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Reprodução e famílias escravas em Mariana - 1850-1888.; Slave reproduction and slave families in Mariana - 1850-1888.

Teixeira, Heloísa Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/01/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Muitos são os estudos que se têm dedicado à temática da reprodução e das famílias escravas no Brasil; poucos, porém, referem-se a regiões desprovidas de vínculos mais estreitos com a economia exportadora. Neste trabalho, que se insere no campo da demografia histórica, direcionamos nossa atenção para a aludida temática enfocando o caso de Mariana no decurso da segunda metade do século XIX. Esta localidade, situada na província de Minas Gerais, esteve, desde o declínio da produção aurífera, integrada à economia voltada para a produção de subsistência e o abastecimento do mercado interno. De início, esboçamos os principais traços definidores do perfil econômico de Mariana, bem como delineamos as características de sua população escrava, além de especular sobre as estratégias de manutenção da instituição escravista adotadas na localidade no período considerado. As informações por nós compulsadas, obtidas em especial a partir da leitura dos inventários post-mortem (nossa fonte principal), bem como mediante o recurso complementar a documentação variada (assentos de casamentos e de batismos de escravos, matrículas e registros de compra e venda de cativos), possibilitaram o exame da estrutura e das características demográficas das famílias escravas. Além disto...

Famílias escravas em Angra dos Reis, 1801-1888; Slave families in Angra dos Reis, 1801-1888

Vasconcellos, Marcia Cristina Roma de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/10/2006 PT
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Em Angra dos Reis, a população local, na primeira metade do século XIX, dedicava-se ao autoconsumo e ao mercado interno. Desenvolveram-se o comércio e os transportes, pois seus portos foram um dos principais meios de escoamento do café do vale do Paraíba fluminense e paulista, dinamizando a vida econômica. Entretanto, ao longo da segunda metade do Oitocentos, instalou-se, gradativamente, um quadro de transformações econômicas e demográficas, resultante do término do tráfico de escravos e da diminuição do movimento portuário em função da chegada da estrada de Ferro D. Pedro II ao vale. Diante desse panorama, analisamos as características e o grau de estabilidade das famílias escravas, entre 1801 e 1888, e de que forma foram atingidos na segunda metade do século XIX. Tais reflexões tiveram como parâmetro os dois núcleos básicos familiares: os formados pelo casal sem ou com filhos e aqueles constituídos por mães solteiras e filhos. As fontes principais utilizadas foram os inventários post-mortem e os registros de batismo e de casamento. Avaliamos, também, temas como, o matrimônio, a maternidade, o intercurso sexual, as famílias extensas, as famílias fraternas e o compadrio. Realizamos um mapeamento econômico...

Cytogenetic Mapping of 5S and 18S rRNAs and H3 Histone Genes in 4 Ancient Proscopiidae Grasshopper Species: Contribution to Understanding the Evolutionary Dynamics of Multigene Families

Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Martins, C.; Souza, M. J.; Moura, R. C.
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 89-93
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); This paper reports on the chromosomal location of 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families in 4 species of a relatively ancient and diversified group of grasshoppers belonging to the family Proscopiidae. The 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were highly conserved in the number of sites and chromosomal position in the 4th chromosome pair in all species analyzed, whereas the 18S rRNA genes showed slightly more variation because they were present on one or 2 chromosome pairs, depending on the species. The 5S and 18S rRNA gene families occurred in different chromosomes; in contrast, H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes co-localized in the same chromosomal position, with an apparently interspersed organization. Considering that the Proscopiidae family is a relatively ancient group compared with the Acrididae family, the association of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA multigene families can represent a basal condition for grasshoppers, although more research is needed on other representatives of this insect group to confirm this statement. The presence of such an association of 5S rDNA and H3 histone in mussels and arthropods (beetles...

