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Rethinking Fiscal Decentralization Policies in Developing Economies: A Case Study of Ghana

Boateng, Micheal
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
This thesis invites geographers to pay more attention to public policy research by addressing the need to rethink fiscal decentralization policies in Ghana. By applying “Simandan’s wise stance in human geography” and “Grix’s building blocks of social research design”, I developed a conceptual framework that unites two incommensurable ontological and epistemological research positions in geography—the positive and normative positions. I used the framework to investigate two key research questions. First, does fiscal decentralization actually work in Ghana? Through quantitative analysis of empirical revenue and expenditure data (1994-2011) of local governments in Ghana, this study reveals significant issues of inefficiency, inequity, and unaccountability. Local governments generate less revenue, and therefore depend largely on central government transfers for developing their jurisdictions. Worse yet, these transfers are highly unpredictable in terms of amount and timing. Even though a multivariate regression analysis revealed that these transfers are apolitical, the actual disbursement formula tends to focus on equality instead of equity. Additionally, the unclear expenditure assignments in each locality make accountability difficult. In view of these problems...

Decentralization, Economic Development, and Growth in Turkish Provinces

Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
There have been important developments in the decentralization of the government structure in Turkey since the early 1980s. This paper examines economic development and growth in Turkish provinces. Although there is a rich literature on the economic effects of government decentralization from both developed and developing countries, these effects have not been examined widely in the context of Turkish local governments. The authors first describe changes since the early 1980s and recent reform efforts. They then provide an empirical analysis of the effects of decentralization in Turkish provinces using cross-sectional and panel data approaches. The panel dataset consists of 67 provinces from 1976 to 2001. The analysis examines whether variations in local decentralization across these provinces and across time have had a significant impact on economic development and growth in those provinces. The findings suggest a weak negative economic effect of decentralization through a number of municipalities per capita. However...

Guinea - Decentralization in Guinea : Strengthening Accountability for Better Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
The purpose of this report is to present reform options for the implementation of the new code that would strengthen accountability in service delivery. The report is structured as follows: chapter one discusses how decentralization can be an effective tool for improving service delivery and local governance. Chapter two assesses progress in fiscal, administrative and political decentralization, scrutinizes their impact on accountability relationships and makes recommendations to further decentralization, in line the new code. Chapter three analyses current arrangements for service delivery in two sectors (water and education), maps out strengths and weaknesses of existing accountability relationships and makes recommendations, drawing on existing innovative practices in Guinea and/or the region. Chapter four offers recommendations to manage change and maintain the momentum for reform. Chapter five concludes with an outlook.

Decentralization in Africa : Emerging Trends and Progress

Ndegwa, Stephen N.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Decentralization, defined broadly as the transfer of public authority, resources, and personnel from the national level to sub-national jurisdictions, has been a recurrent theme in African countries since independence. In the last decade or so decentralization has gained prominence as an expressed goal or as an actual programmatic pursuit in the context of or as a consequence of two prominent movements affecting the African state. One consists of structural adjustment programs that sought to reform the public sector starting in the 1980s while the other is the ongoing transition toward more democratic and competitive politics. In nearly all African countries, structures of local administration exist but are often subordinated in their legal creation, mandate, and operation to the central state, especially the executive. As elsewhere in the developing world, political and economic liberalization have opened possibilities or at least revived claims for greater decentralization. Major development donors have also pushed decentralization as a pathway to improving governance and service delivery in developing countries.

Promoting Good Governance with Social Funds and Decentralization

Parker, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Bad governance undermines development. Two important types of World Bank support for local governance are social funds and broadly based support for governments committed to decentralizing responsibility and power to local governments and other local institutions. But there are concerns that these two approaches, which address different elements of governance, sometimes work at cross-purposes. A study was therefore commissioned to examine the interaction between social funds and decentralization in Bolivia and Honduras (advanced decentralization), Peru and Zimbabwe (some decentralization), and Cambodia, Malawi, and Zambia (little or no decentralization). This Note is based on the findings of the study.

