less gay-identified (bisexual [OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–1.9] or heterosexual [OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.5]) were more likely to report recent arrest than homosexually identified men. In addition, men who reported arrest history were more likely to have used non-injection (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.4–3.6) and injection (OR...
Adolescents have been reported to be less motivated to engage and remain in substance abuse treatment than adults. When they appear motivated, it is often due to external motivators such as family pressure or court mandated treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents’ motivation to change alcohol use was related to treatment engagement while incarcerated and alcohol use after release. Participants (N=114) were youth in a state correctional facility in the Northeast and included adolescents who engaged in at least monthly drinking. Motivation to change alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Ladder (AL), and treatment engagement was measured by the Treatment Participation Questionnaire (comprised of positive and negative treatment engagement). Measures were administered at baseline, 2 month in facility follow up, and 3 months post release follow up. Analysis indicated acceptable test-retest stability (r=.388, p≤.001). The AL at 3 months post release significantly predicted quantity and frequency of alcohol use after release. The AL at baseline also significantly predicted positive and negative treatment engagement at 2 months into incarceration (i.e., 2 month in facility follow up) indicating predictive validity. These results suggest that the AL is a reliable...
This study evaluated a cumulative and syndromic relationship among commonly co-occurring vulnerabilites (homelessness, incarceration, low-income, residential transition) in association with HIV-related risk behaviors among 635 low-income women in Baltimore. Analysis included descriptive statistics, logistic regression, latent class analysis and latent class regression. Both methods of assessing multidimensional instability showed significant associations with risk indicators. Risk of multiple partners, sex exchange, and drug use decreased significantly with each additional domain. Higher stability class membership (77%) was associated with decreased likelihood of multiple partners, exchange partners, recent drug use, and recent STI. Multidimensional social vulnerabilities were cumulatively and synergistically linked to HIV risk behavior. Independent instability measures may miss important contextual determinants of risk. Social stability offers a useful framework to understand the synergy of social vulnerabilities that shape sexual risk behavior. Social policies and programs aiming to enhance housing and overall social stability are likely to be beneficial for HIV prevention.
Reflecting drug use patterns and criminal justice policies throughout the 1990s and 2000s, prisons hold a disproportionate number of society’s drug abusers. Approximately 50% of state prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of drug abuse or dependence, but only 10% receive medically based drug treatment. Because of the link between substance abuse and crime, treating substance abusing and dependent state prisoners while incarcerated has the potential to yield substantial economic benefits. In this paper, we simulate the lifetime costs and benefits of improving prison-based substance abuse treatment and post-release aftercare for a cohort of state prisoners. Our model captures the dynamics of substance abuse as a chronic disease; estimates the benefits of substance abuse treatment over individuals’ lifetimes; and tracks the costs of crime and criminal justice costs related to policing, adjudication, and incarceration. We estimate net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system of the current treatment system and five policy scenarios. We find that four of the five policy scenarios provide positive net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system relative to the current treatment system. Our study demonstrates the societal gains to improving the drug treatment system for state prisoners.