Cada um na sua mas entre nos o problema : familia, instituição e praticas educativas nao-formais; Everyone just chiling and between us the problem : families, institutions and non-formal e educative practices

Tetis Mori Muniz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/03/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este trabalho tem como objeto de estudo uma entidade beneficente de educação não-formal localizada na região Norte do município de Campinas. Essa entidade atende crianças e adolescentes entre 7 e 14 anos moradores de bairros de tal região. Por meio de seu estudo analiso a inter-relação das práticas educativas de tal entidade com as expectativas das famílias cujos filhos são por ela atendidos. Fundamentalmente a pesquisa foi baseada em observação participante de diversos momentos do cotidiano da entidade (durante o ano de 2000), em entrevistas com a equipe de trabalho da entidade e com 9 famílias. Ao refletir sobre a inter-relação das práticas educativas e as expectativas das famílias surge a questão do trabalho como categoria contraditória, na medida que ele é considerado pelas famílias como parte fundamental da sua identidade e considerado pela entidade, ao pensar o trabalho infantil, como ilegal; The objective of this work is to study a beneficent organization of non-formal education located in the north of the city of Campinas which help children and teenagers between the ages of 7 and 14 years old who live in the neighborhood of that area. Through its study I analyze the interrelation of the educational practices of that organization with the expectations from the families whose children are attended. Fundamentally the research was based on participative observation of many moments of the organization?s quotidian (during the year of 2000) and on interviews with the organization?s staff and 9 families. After reflect about the interrelation between the educational practices and the families? expectations the work issue appears as a contradictory category once it is seen by the families as a fundamental part of their identity and through the organization...

A methodological approach for working with families in suas: a critical reading through the lens of citizenship

Afonso,Maria Lucia Miranda; Hennon,Charles B.; Carico,Tina L.; Peterson,Gary W.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The paper reviews the current National Policy of Social Welfare in Brazil and the work developed with families within the Brazilian social protection approach. It describes the Unified System of Social Welfare and explores the relationship of the Basic Social Protection to the Bolsa Família Program, the Brazilian program of conditional cash transfer to vulnerable families. It discusses the principles of the methodology for working with vulnerable families in the Unified System of Social Welfare and analyzes examples of social interventions. It argues that the work developed with families must be based on participatory and dialogical approaches, including follow-up methods, group dynamics, action-research, and other interventions. The paper concludes with questions regarding the use of a socio-educational methodology as a component of policies for vulnerability reduction, social development and the promotion of citizenship.

Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

Daros,Máskio; Amaral Jr.,Antônio Teixeira do; Pereira,Messias Gonzaga; Santos,Fabrício Santana; Gabriel,Ana Paula Cândido; Scapim,Carlos Alberto; Freitas Jr.,Silvério de Paiva; Silvério,Lucas
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test), making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index...

Labeled Families in Modular Software Development

Veloso,Sheila R. M.; Veloso,Paulo A. S.; Fiadeiro,José L.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/1998 EN
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We present a general framework for the modular development of families of programs or specifications through the use of labels. Families, consisting of components or versions, appear naturally in software development. The concept of implementation, as an interpretation into a conservative extension, is generalized to labeled families of specifications and formulated in categorical terms. We also show that the category of such families has pushouts and that this construction preserves conservative extensions, as required for composing implementations.

A survey of sRNA families in α-proteobacteria

del Val, Coral; Romero-Zaliz, Rocío; Torres-Quesada, Omar; Peregrina, Alexandra; Toro, Nicolás; Jiménez-Zurdo, Jose I
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2012 EN
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We have performed a computational comparative analysis of six small non-coding RNA (sRNA) families in α-proteobacteria. Members of these families were first identified in the intergenic regions of the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont S. meliloti by a combined bioinformatics screen followed by experimental verification. Consensus secondary structures inferred from covariance models for each sRNA family evidenced in some cases conserved motifs putatively relevant to the function of trans-encoded base-pairing sRNAs i.e., Hfq-binding signatures and exposed anti Shine-Dalgarno sequences. Two particular family models, namely αr15 and αr35, shared own sub-structural modules with the Rfam model suhB (RF00519) and the uncharacterized sRNA family αr35b, respectively. A third sRNA family, termed αr45, has homology to the cis-acting regulatory element speF (RF00518). However, new experimental data further confirmed that the S. meliloti αr45 representative is an Hfq-binding sRNA processed from or expressed independently of speF, thus refining the Rfam speF model annotation. All the six families have members in phylogenetically related plant-interacting bacteria and animal pathogens of the order of the Rhizobiales, some occurring with high levels of paralogy in individual genomes. In silico and experimental evidences predict differential regulation of paralogous sRNAs in S. meliloti 1021. The distribution patterns of these sRNA families suggest major contributions of vertical inheritance and extensive ancestral duplication events to the evolution of sRNAs in plant-interacting bacteria.

