Página 19 dos resultados de 53723 itens digitais encontrados em 0.038 segundos

The Structure and Development of Logical Representations in Thought and Language

Feiman, Roman
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
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The expressive power of human thought and language comes from the ability to systematically combine a finite vocabulary of concepts into a boundless number of meaningful thoughts. What properties of conceptual representations enable their combination? Three papers investigate different aspects of the combinatorial system in the context of a single general approach – taking logical concepts as a special case of concepts whose content is completely specified by their combinatorial properties. The first paper looks at infants’ ability to represent two types of goals: approach and avoid, where each goal-type could be represented as the negation of the other. Consistent with past literature, we find evidence of children representing approach at 7 month, but failing to represent avoid at both 7 and 14 months. This suggests that these children cannot combine their representation of approach with a negation operator, possibly because they do not yet have this operator. In the second paper, we continue to look at the emergence of logical negation through the relationship between the emergence of the concept and the words that label it. We find that, although 15-month-olds say the word “no”, they do not understand its logical meaning until 24 months. This is the same age at which they begin to produce the word “not”...

A proposal of implementing Hardy's thought-experiment with particles that never met

Wechsler, Sofia
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/12/2008
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Hardy's thought-experiment is the strongest argument against the idea of continuous trajectories of particles from the source to the detector. This idea seems to result as an unavoidable conclusion from some simple experiments. In its original form, Hardy's thought-experiment was proposed for two independent particles, a positron and an electron. The two either meet and annihilate, or don't meet but become entangled. An important feature of entanglements with particles that never meet is the difficulty they raise in front of the assumption of "hidden communication" between the particles. Indeed, if the particles don't meet, they can't have information of one another and it is difficult to explain how can they communicate. In order to implement Hardy's paradox with particles that never meet, the present article proposes to use photons from three different lasers, one laser emitting UV rays, and the other two emitting at the wavelength of the signal photon, respectively the idler photon obtained from the down-conversion of the UV rays. The role of the annihilation in Hardy's experiment will be played by the destructive interference between a down-conversion pair and two photons from the low-energy lasers.; Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures

Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

McCartor, Donald
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2007
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One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.; Comment: 37 pages, no figures

Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

Richardson, Chris D.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Popper's original thought experiment probed some fundamental and subtle rules of quantum mechanics. Two experiments have directly and indirectly tested Popper's hypothesis, but they seem to give contrasting results. The equations governing these two experiments and Popper's thought experiment will be derived from basic quantum principles. The experimental constants will be inputted and it will show that the two experiments agree with each other and with quantum theory.

Toward a Formal Model of the Shifting Relationship between Concepts and Contexts during Associative Thought

Veloz, Tomas; Gabora, Liane; Eyjolfson, Mark; Aerts, Diederik
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2013
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The quantum inspired State Context Property (SCOP) theory of concepts is unique amongst theories of concepts in offering a means of incorporating that for each concept in each different context there are an unlimited number of exemplars, or states, of varying degrees of typicality. Working with data from a study in which participants were asked to rate the typicality of exemplars of a concept for different contexts, and introducing an exemplar typicality threshold, we built a SCOP model of how states of a concept arise differently in associative versus analytic (or divergent and convergent) modes of thought. Introducing measures of state robustness and context relevance, we show that by varying the threshold, the relevance of different contexts changes, and seemingly atypical states can become typical. The formalism provides a pivotal step toward a formal explanation of creative thought proesses.; Comment: 11 pages; 2 figures

The thermodynamic cost of fast thought

de Castro, Alexandre
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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After more than sixty years, Shannon's research1-3 continues to raise fundamental questions, such as the one formulated by Luce4,5, which is still unanswered: "Why is information theory not very applicable to psychological problems, despite apparent similarities of concepts?" On this topic, Pinker6, one of the foremost defenders of the computational theory of mind6, has argued that thought is simply a type of computation, and that the gap between human cognition and computational models may be illusory. In this context, in his latest book, titled Thinking Fast and Slow8, Kahneman7,8 provides further theoretical interpretation by differentiating the two assumed systems of the cognitive functioning of the human mind. He calls them intuition (system 1) determined to be an associative (automatic, fast and perceptual) machine, and reasoning (system 2) required to be voluntary and to operate logical- deductively. In this paper, we propose an ansatz inspired by Ausubel's learning theory for investigating, from the constructivist perspective9-12, information processing in the working memory of cognizers. Specifically, a thought experiment is performed utilizing the mind of a dual-natured creature known as Maxwell's demon: a tiny "man-machine" solely equipped with the characteristics of system 1...

