Página 19 dos resultados de 287511 itens digitais encontrados em 0.098 segundos

The impact of family and budget structure on health treatment in Nigeria

Orubuloye, I. O; Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat; Bledsoe, Caroline H
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 71233 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Health-treatment decisions, in much of the world, are affected by the family’s ability to meet the cost. In West Africa the situation is more complex because husbands and wives typically have separate budgets. This article reports an exploration of the impact on treatment of divided family budgets in Nigeria where health services now charge for prescribed drugs. It was found that most child treatment is paid for by one person only, usually a parent, and that the treatment chosen is decided by the person meeting the cost. Mothers are most likely to pay for minor illnesses but the father’s role becomes more important as the cost rises. Because the type, and even fact, of treatment depends on the ability to pay, and because the family is not a unity in these decisions, the health system may have to devise charging procedures that make both parents responsible, possibly with community involvement in securing payment.; yes

Childhood health-care practices among Italians and Jews in the United States, 1910-1940

Goldstein, Alice; Watkins, Susan Cotts; Spector, Ann Rosen
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 55854 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This paper examines attitudes toward childhood health-care practices among urban Italian and Jewish families in the United States in the first part of the twentieth century. Although women in both groups were concerned about their children’s health, Italian and Jewish respondents differed in their attitudes toward home remedies, doctors, and medical advice literature. Jewish women were more likely to turn rapidly to professional medical assistance, typically from Jewish doctors, whereas Italian women were more likely to rely longer on common sense before eventually seeking professional medical intervention outside the family and ethnic group. These differences are evident both in the respondents’ recollections of their mothers’ and their own child-care practices, and suggest persistent ethnic cultures. That differences in child care are consistent with the mortality differences documented in other sources supports previous speculations about the importance of child care, and thus the role of culture in health transitions.; yes

Socio-economic differentials in the health-related quality of life of Australian children: results of a national study

Spurrier, N.; Sawyer, M.; Clark, J.; Baghurst, P.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children living in different socio-economic contexts in Australia. METHODS: Parental reports describing the HRQL and socio-economic status of a random national sample of 3,597 school-age children were obtained using the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and a standardised socio-economic interview. Response rate was 70%. RESULTS: Children in families of higher income, whose parents had more years of schooling and were employed and children who lived in two-parent, original families had significantly higher HRQL across a range of domains assessed by the CHQ. CONCLUSION: Children from lower socio-economic backgrounds in Australia have a significantly more negative experience of health and wellness. Such differences may well increase unless deliberate political attention is given to addressing the widening differences in relative wealth in Australia.; Nicola J. Spurrier, Michael G. Sawyer, Jennifer J. Clark and P.A. Baghurst; © Public Health Association Australia

Service provision among adult public dental service patients: baseline data from the Commonwealth Dental Health Program

Brennan, D.; Spencer, A.; Slade, G.
Fonte: PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOC AUSTRALIA INC Publicador: PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOC AUSTRALIA INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Patients using publicly funded dental care have been reported to have frequent emergency visits and extractions; however, reports have been based on data from a limited number of sites around Australia. The aims of this study were to provide baseline data at the beginning of the Commonwealth Dental Health Program to describe the service characteristics of patients receiving publicly funded dental care, and to analyse factors associated with extraction of teeth. In collaboration with state and territory government health departments, data were collected on patient characteristics, visit details and services received by a cross-sectional sample of adult patients receiving dental care in Queensland in October 1993, in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory from March to April 1994, and in Western Australia in October 1994. Data were available for 17,653 dental visits (89.4 per cent were dentate, 56.6 per cent were female, 69.1 per cent were from capital cities, and 38.0 per cent visited for an emergency). For dentate persons, logistic regression showed that factors associated with extractions were: age (< 30 years odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, reference 30+ years), sex (male OR = 1.37...