Contemporary Legal Transplants - Legal Families and the Diffusion of (Corporate) Law

Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Brigham Young University Law Review Publicador: Brigham Young University Law Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper empirically documents the continued importance of the legal families for the diffusion of formal legal materials from the core to the periphery in post-colonial times. This raises the possibility that substantive differences between countries of different families around the world, such as those documented in the legal origins literature, continue to be the result of separate diffusion processes rather than of intrinsic differences between common and civil law. Using the example of corporate and securities law, the paper documents the frequent and often exclusive use of legal materials and models from the respective legal family’s core countries in treatises and law reform projects in 32 peripheral and semi-peripheral countries. The paper also shows that most authors of these treatises and projects were trained in the respective core countries. Data on the activities of national legal development and cooperation organizations, trade and investment flows, and student migration confirm the close legal family ties and provide some evidence of possible channels through which materials may continue to diffuse within their legal families after decolonization. The diffusion of formal legal materials need not imply that the substantive development of law is affected by foreign influences...

Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results: We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently...

Parental Education and Children’s Schooling Outcomes : Is the Effect Nature, Nurture, or Both? Evidence from Recomposed Families in Rwanda

de Walque, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Educated parents tend to have educated children. But is intergenerational transmission of human capital more nature, more nurture, or both? The author uses household survey data from Rwanda that contains a large proportion of children living in households without their biological parents. The data allows him to separate genetic from environmental parental influences. The nonrandom placement of children is controlled by including the educational attainment of the absent biological parents and the type of relationship that links the children to their "adoptive" families. The results of the analysis suggest that the nurture component of the intergenerational transmission of human capital is important for both parents, contrary to recent evidence proposed by Behrman and Rosenzweig (2002) and Plug (2004). The author concludes that mothers education had no environmental impact on children s schooling. Interestingly, mothers education matters more for girls, while fathers education is more important for boys. Finally, an important policy recommendation in the African context emerges from the analysis: the risk for orphans or abandoned children to lose ground in their schooling achievements is minimized if they are placed with relatives.

Gender, comparative advantage and labour market activity in immigrant families

Cobb Clark, Deborah A; Crossley, Thomas
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 201801 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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The family investment hypothesis predicts that credit-constrained immigrant families adopt a household strategy for financing post-migration human capital investment in which the partner with labor market comparative advantage engages in investment activities and the other partner undertakes labor market activities which finance current consumption. We assess this hypothesis by focusing on two issues: first, the extent to which the specialization in the investing versus financing role is based on comparative advantage versus gender, and second, the extent to which credit constraints offer a potential explanation for observed behaviour. Using a unique new Australian data set we find that comparative advantage and gender can be separately identified in migrating families. We find some support for the family investment hypothesis among traditional families (where labor market comparative advantage resides with the male partner) but not among non-traditional families.; no

Genes and families in the media: implications of genetic discourse for constructions of the 'family'.

Crabb, S.; Augoustinos, M.
Fonte: Econtent Management Publicador: Econtent Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Many critics have previously examined the ways in which the pervasive construction of the family in Western nations--that of the heterosexual nuclear family--is normalised and naturalised in a range of contexts. This paper examines discourses of genetics and the 'family' in a series of UK newspaper articles, many of which are non-normative family forms, including families who have used assisted reproductive technologies, and lesbian and gay parented families. We analyse the ways in which genetic discourse is employed in these articles in relation to complex social and psychological issues regarding identity, psychological adjustment, and appropriate parenting and family structures. In particular, genetically-unrelated families (or those who use technologies to produce genetically-related offspring) are constructed as problematic and, thus, we argue that dominant genetic discourses function to reproduce, and construct as 'natural', socially-conservative notions of the family, further marginalising non-heteronormative families.; Shona Crabb and Martha Augoustinos