Self-Sustained Thought Processes in a Dense Associative Network

Gros, Claudius
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Several guiding principles for thought processes are proposed and a neural-network-type model implementing these principles is presented and studied. We suggest to consider thinking within an associative network built-up of overlapping memory states. We consider a homogeneous associative network as biological considerations rule out distinct conjunction units between the information (the memories) stored in the brain. We therefore propose that memory states have a dual functionality: They represent on one side the stored information and serve, on the other side, as the associative links in between the different dynamical states of the network which consists of transient attractors. We implement these principles within a generalized winners-take-all neural network with sparse coding and an additional coupling to local reservoirs. We show that this network is capable to generate autonomously a self-sustained time-series of memory states which we identify with a thought process. Each memory state is associatively connected with its predecessor. This system shows several emerging features, it is able (a) to recognize external patterns in a noisy background, (b) to focus attention autonomously and (c) to represent hierarchical memory states with an internal structure.; Comment: 14 pages...

Using Thought-Provoking Children's Questions to Drive Artificial Intelligence Research

Mueller, Erik T.; Minsky, Henry
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We propose to use thought-provoking children's questions (TPCQs), namely Highlights BrainPlay questions, to drive artificial intelligence research. These questions are designed to stimulate thought and learning in children, and they can be used to do the same thing in AI systems. We introduce the TPCQ task, which consists of taking a TPCQ question as input and producing as output both (1) answers to the question and (2) learned generalizations. We discuss how BrainPlay questions stimulate learning. We analyze 244 BrainPlay questions, and we report statistics on question type, question class, answer cardinality, answer class, types of knowledge needed, and types of reasoning needed. We find that BrainPlay questions span many aspects of intelligence. We envision an AI system based on the society of mind (Minsky 1986; 2006) consisting of a multilevel architecture with diverse resources that run in parallel to jointly answer and learn from questions. Because the answers to BrainPlay questions and the generalizations learned from them are often highly open-ended, we suggest using human judges for evaluation.; Comment: update Institute name and URL; fix date of Myers and Myers interview; add reference to Turing++ questions; clarify that we developed the set of annotation tags

Primary and reciprocal space-time experiments, relativistic reciprocity relations and Einstein's train-embankment thought experiment

Field, J. H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The concepts of primary and reciprocal experiments and base and travelling frames in special relativity are concisely described and applied to several different space-time experiments. These include Einstein's train/embankment thought experiment and a related thought experiment, due to Sartori, involving two trains in parallel motion with different speeds. Spatially separated clocks which are synchronised in their common proper frame are shown to be so in all inertial frames and their spatial separation to be Lorentz invariant. The interpretions given by Einstein and Sartori of their experiments, as well as those given by the present author in previous papers, are shown to be erroneous.; Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables. Corrects conceptual errors in physics/0606135v1, physics/0610065v3. See also 0806.3671. v2 Sagnac effect mentioned, minor text improvements, typos removed, references updated

Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes

Kadane, Joseph B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2010
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This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe's Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes' statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.; Comment: Published in the Statistical Science (http://www.imstat.org/sts/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

Las Reglas del Juego: Consideraciones Críticas sobre Radical Hermeneutics de John Caputo

Peña, Lorenzo
Fonte: CESI-JESPRE Publicador: CESI-JESPRE
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 159002 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
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John Caputo has claimed that in limit situations playfulness breaks through as the abyssal ground of our being, thus showing reason to be what freely enacts any rules. As against such a view I argue that there are bound to be some rules any rational thought stands by. Now, we need ceaselessly to sift the entrenched beliefs about what is to count as a rational rule, since established standards and institutions quite often are nothing else but unduly stiff, narrow-minded constraints which, to that extent, depart from what alone is entitled to hold sway over rational thought in general.; Peer reviewed

Walking about Lévi-Strauss. Contributions for an Archaeology of Thought

Criado-Boado, Felipe
Fonte: Bricoleur Press Publicador: Bricoleur Press
Tipo: Capítulo de libro Formato: 1278642 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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[EN]In this text I intend to apply fully the thinking of Claude lévi-Strauss (LS) to archaeology and the study of prehistory. In doing so, I use LS' structural anthropology to consider certain topics traditionally 'forbidden' to prehistoric research (in particular an archaeology of mind, rationality or thought) and employ the archaeological record to complete an anthropology of 'pensée', which would remain unfinished if based only on anthropological data without a historical perspective. The text consists of four stages: first I remember LS' proposals useful to such a purpose; then I develop his statements further to create a history of thinking; I then move on to archaeologise and prehistorise such a history; finally ending with some critical remarks on LS and, in general, the text itself. A major topic of the paper is a discussion on certain main concepts used by LS (thought, thinking and mind) and their translation into English and Spanish.; Peer reviewed

