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An Assessment Tool for Public Procurement Agencies in Health Sector in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Government of India (GoI) under its common minimum program is enhancing central funding to states for effective delivery of essential health services to underserved populations residing in the rural areas of the country. Flexible financing is being provided to states under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to develop locally relevant strategies to improve service delivery and implement evidence-based interventions to enhance health outcomes of centrally sponsored schemes in the health sector. Such rapid scaling-up of central allocations for different health sector schemes will involve massive procurement of health sector goods by the states and districts that have capacity constraints to undertake health sector procurement The NRHM framework notes that continued central procurement is not a solution and proposes a phased decentralization of procurement to states and districts. This note supports the approach of phased decentralization through development of an assessment tool for systematically identifying the procurement capacity constraints at state level.

Improving Local Governance in Angola : Strengthening the Links between Decentralization and Community Driven Development - Case Studies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This study is the second phase of an analysis of local governance in Angola. The first phase aimed to identify factors enabling and constraining local governance, from the point of view of local government and of civil society. Phase one also identified opportunities for reinforcing state-citizen co-productive relationships. The second phase considers how current programs are dealing with the structural constraints and opportunities identified during phase one. The study aimed to be practice based and produce recommendations firmly based in local reality. The study is part of a three-country analysis by the World Bank, including the Philippines and Zambia, in addition to Angola. The three country studies followed the same questionnaire and gathered similar information to allow for comparative analysis. While the study highlights a variety of programs aimed at strengthening local government-civil society relationships, a note of caution is essential. Most of these programs are still in the relatively early stages and are continuing to identify the most effective approaches in overcoming constraints. Sustainability remains a live question for most and while the study tries to address this issue...

State-Society Synergy for Accountability : Lessons for the World Bank

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The paper first surveys the literature on accountability and establishes a categorization of the different ways by which civil society can interact with the state in order to improve accountability. It then explores in detail seven case studies of successful experiences of state-society synergy for accountability. The studies draw from a wide range of different contexts (Brazil, India, Mexico, the United States) and from a variety of different areas of government activity (corruption control, environmental regulation, poverty reduction, election monitoring, infrastructure provision, school reform, police reform). The paper concludes with a series of conceptual and practical lessons for World Bank staff on how best to initiate, design, and implement successful pro-accountability mechanisms grounded in state-society synergy. Some of the most important lessons include the need to fully institutionalize participative mechanisms, to involve societal actors from the very beginning of the design stage of the process...

Hungary : Long-term Poverty, Social Protection, and the Labor Market, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report documents the emergence of a group of long-term poor in Hungary. While growth will continue to be necessary to create well-paying jobs that would enable people to escape poverty, the long term poor are not likely to benefit from growth since they are detached from the labor market, socially excluded, and in many cases, facing discrimination which keeps them from reintegrating into the labor market. The long-term poor in Hungary are comprised of several distinct social groups: the homeless, rural population particularly those living in micro-communities, unemployed or withdrawn from the labor market, households with more than three children, single parent families, single elderly females, and the Roma. A third of the long-term poor are of Roma ethnicity, even though this group is only approximately 5 percent of the Hungarian population. The analysis of the labor market confirms the connection between long-term unemployment and long-term poverty. One of the messages of this report is that the Roma need good-paying jobs first and foremost. Many Roma villages are characterized by a cycle of dependency on state transfers. Reinsertion programs are needed to break this cycle. In the medium term...

Hungary : Long-term Poverty, Social Protection, and the Labor Market, Volume 2. Technical Papers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report documents the emergence of a group of long-term poor in Hungary. While growth will continue to be necessary to create well-paying jobs that would enable people to escape poverty, the long term poor are not likely to benefit from growth since they are detached from the labor market, socially excluded, and in many cases, facing discrimination which keeps them from reintegrating into the labor market. The long-term poor in Hungary are comprised of several distinct social groups: the homeless, rural population particularly those living in micro-communities, unemployed or withdrawn from the labor market, households with more than three children, single parent families, single elderly females, and the Roma. A third of the long-term poor are of Roma ethnicity, even though this group is only approximately 5 percent of the Hungarian population. The analysis of the labor market confirms the connection between long-term unemployment and long-term poverty. One of the messages of this report is that the Roma need good-paying jobs first and foremost. Many Roma villages are characterized by a cycle of dependency on state transfers. Reinsertion programs are needed to break this cycle. In the medium term...

Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare. The urban poverty profile is examined in each city, through migration, growth, and mobility patterns, including education and labor characteristics. In terms of land and housing, in all three cities, almost half of the poor who reported being property owners have weak, or no documentation over their properties, and, considerable portions of the poor population, are not connected to the public aqueduct, while few if any, receive help from the government. High dependency on public transportation was reported, e.g., one hundred percent in El Salvador, ninety seven percent in Tegucigalpa. Institutional, and policy issues explain the current situation: in terms of decentralization...

Slovakia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Slovak financial accountability systems are strongly influenced by the Communist past but must meet the needs of a European future. Fortunately, Slovakia has the benefit of laws and institutions pre-dating communism, easing the transition from one system to the other. Past influences are still strong: centralization, strong controls, and a uniform system of accounting based on a chart of accounts. In the future, Slovakia will need improved public financial management, fiscal decentralization, a more competitive economy, an effective capital market, and harmonization of standards with those of the European Union. A good start has been made on many fronts. But there is still tension between the culture of control and a more flexible policy based on standards, quality performance, accountability, and competition. Among the specific, required financial management actions, the report recommends ratifying the European Convention on money laundering, establishing a public procurement office and procurement monitoring procedures...

Sierra Leone : Strategic Options for Public Sector Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The purpose of this paper is to outline strategic options for the reform of the public sector. The strategic options will be based upon an analysis of the public sector emerging from the civil war, and a longer period of deterioration and decline. The strategy will be expressed in very broad-brush form; detailed planning will only be possible once the basic strategic decisions have been taken. Years of corrupt, and ineffective government, causing - as well as compounded by - civil war, have left Sierra Leone with poor access to basic services, especially outside Freetown, with substantial dependence on NGOs. Expenditure management is weak; there is no effective accountability; human capacity is weak throughout the public service; and, the management of policy, and programs is highly centralized in Freetown, and in the Office of the President, and the Ministry of Finance. Nonetheless, there is now a strong consensus in favor of reforming the policy process, expenditure management, and accountability. And, there is an ever stronger determination to decentralize the delivery of basic services. The "options" concern the rate of decentralization. But...

Emerging Infrastructure Policy Issues in Developing Countries: A Survey of the Recent Economic Literature

Estache, Antonio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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The author reviews the recent economic research on emerging issues for infrastructure policies affecting poor people in developing countries. His main purpose is to identify some of the challenges the international community, and donors in particular, are likely to have to address over the next few years. He addresses six main issues: (1) the necessity of infrastructure in achieving the Millennium Development Goals; (2) the various dimensions of financing challenges for infrastructure; (3) the debate on the relative importance of urban and rural infrastructure needs; (4) the debate on the effectiveness of infrastructure decentralization; (5) what works and what does not when trying to target the needs of the poor, with an emphasis on affordability and regulation challenges; and (6) the importance of governance and corruption in the sector. The author concludes by showing how the challenges identified define a relatively well integrated agenda for both researchers and the international infrastructure community.

Information-Based Instruments for Improved Urban Management

Deichmann, Uwe; Lall, Somik V.; Suri, Ajay; Rajoria, Pragya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The task of urban managers is to ensure the provision of basic urban services, such as water, waste removal, security, transport, and an environment conducive to economic activity, while maintaining fiscal sustainability of city operations. City managers in developing countries face increasing pressure in achieving these goals because of rapid urbanization, the larger responsibilities following decentralization, and the economic challenges of globalization. Based on experience in Bangalore, India, the authors argue that effective, forward-looking urban management requires a much better information infrastructure than is currently available in most cities.

India - Public Financial Management and Accountability in Panchayati Raj Institutions (Rural Local Governments) : Synthesis Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This Study has been designed to serve as a reference point for (i) mapping the Public Financial Management and Accountability (PFMA) arrangements currently in place; (ii) highlighting good practices that have emerged across States relative to PFMA; and (iii) summarizing issues that are most relevant to the Government of India, State Governments and the Bank when it comes to financing future projects through Panchayati Raj Institution (PRIs). This Synthesis also captures the recommendations of the Eleventh and Twelfth Finance Commissions, as well as the initiatives of the recently constituted Ministry of Panchayati Raj (MoPR). Inter alia, the MoPR has laid out a road map for enhancing the accountability of PRIs to their constituents. Because devolution of powers has resulted in different models in the various states, this study has not attempted prescriptive solutions or standard models for implementation. Rather, this study offers input to the design of Bank interventions and activities relating to Decentralization; it is not in itself a Decentralization study. This Study covers PRIs in six Indian states...