Da comunidade e das famílias aos espaços de jogo na sala; Going from the community and families, to the play-based learning environments

Pereira, Diana Filipa da Cruz
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Educação Pré-Escolar; O presente relatório enquadra-se no âmbito da Prática de Ensino Supervisionado do Mestrado em Educação Pré-Escolar, nos contextos de Creche e Pré-Escolar. O projeto de intervenção denominado: “Da Comunidade e das Famílias aos “Espaços” de Jogo na Sala” surgiu da necessidade de aproximar a comunidade à vivência das crianças no centro de estágio e de assumir esta aproximação como uma mais-valia para aprendizagem das crianças Assim, a intervenção realizada visou levar as crianças a conhecer a comunidade envolvente, a ampliar o leque de experiências e de conhecimentos e melhorar o espaço de aprendizagem envolvendo as famílias e outros recursos da comunidade. As estratégias de intervenção estiveram centradas nas saídas e visitas ao exterior e na dinamização de actividades que envolveram a comunidade e as famílias das crianças no enriquecimento da sua experiência educativa. O trajeto percorrido revelou-se positivo para as crianças, para os educadores e para o contexto de estágio pondo em evidência a importância de assumir a ligação à comunidade envolvente e às famílias como estratégia para promover os interesses e as aprendizagens das crianças...

Families with twins - a systematic review

Andrade,Luísa; Martins,Maria Manuela; Angelo,Margareth; Martinho,Júlia
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós Graduação em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós Graduação em Enfermagem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Parenthood is among the developmental transitions that set major challenges for contemporary families. When there is a twin pregnancy, those challenges increase. Our aims in this study are understanding the parental experience in families with twins and identifying the factors which condition parental experience in such families. It is a literature review focusing on studies published between 2000 and 2012 based on reference data. The articles were analyzed considering the aims, participants, phases of data collection, tools used; and results achieved regarding the dimensions involved in parenting experiences faced by parents of twins. In the 19 studies identified, maternity was the main focus of research. Women with twin children showed lower scores on well-being, higher stress risks, exhaustion and depression. The experience of these families was different, more demanding and complex than singletons' parents. Understanding of this matter becomes crucial to contributing to better health for families.

(Re)Construint relacions de parentiu. Una aproximació a les famílies recompostes mixtes (Catalunya)

Esquerrà Roqueta, Anna; Piella Vila, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 CAT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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La crítica de Schneider (1984) al parentiu com a domini analític va suposar que sorgissin noves reflexions en torn a la manera d'analitzar les múltiples transformacions que han succeït en aquest àmbit. Canvis que qüestionen les concepcions culturals occidentals basades principalment en el “parentiu de sang”, és a dir, en la biogenètica, a l’hora d’establir relacions de parentiu. En aquest article es proposa analitzar els processos de construcció de paternitat i maternitat en el context de les famílies recompostes mixtes, residents a Catalunya, des de la perspectiva de la Antropologia del Parentiu centrada en la criança, socialització i adscripció de la nova prole al grup. Es presenten les propostes teòriques i metodològiques utilitzades per a l’anàlisi d'aquestes realitats familiars i s’exposen els resultats més rellevants fruit del treball de recerca del Màster corresponent a la primera i segona fase de l'estudi longitudinal proposat. Cal destacar la innovació que la temàtica presenta, doncs a més d'aportar nova informació i coneixement etnogràfic a un tema força estudiat des de l'Antropologia, s'està treballant amb un focus de població de difícil accés ja que no apareix fàcilment en censos o registres oficials.; Schneider (1984) criticism to kinship as an analytic domain made possible that new reflections around the way we analyze the multiple transformations that have been arosen in this field. These changes bring in to question the cultural conceptions based mainly on blood kinship...