An Evaluation of Bank Support for Decentralization in Client Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Developing countries have decentralized functions and responsibilities for service delivery to lower levels of government at an increasing pace in recent years. The main reasons for such reforms are often political, but governments adopt them also as a way to improve service delivery and local governance. Typically, after the political decision is made, a country will turn to its development partners including the World Bank for support in implementing the new policies and achieving their development objectives. Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) assessed the effectiveness of Bank support for decentralization between FY90 and FY07 in 20 countries, seeking to inform the design and implementation of future support. Given the difficulties of measuring the results of decentralization, the evaluation used intermediate outcome indicators such as strengthened legal and regulatory frameworks for intergovernmental relations, improved administrative capacity, and increased accountability of sub-national governments and functionaries to higher levels of government and to local citizens to assess the results of Bank support in these 20 cases. To examine potential lessons at a sectoral level...

Decentralization and Governance : Does Decentralization Improve Public Service Delivery?

Kahkonen, Satu; Lanyi, Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Decentralization holds a lot of promise, but whether it improves public service delivery depends on the institutional arrangements governing its implementation. Several conditions must be met before the full benefits of decentralization can be reaped. First, for decentralization to increase allocative and productive efficiency, local governments need to have the authority to respond to local demand as well as adequate mechanisms for accountability. Because granting authority without accountability can lead to corruption and lower productive efficiency, decentralization needs to be accompanied by reforms that increase the transparency and accountability of local government. Second, functions need to be devolved to a low enough level of government for allocative efficiency to increase as a result of decentralization. Low-level governments are likely to be aware of local preferences and, if able to do so, are likely to adjust service delivery accordingly. Third, citizens should have channels to communicate their preferences and get their voices heard in local governments. But the existence of such channels is not enough. To effectively influence public policies and oversee local governments...

Promoting Good Governance with Social Funds and Decentralization

Parker, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Bad governance undermines development. Two important types of World Bank support for local governance are social funds and broadly based support for governments committed to decentralizing responsibility and power to local governments and other local institutions. But there are concerns that these two approaches, which address different elements of governance, sometimes work at cross-purposes. A study was therefore commissioned to examine the interaction between social funds and decentralization in Bolivia and Honduras (advanced decentralization), Peru and Zimbabwe (some decentralization), and Cambodia, Malawi, and Zambia (little or no decentralization). This Note is based on the findings of the study.

The Political Economy of Decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa : A New Implementation Model in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal

Dafflon, Bernard; Madiès, Thierry
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Agence Française de Développement Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Agence Française de Développement
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
For the past two decades, experiments in decentralization and federalization have been developing in Africa, Asia, and the formerly communist states of Eastern Europe. Many of the powers previously in the hands of the central government or its de-concentrated structures have been transferred to lower government layers. Additionally, local governments are gradually emerging as development actors. Whatever the reasons for decentralization, the transfer of new functions to local governments can be substantive, at least in intent. This publication offers a new policy-oriented implementation model, applied systematically in parallel in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal. The book studies the individual countries and compares similar issues based on the same blueprint. The analysis is not intended to assess whether the chosen decentralization model is the right one, which does not exist. Rather, it examines decentralization achievements in specific national settings and compares those achievements with the announced objectives. The divergences revealed enable decision makers to choose appropriate directions for country reform. This method does not transpose textbook solutions to the states. The reference framework offers an analytical approach contextualized to each country that integrates not only economic arguments...

Decentralization and Public Services : The Case of Immunization

Khaleghian, Peyvand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The author studies the impact of political decentralization on childhood immunization, an essential public service provided in almost all countries. He examines the relationship empirically using a time-series data set of 140 low- and middle-income countries from 1980 to 1997. The author finds that decentralization has different effects in low- and middle-income countries. In the low-income group, decentralized countries have higher coverage rates than centralized ones, with an average difference of 8.5 percent for measles and DTP3 vaccines. In the middle-income group, the reverse effect is observed: decentralized countries have lower coverage rates than centralized ones, with an average difference of 5.2 percent for the same vaccines. Both results are significant at the 99 percent level. Modifiers of the decentralization-immunization relationship also differ in the two groups. In the low-income group, development assistance reduces the gains from decentralization. In the middle-income group, democratic government mitigates the negative effects of decentralization...

Does Fiscal Decentralization Improve Health Outcomes? Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

Robalino, David A.; Picazo, Oscar F.; Voetberg, Albertus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Decentralization of fiscal responsibilities has emerged as a primary objective on the agendas of national governments, and international organizations alike. Yet there is little empirical evidence on the potential benefits of this intervention. The authors fill in some quantitative evidence. Using panel data on infant mortality rates, GDP per capita, and the share of public expenditures managed by local governments, they find greater fiscal decentralization is consistently associated with lower mortality rates. The results suggest that the benefits of fiscal decentralization are particularly important for poor countries. They suggest also that the positive effects of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality, are greater in institutional environments that promote political rights. Fiscal decentralization also appears to be a mechanism for improving health outcomes in environments with a high level of ethno-linguistic fractionalization, however, the benefits from fiscal decentralization tend to be smaller.