Fiscal Implications of the 18th Amendment : The Outlook for Provincial Finances

Pasha, Aisha Ghaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Following the transition to democracy in 2008, two very important political developments took place. These were the announcement of the 7th National Finance Commission Award, which was agreed upon in December 2009 in Lahore, Pakistan, and the unanimous ratification by Parliament of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution in April 2010. Both developments have the potential of fundamentally restructuring the way Pakistan is governed in the future. This paper is divided into four sections. The first provides a quick overview of the 18th Amendment and Its Major Fiscal Implications on Provincial Governments, including new functional responsibilities and institutions and financing of new responsibilities. The 18th Amendment brought important institutional changes and the fiscal powers of the provinces have been enhanced. As a result, the 18th Amendment will lead to a more balanced and decentralized structure of government of Pakistan and to an enhanced empowerment by the provinces. The second section provides an outlook for provincial finances and trends in fiscal variables and discusses borrowing and debt levels and ways to raise provincial resources. Under the 18th Amendment...

Municipal Finances : A Handbook for Local Governments

Farvacque-Vitkovic, Catherine; Kopanyi, Mihaly
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This handbook aims to help local government practitioners, particularly staff of medium and large cities, improve strategic management of municipal finances. The demands for pragmatic knowledge are fueled in part by decentralization and fiscal pressures, as transfer of responsibilities from central to local governments are not often accompanied with an adequate transfer of resources. Practitioners seek ideas and tools to control expenditures, strengthen revenues, as well as to tap large external funds, achieve creditworthiness, and adopt good borrowing practices. Advocating sound municipal management based on improved governance and enhanced accountability, this handbook provides a comprehensive picture of municipal finances with a broad scope. The eight chapters cover such topics as fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental finances; management of metropolises; instruments of good financial management; management of revenues, expenditures, assets, and external resources; and performance measurement. Focusing on the perspectives of local officers...

Sharing Natural Resource Revenues with Affected Communities : Policy Options for Mozambique

Nombora, Dionisio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This note analyzes the institutional and policy context in which Mozambique allocates and manages resource revenues at the subnational level. Its objectives are: (i) to better understand the extent to which the current revenue-sharing system advances the countries stated development goals, (ii) to identify any significant weaknesses or constraints in the current system, and (iii) to provide recommendations for strengthening the policy framework and institutional mechanisms for sharing resource revenues. This analysis is informed by the international experience with allocating and managing resource revenues at the subnational level, and it applies a number of important lessons learned. The policy note is divided into five sections. Section one presents projections for future resource revenue transfers to subnational governments, both in absolute terms and as a share of each district s total budget. Section two reviews the international experience with resource sharing and identifies key lessons to inform successful policies. Section three presents a broader look at fiscal decentralization in Mozambique. Section four discusses the main findings of the analysis and situates them in the context of Mozambique s current revenue-sharing policies. Section five concludes the note by laying out recommendations to improve Mozambique s institutional and policy framework for allocating resource revenues at the subnational level. This policy note is based on a survey of the international literature on fiscal decentralization in general and resource revenue sharing in particular.

World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 6(1)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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In this issue: gross capital flows: dynamics and crises; crisis recovery and the role of credit: do phoenix miracles exist? Decentralization and municipal spending ability in developing countries; when starting with the most expensive mitigation options makes sense; evaluating the impact of trade interventions; and the influence of society on preferences.

Decentralization, counterinsurgency and conflict recurrence: a study of the Tuareg uprisings in Mali and Niger

Westerfield, Brian S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This thesis undertakes a comparative study of Mali and Niger to determine possible differences that may have influenced the path of the 2012 Tuareg rebellion. Specifically, it seeks to determine if (1) the degree of governmental decentralization achieved after multiple peace agreements led to less government control in one country over the other, and (2) the counterinsurgency strategies applied by each country during previous rebellions could have led the rebels to believe Mali would be a softer target to attack than Niger. The evidence indicates that despite an earlier start and an intense public relations campaign, Mali did not achieve a significantly different level of decentralization than Niger by 2011, removing it as a possible influence on the 2012 rebellion. Both countries created new community level governments charged with administering all aspects of civil services but lacked the revenue to operate without international assistance. The difference in counterinsurgency strategies between the two countries, however, is stark. Malis habitual willingness to compromise with past rebel groups contrasts greatly with Nigers insistence on seeking a military solution to conflicts, giving the 2012 rebels a logical indication of where success would be more likely.