La formació de les famílies en el marc de l'escola inclusiva : un repte per a les comunitats d'aprenentatge

Ferrer Esteban, Gerard; Martínez Ortiz, Sergi
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 CAT
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És fonamental per a l'estratègia d'una escola que pretengui esdevenir una «comunitat d'aprenentatge» apuntar cap a la plena inclusió i la participació efectiva de les famílies en els diferents espais i nivells de l'escola. Aquesta participació significativa de les famílies s'entén, atenent diverses experiències educatives, com un criteri de qualitat que cal tenir present en el marc de les «escoles inclusives». Els obstacles que dificulten aquesta participació són diversos, però també són diverses les estratègies que la faciliten i la fomenten. Una de les estratègies per encoratjar el compromís de mares, pares i altres familiars amb el bon funcionament de l'escola és la creació i el desenvolupament d'espais de formació que contribueixin no només al foment de les seves aptituds i habilitats educatives, sinó també a millorar el funcionament i la qualitat educativa del context escolar i comunitari.; It is fundamental for the strategy of schools which wish to become a «Learning Community », to aim to full inclusion and effective participation of parents and other relatives in different spaces of school. The meaningful participation of parents and relatives is understood as a quality practice to undertake in «inclusive schools». There exist several barriers that difficult participation...

A importância do que se aprende na escola: a parceria escola-famílias em perspectiva; The importance of what is learned in school: the school-families partnership in perspective

Reali, Aline Maria de Medeiros Rodrigues; Tancredi, Regina Maria Simões Puccinelli
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2005 POR
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Este artigo examina resultados de um projeto cujo objetivo foi fortalecer as relações escola-famílias. Consideraram-se as demandas indicadas por uma comunidade escolar (professores e famílias dos alunos de uma escola pública estadual de segundo ciclo do ensino fundamental). A experiência foi desenvolvida a partir do uso de uma metodologia de pesquisa e intervenção relacionada a um programa de formação continuada de professores no local de trabalho. Dados de questionários e de entrevistas com os diferentes participantes foram considerados assim como de observações dos encontros dos pesquisadores com os professores e destes com as famílias de seus alunos. Com a experiência foi possível construir, em colaboração, estratégias de aproximação escola-famílias. Para tanto, partiu-se das visões que professores e famílias apresentavam sobre as necessidades educativas dos alunos e a importância dos conhecimentos escolares. Foi possível ainda conhecer aspectos da cultura escolar e promover e acompanhar processos de desenvolvimento profissional de professores.; This paper examines the results of a project that aimed the strengthening school-family relationship. Considering the demands indicated by one school community (teachers and their students' families) a research and intervention methodology was adopted in an in-service continued teacher education program. The data from questionnaires and interviews with the subjects were considered as well the observational information gathered in the meetings between the researchers and the school teachers and between them with their students' families. With this experience it was possible to construct collaboratively...

Evolution of supergene families associated with insect resistance

Ranson, Hilary; Claudianos, Charles; Ortelli, Frederika; Abgrall, Christelle; Hemingway, Janet; Sharakhova, Maria; Unger, Maria; Collins, Frank H; Feyereisen, R
Fonte: American Association for the Advancement of Science Publicador: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The emergence of insecticide resistance in the mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of many malaria control programs. We have searched the Anopheles gambiae genome for members of the three major enzyme families - the carboxylesterases, glutathione transferases, and cytochrome P450s - that are primarily responsible for metabolic resistance to insecticides. A comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster reveals that a considerable expansion of these supergene families has occurred in the mosquito. Low gene orthology and little chromosomal synteny paradoxically contrast the easily identified orthologous groups of genes presumably seeded by common ancestors. In A. gambiae, the independent expansion of paralogous genes is mainly a consequence of the formation of clusters among locally duplicated genes. These expansions may reflect the functional diversification of supergene families consistent with major differences in the life history and ecology of these organisms. These data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated enzymes within these families. This will enable the resistance status of mosquitoes, flies, and possibly other holometabolous insects to be monitored. The analyses also provide the means for identifying previously unknown molecules involved in fundamental biological processes such as development.

Seleção recorrente em famílias endogâmicas em milho pipoca; Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

Daros, Máskio; Amaral Jr., Antônio Teixeira do; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Santos, Fabrício Santana; Gabriel, Ana Paula Cândido; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; Freitas Jr., Silvério de Paiva; Silvério, Lucas
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2004 ENG
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Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test), making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index...