Decentralization and Local Governance in MENA : A Survey of Policies, Institutions, and Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Entering the 21st century, the 1999-2000 World Development Report (WDR), identifies two main forces that are shaping the world in which development policy is being defined and implemented: (i) globalization, the increasing worldwide integration of private sector interaction and commercial relationships; and (ii) localization, a process of devolving fiscal and administrative roles and responsibilities from central to sub-national tiers of government. It goes on to note that these global-private and local-public pressures are not only reinforcing, but also challenging traditional paradigms and forms of intergovernmental systems. Political decentralization, often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, aims to give citizens more say in public policy and decision-making. Its advocates assume that decisions made with greater participation will be better informed and more relevant to diverse interests in society than those made only by national political authorities. The concept implies that the selection of representatives from local electoral jurisdictions allows citizens to know better their political representatives and allows elected officials to know better the needs and desires of their constituents. Administrative decentralization aims to redistribute authority...

Decentralization or Fiscal Autonomy? What Does Really Matter? Effects on Growth and Public Sector Size in European Transition Countries

Meloche, Jean-Philippe; Vaillancourt, Francois; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
This paper examines the importance of fiscal autonomy in the analysis of decentralization. Using new data published by the OECD (2001 and 2002), it reproduces several indicators and proposes new measures of decentralization that take into consideration su-bnational governments' autonomy over their revenues. Two models are reproduced: Davoodi and Zou (1998) on decentralization and economic growth, and Oates (1985), on decentralization and public sector size. Some evidence suggests that fiscal autonomy positively affects economic growth. Also, it seems to affect the size of the state, but evidence on this relation is limited. Despite some statistical weaknesses, there are sufficient indications to argue that sub-national governments' fiscal autonomy should be a major concern when measuring decentralization.

More Than You Can Handle : Decentralization and Spending Ability of Peruvian Municipalities

Loayza, Norman V.; Rigolini, Jamele; Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
In the past three decades, emerging countries have gone through extensive decentralization reforms. Yet, there are no studies assessing quantitatively the relative importance of various factors known to affect the success of decentralization. This paper builds on a comprehensive dataset the authors constructed for Peru, which merges municipal fiscal accounts with information about municipalities' characteristics such as population, poverty, education, and local politics. The paper then analyzes the leading factors affecting the ability of municipalities to execute the allocated budget using complementary methodologies, from least squares to quantile regression analyses. According to the existing literature and the Peruvian context, the analysis divides these factors into four categories: the budget size and allocation process; local capacity; local needs; and political economy constraints. Although all four factors affect decentralization, the largest determinant of spending ability is the adequacy of the budget with respect to local capacity. The results confirm the need for decentralization to be implemented gradually over time in parallel with strong capacity building efforts.

Towards a Fiscal Pact : The Political Economy of Decentralization in Bolivia

Frank, Jonas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
The decentralization game in Bolivia has been altered quite significantly with the presence of new bargainers at the departmental level. Two, opposing groups have emerged and which follow intricate strategies to enforce their claims. The highland departments are strongly aligned to the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party and the charismatic leadership of the country's first indigenous leader Evo Morales. The Media Luna departments in the lowlands demand autonomy and seek a greater share of the national pool of hydrocarbon revenue. The paper discusses how a fiscal pact can be forged to bring agreement around the most pressing issues. It considers several bargaining packages which could be crafted and analyzes the extent to which decentralization principles need to be sacrificed in order to achieve agreement among competing actors. It is likely that these agreements may eliminate some inefficiency, but also create others. An important insight is that the fiscal pact should be renegotiated at certain pre-defined times...

Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World : First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008

United Cities and Local Government; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
This overall picture of decentralization and local democracy in African countries shows significant progress at the strictly institutional level. No country now publicly opposes the implementation of decentralization policies. Local governments exist in all countries, and elections are held to elect local authorities. The extent of such progress must, however, be set against a number of persistent obstacles that continue to hinder a real progression of decentralization in Africa. Difficulties remain within states concerning the transfer of financial resources needed to match the devolved responsibilities. Local governments also face difficulties in increasing their own resources (aside from state-transfers and grants) at a faster pace. Ensuring the availability of qualified human resources at the local level and improving public access to local services are also fundamental issues of concern.