The biomedically assessed cumulative burden of chronic disease risk factors on health-related quality of life in an urban population

Appleton, S.; Adams, R.; Wilson, D.; Taylor, A.; DalGrande, E.; Chittleborough, C.; Ruffin, R.
Fonte: Australian Health Promotion Association Publicador: Australian Health Promotion Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
ISSUES ADDRESSED: To determine the burden of multiple biomedical and behavioural risk factors for chronic disease and their impact upon health-related quality of life (HRQL). METHODS: The North West Adelaide Health (Cohort) Study (NWAHS) is a biomedical population study using a representative sample (n=2,523, age range: 18-90 years) in South Australia, in 2000. Participants were assessed for blood pressure, total cholesterol, and body mass index. Information on demographics, smoking, physical activity levels, alcohol use and HRQL [Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)] was obtained by self-completed questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, > or = 3 risk factors was 15.6%, 28.8%, 30.5% and 25.1 %, respectively. There was a significant negative trend on all SF-36 dimension scores as the number of risk factors increased from zero to three or more, independent of the presence of one or more chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke). The trend was most marked for those with risk factors and chronic disease. Standard SF-36 scores indicated mild to severe reductions in HRQL at all risk factor levels in those with a selected chronic disease. In participants with no disease...

Understanding help seeking for mental health in rural South Australia: thematic analytical study

Collins, J.; Winefield, H.; Ward, L.; Turnbull, D.
Fonte: Australian Journal Primary Health, Australian Institute Primary Care & School Public Health Publicador: Australian Journal Primary Health, Australian Institute Primary Care & School Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This study investigated barriers to help seeking for mental health concerns and explored the role of psychological mindedness using semistructured interviews with sixteen adults in a South Australian rural centre. Prior research-driven thematic analysis identified themes of stigma, self-reliance and lack of services. Additional emergent themes were awareness of mental illness and mental health services, the role of general practitioners and the need for change. Lack of psychological mindedness was related to reluctance to seek help. Campaigns, interventions and services promoting mental health in rural communities need to be compatible with rural cultural context, and presented in a way that is congruent with rural values.; Joanne E. Collins, Helen Winefield, Lynn Ward and Deborah Turnbull

Improving Indigenous health through better medication management: an overview

de Crespigny, C.; Kowanko, I.; Murray, H.; Emden, C.; Wilson, S.
Fonte: Australian Journal Primary Health, Australian Institute Primary Care & School Public Health Publicador: Australian Journal Primary Health, Australian Institute Primary Care & School Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This paper provides an overview of a major South Australian research project with implications for the health of all Indigenous Australians. The researchers set out to explore the medication needs of Aboriginal people with mental health problems and found that most Aboriginal people have to deal with profound challenges to social and emotional wellbeing with significant medication implications. No previous research had investigated the problem of medication use by Aboriginal people in metropolitan, rural and remote locations to the depth and extent of this project. The research therefore is of widespread relevance and holds interest for many Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals and groups, consumers, service providers and policy-makers. As a research team comprising Indigenous and non-Indigenous members, we were committed to implementing strategies in the course of the project with immediate benefit to project participants as well as longer-term impact on improved use of medications. The design of the project enabled these strategic interventions and we are pleased to promote this model to other researchers. Recommendations from the project concern services, coordination of care, carers and family members, workforce education...

Challenges in comparing the methods and findings of cohort studies of oral health: the Dunedin (New Zealand) and Pelotas (Brazil) studies

De Anselmo Peres, M.; Thomson, W.; Glazer De Anselmo Peres, K.; Horta, B.; Broadbent, J.; Poulton, R.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
OBJECTIVE: to systematically compare methods and some findings from two prospective cohort studies of oral health. METHODS: This paper describes and compares two such population-based birth cohort studies of younger adults: the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (conducted in New Zealand); and the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (conducted in Brazil). RESULTS: The two cohorts showed sociodemographic similarities and differences, with their gender mixes being similar, but their ethnic compositions differing markedly. There were some important similarities and differences in methods. Overall dental caries experience was higher among the Dunedin cohort. Each of the studies has examined the association between childhood-adulthood changes in socio-economic status and oral health in the mid-20s. Both studies observed the greatest disease experience among those who were of low SES in both childhood and adulthood, and the least among those who were of high SES in both childhood and adulthood. In each cohort, disease experience in the upwardly mobile and downwardly mobile groups lay between those two extremes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: There are important similarities and differences in both methods and findings. While the need for a degree of methodological convergence in future is noted...