El gasto sanitario público estimado y su financiación ante el reto del traspaso de competencias en materia sanitaria a la Comunidad de Cantabria

Cantarero Prieto, David
Fonte: Decanato de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales de la Universidad de Cantabria Publicador: Decanato de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales de la Universidad de Cantabria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
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RESUMEN. Este artículo examina los efectos del modelo de descentralización asimétrica sobre el gasto sanitario y su financiación en Cantabria. Se presentan algunas consideraciones generales sobre la estimación y necesidades del gasto sanitario, resaltando que es necesario controlar el gasto para asegurar una efectiva sostenibilidad de la financiación de la sanidad pública en Cantabria en el futuro. Por último, la transferencia de la sanidad podría ayudar a potenciar las ventajas de la descentralización y dar respuesta a las necesidades de la población en esta Comunidad Autónoma.; ABSTRACT. This paper examines the effects of the asymmetric decentralization on the regional health care expenditure and its financing in Cantabria. We present sorne general considerations on the estimation and needs of the health care expenditure, hightlighting that is necessary to control it in order to have a technical robustness and political sustainability of the financing of the public health care in Cantabria for the future. Finally, the transfer of health to Cantabria could help to heighten the advantages of decentralization and response to the needs of its population.

El desafío de los gobiernos municipales en el Uruguay: participación ciudadana, transparencia y articulación

Schiavi, Pablo
Fonte: Universidade da Coruña Publicador: Universidade da Coruña
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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[Resumen] A lo largo del presente trabajo abordaremos los principales lineamientos del régimen vigente de descentralización territorial en el Uruguay fijado en la Constitución de la República de 1967, con las enmiendas introducidas en 1997, para afrontar el estudio del tercer nivel de gobierno instaurado por la Ley N° 18.567 de 13 de setiembre de 2009, modificativas y complementarias: los Municipios.En el verdadero ejercicio de uno de los principios básicos de la descentralización local, el relativo a la participación de la ciudadanía, junto a la transparencia y la debida articulación entre los distintos niveles de administración interna, se encuentra el verdadero desafío para un funcionamiento eficiente y eficaz de los gobiernos municipales.La participación ciudadana, la transparencia y la articulación son las claves para el éxito de la gestión de los gobiernos municipales.; [Abstract] Throughout this work we will consider the main lines of the existing system of territorial decentralization in Uruguay set in the Constitution of 1967, as amended in 1997 to address the study of the third level of government established by Law 18. 567 of 13 September 2009, modifying and complementary Municipalities.In the true exercise of one of the basic principles of local decentralization...

Fiscal centralization and the political process

Albornoz, Facundo; Cabrales, Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2010 ENG
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We study the dynamic support for fiscal decentralization in a political agency model from the perspective of a region. We show that corruption opportunities are lower under centralization at each period of time. However, centralization makes more difficult for citizens to detect corrupt incumbents. Thus, corruption is easier under centralization for low levels of political competition. We show that the relative advantage of centralization depends negatively on the quality of the local political class, but it is greater if the center and the region are subject to similar government productivity shocks. When we endogenize the quality of local politicians, we establish a positive link between the development of the private sector and the support for decentralization. Since political support to centralization evolves over time, driven either by economic/political development or by exogenous changes in preferences over public good consumption, it is possible that voters are (rationally) discontent about it. Also, preferences of voters and the politicians about centralization can diverge when political competition is weak.

Pakistan Development Update, October 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Pakistan’s economy posted GDP growth of 4.2 percent in FY2014/15 compared to 4.0 percent in the previous year, but below the 5.1 percent targeted growth envisaged for FY2014-15 in the annual plan. On the demand side, investment and government consumption posted strong growth. Private consumption was supported by record high remittances in the order of US$18.7 billion in FY2014/15. The share of investment in GDP remains relatively small, at 15.1 percent of GDP, about half of the South Asian average at 30 percent. More worryingly, private investment as a share of GDP has been declining and stood at 9.7 percent of GDP in FY2014/15. This low investment has implications for Pakistan’s long term growth potential that has been on a clear declining long run trend as discussed in special section three in this issue. Exports declined in FY2014/15 and this decline was broad based, a result of both low international prices of some of Pakistan’s export products as well as weak external demand. Textiles, which account for about half of all exports...