Decentralization, Democracy, and Development : Recent Experience from Sierra Leone

Zhou, Yongmei
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
In 2004, the government of Sierra Leone opted for a rethink of its national governance arrangement by embarking on the resuscitation of democratically elected local government after 32 years experimenting with central government appointed district and municipal governments. The decision by the government and the people of Sierra Leone was driven by a primary consideration to address the country's seeming nonperformance in the areas of citizens' participation in governance and responding to the needs of citizens as it relates to attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as ensuring poverty reduction in the country. This book is a retrospective of the decentralization reform process in Sierra Leone from 2003-07. During this period, the Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) reestablished elected district and urban councils across the country, transferred certain responsibilities for primary services and local investment and some financial resources to the new councils, and invested heavily in building the administrative infrastructure and capacity of the local councils. The author is partners who were intimately involved in the reform. Through recording various aspects of the process and reflecting on the observations and learning during that time...

Decentralization and Corruption : Evidence across Countries

Fisman, Raymond; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
The relationship between decentralization of government activities and the extent of rent extraction by private parties is an important element in the recent debate on institutional design. The theoretical literature makes ambiguous predictions about this relationship, and it has remained virtually unexamined by empiricists. The authors make a first attempt at examining the issue empirically, by looking at the cross-country relationship between fiscal decentralization and corruption as measured by a number of different indices. Their estimates suggest that fiscal decentralization in government spending is significantly associated with lower corruption. Moreover, they find that the origin of a country's legal system - for example, civil versus common legal code - performs extremely well as an instrument for decentralization. The estimated relationship between decentralization, when so instrumented, and corruption is even stronger. The evidence suggests a number of interesting areas for future work, including investigating whether there are specific services for which decentralized provision has a particularly strong impact on political rent extraction...

O desafio da descentralização do Sistema Único de Saúde em município de grande porte: o caso de São Paulo, Brasil; The challenge of decentralization of the Unified National Health System in large cities: the case of São Paulo, Brazil

SPEDO, Sandra Maria; TANAKA, Oswaldo Yoshimi; PINTO, Nicanor Rodrigues da Silva
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
A descentralização do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) ainda enfrenta importantes desafios, em particular a busca de alternativas para grandes municípios. Por se caracterizar como um processo eminentemente político, variáveis político-institucionais, dentre as quais se destaca a capacidade de gestão do nível local, são determinantes para a conformação da descentralização em cada contexto. Utilizando o referencial do triângulo de governo para avaliar a capacidade de gestão, realizou-se um estudo de caso, com o objetivo de analisar o processo de descentralização do SUS no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, a maior metrópole brasileira. Pela análise de entrevistas com gestores selecionados e documentos da gestão, identificou-se um movimento de centralização da saúde na gestão municipal 2005-2008, acompanhado do desconcerto das estruturas locorregionais da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, o que resultou no esvaziamento técnico e político dessas instâncias. Apesar dos limites da descentralização, destaca-se sua potência enquanto estratégia operacional para alcançar os objetivos do SUS. Aponta-se a necessidade de retomar o processo de descentralização da saúde no Município de São Paulo que, além de avançar para instâncias locorregionais...

Implementation of Kosovo's action plan on decentralization : [presentation given on September 6, 2011]

Ukimeraj, Rozafa
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Kosovo is passing through a dramatic transitional phase of political, economic and social development. In these circumstances decentralization has taken primacy among political and institutional developments. This capstone project addressed the problem of the implementation of the Action Plan on Decentralization in Kosovo, used by the government as a “tool”, to implement the local reform in Kosovo. The capstone project examined the main issues through the process of decentralization, including the acceptance of the decentralization by the Albanians, being the ethnic majority in Kosovo, and the impact of implementation of decentralization on the integration of Serbs.; 1. General information on the organization and functioning of local government in Kosovo -- 2. Legal framework for local self-government in the Republic of Kosovo -- 3. Reform of local government and decentralization in Kosovo-opportunities and challenges -- 4. Decnetralization, the case of Kosovo -- 5. Implementation of the plan of action on decentralization -- 6. The process of reform of local government in the countries of the region -- 7. Discussion challenges and recommendations.