A method for the design and development of medical or health care information websites to optimize search engine results page rankings on Google

Dunne, Suzanne S.; Cummins, Niamh M; Hannigan, Ailish; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter
Fonte: Journal of Medical Internet Research Publicador: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
peer-reviewed; Background: The Internet is a widely used source of information for patients searching for medical/health care information. While many studies have assessed existing medical/health care information on the Internet, relatively few have examined methods for design and delivery of such websites, particularly those aimed at the general public. Objective: This study describes a method of evaluating material for new medical/health care websites, or for assessing those already in existence, which is correlated with higher rankings on Google's Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). Methods: A website quality assessment (WQA) tool was developed using criteria related to the quality of the information to be contained in the website in addition to an assessment of the readability of the text. This was retrospectively applied to assess existing websites that provide information about generic medicines. The reproducibility of the WQA tool and its predictive validity were assessed in this study. Results: The WQA tool demonstrated very high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95) between 2 independent users. A moderate to strong correlation was found between WQA scores and rankings on google.com SERPs. Analogous correlations were seen between rankings and readability of websites as determined by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores. Conclusions: The use of the WQA tool developed in this study is recommended as part of the design phase of a medical or health care information provision website...

An exploratory analysis of large health cohort study using Bayesian networks

Shen, Delin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 98 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Large health cohort studies are among the most effective ways in studying the causes, treatments and outcomes of diseases by systematically collecting a wide range of data over long periods. The wealth of data in such studies may yield important results in addition to the already numerous findings, especially when subjected to newer analytical methods. Bayesian Networks (BN) provide a relatively new method of representing uncertain relationships among variables, using the tools of probability and graph theory, and have been widely used in analyzing dependencies and the interplay between variables. We used BN to perform an exploratory analysis on a rich collection of data from one large health cohort study, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), with the focus on breast cancer. We explored the data from the NHS using BN to look for breast cancer risk factors, including a group of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP). We found no association between the SNPs and breast cancer, but found a dependency between clomid and breast cancer. We evaluated clomid as a potential riskfactor after matching on age and number of children. Our results showed for clomid an increased risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.11-2.09) and a decreased risk of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer (odds ratio 0.46...

Reconceptualizing Native Women's Health: An “Indigenist” Stress-Coping Model

Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2002 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2002
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This commentary presents an “indigenist” model of Native women's health, a stress-coping paradigm that situates Native women's health within the larger context of their status as a colonized people. The model is grounded in empirical evidence that traumas such as the “soul wound” of historical and contemporary discrimination among Native women influence health and mental health outcomes. The preliminary model also incorporates cultural resilience, including as moderators identity, enculturation, spiritual coping, and traditional healing practices.

Partnerships for Environmental and Occupational Justice: Contributions to Research, Capacity and Public Health

Baron, Sherry; Sinclair, Raymond; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Phelps, Jerry; Zenick, Harold; Collman, Gwen W.; O'Fallon, Liam R.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
In 1994, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) initiated a program to address communication gaps between community residents, researchers and health care providers in the context of disproportionate environmental exposures. Over 13 years, together with the Environmental Protection Agency and National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, NIEHS funded 54 environmental justice projects. Here we examine the methods used and outcomes produced based on data gathered from summaries submitted for annual grantees' meetings. Data highlight how projects fulfilled program objectives of improving community awareness and capacity and the positive public health and public policy outcomes achieved. Our findings underscore the importance of community participation in developing effective, culturally sensitive interventions and emphasize the importance of systematic program planning and evaluation.

The Polarizing Effect of News Media Messages About the Social Determinants of Health

Gollust, Sarah E.; Lantz, Paula M.; Ubel, Peter A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Framing health problems in terms of the social determinants of health aims to shift policy attention to nonmedical strategies to improve population health, yet little is known about how the public responds to these messages. We conducted an experiment to test the effect of a news article describing the social determinants of type 2 diabetes on the public's support for diabetes prevention strategies. We found that exposure to the social determinants message led to a divergence between Republicans' and Democrats' opinions, relative to their opinions after viewing an article with no message about the causes of diabetes. These results signify that increasing public awareness of the social determinants of health may not uniformly increase public support for policy action.

Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

Barros, Fernando C.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Giugliani, Elsa; Maranhão, Ana Goretti; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Bustreo, Flavia; Merialdi, Mario; Victora, Cesar G.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
We analyzed Brazil's efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that proactive measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil's successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries.

“Write a Chapter and Change the World” How the Boston Women's Health Book Collective Transformed Women's Health Then—and Now

Heather, Stephenson; Zeldes, Kiki
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Working together informally, the core group of women who would later form the Boston Women's Health Book Collective wrote a book that would become the bible of women's health, selling more than 4 million copies. They also created an organization that would carry their mission forward. From the first newsprint edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves, which became an underground sensation, to the brand new book, Our Bodies, Ourselves: Pregnancy and Birth, released in March 2008, the group has educated women and men, critiqued the medical system, examined inequalities based on gender, race, sexual orientation, class, and other categories, and urged readers to move from individual self-help to collective action promoting social policies that support the health of women and communities.

Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform

Perkins, Barbara Bridgman
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs.

Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Health Among University Students in the United States

Higgins, Jenny A.; Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.

Health Policy and the Coloring of an American Male Crisis: A Perspective on Community-Based Health Services

Smith, Amos L.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Health services at the community level are organized and financed in such a way that men need access but encounter barriers to care such as poor service design, lack of insurance, and the absence of health literacy.

Promoting Health in American-Occupied Japan Resistance to Allied Public Health Measures, 1945-1952

Nishimura, Sey
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
As soon as the authority of the Public Health and Welfare Section (PHW) of the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers waned in May 1951, the Japanese government overturned several measures it had implemented. Although the PHW contributed greatly toward improving public health conditions, not all of its activities were models of cooperative success. Many Japanese perceived some measures—terminated pensions for wounded Japanese veterans, lack of support for segregated orphanages for mixed-race children, and suppression of Japanese atomic bomb medical reports—as promoting US national interest at the expense of Japanese public health needs. Similarly, the PHW's upgrade of nursing education and separation of the professions of medicine and pharmacy were reversed because neither professionals nor the public saw these measures as urgent. Their reinstitution toward the end of the twentieth century suggests that the progressive measures were sound, but broke too sharply with Japanese tradition and were enforced prematurely.

Triangulating on Success: Innovation, Public Health, Medical Care, and Cause-Specific US Mortality Rates Over a Half Century (1950–2000)

Rust, George; Satcher, David; Fryer, George Edgar; Levine, Robert S.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
To identify successes in improving America's health, we identified disease categories that appeared on vital statistics lists of leading causes of death in the US adult population in either 1950 or 2000, and that experienced at least a 50% reduction in age-adjusted death rates from their peak level to their lowest point between 1950 and 2000. Of the 9 cause-of-death categories that achieved this 50% reduction, literature review suggests that 7 clearly required diffusion of new innovations through both public health and medical care channels. Our nation's health success stories are consistent with a triangulation model of innovation plus public health plus medical care, even when the 3 sectors have worked more in parallel than in partnership.