Censura e instancias reformistas en la corte de Francisco I : l'Inquisiteur de Margarita de Navarra en la historia de Cymbalum Mundi

Munari, Simona
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 SPA
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El papel de Margarita de Navarra en la difusión del pensamiento reformista en Francia está estrechamente ligado al misterio que todavía rodea al autor del tratado clandestino Cymbalum Mundi. La historia de la censura considera la condena de este volumen una consecuencia del clima de sospecha creado por la ruptura del delicadísimo equilibrio de poderes ejercidos por el Parlamento y la Facultad de Teología de la Sorbona, las dos instituciones más activas en la lucha contra la herejía. En el contexto de ideas, polémicas, personajes y debates en los que el Cymbalum se coloca idealmente para enmarcar su importancia en la historia del pensamiento religioso del Cinquecento, la obra literaria de Margarita de Navarra constituye una referencia útil para circunscribir un escenario fecundo y problemático. Un texto en concreto, pertenenciente al la producción teatral no bíblica de la reina, se presenta como un pequeño panfleto de actualidad ofreciendo una serie de elementos que, aunque sólo maginalmente, pueden relacionarse con la historia de censura del Cymbalum Mundi. Se trata de L’Inquisiteur, una farce que vuelve a evocar las persecuciones contra el evangelismo.; Margarita de Navarra’s role in the diffusion of reformist thought in France is closely linked to the mystery surrounding the author of the clandestine treatise Cymbalum Mundi. %e history of censorship considers the condemnation of this volume to be a consequence of the climate of suspicion created by the rupture of the highly delicate balance of powers exercised by the Parliament and the Faculty of %eology...

Los fundamentos del constitucionalismo aragonés : una aproximación

Gascón Pérez, Jesús
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 SPA
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El presente artículo constituye una aproximación al estudio del pensamiento político aragonés. Tomando como punto de partida la promulgación, en 1592, de un fuero contra quien provocase motines apellidando libertad, se recuerda que el ordenamiento foral del reino había dado lugar a la elaboración de una teoría que justificaba la resistencia al monarca cuando éste incumpliese el pacto que, según juristas y cronistas, se hallaba en la base del régimen político aragonés. En consecuencia, analizar el pensamiento constitucionalista que trató de dar consistencia a dicho régimen requiere conocer el origen y naturaleza del corpus foral subyacente, así como profundizar en el papel jugado por los agentes que dieron forma y ayudaron a difundir la ideología. Por último, conviene recordar que el contexto histórico en que ésta se desarrolló contribuyó de modo decisivo a su consolidación, a la vez que facilitó su aceptación por un importante sector de la sociedad aragonesa.; Aquest article constitueix una aproximació a l'estudi del pensament polític aragonès. Prenent com a punt de partida la promulgació, el 1592, d'un fur contra els provocadors de motins amb crides a la llibertat, es recorda que l'ordenament foral del regne havia generat una teoria que justificava la resistència al monarca si aquest incomplia el pacte que...

La estructura mítica del pensamiento social

Fernández Christlieb, Pablo
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html
Publicado em //2001 SPA
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El presente texto plantea que el pensamiento social o colectivo, en conjunto, construye las estructuras de pensamiento dentro de las cuales él mismo se desarrolla, como por ejemplo, la historicidad. De la misma manera, el pensamiento social construye asimismo estructuras "antehistóricas" que permiten explicar su propia aparición, como por ejemplo la noción da causa, siendo, sin embargo, los mitos, la más general de estas estructuras. Las estructuras míticas consisten en ciertas formas, orientaciones, numeraciones y trayectos dentro de un espacio denominado clásicamente "heterogéneo", diferente a la noción científica de un espacio "homogéneo". Se sostiene, finalmente, que el pensamiento cotidiano utiliza indefectiblemente estructuras míticas de pensamiento.; The paper asserts that social or collective thought build the thinking structures in which they take their own shape as it happens, for example, in historicity. In the same way, social thought builds structures that are "prior to history". These make possible to explain their own appearance, in notions like that of "causality". Myths are presented here as the widest of such structures, and mythical structures are certain shapes, orientations, numerations and paths within a space typically taken as "heterogeneous"...

National communication policies : genesis, reception and evolution of the concept in democratic Catalonia

Fernández Viso, Ana; Guimerà i Orts, Josep Àngel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
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In the 21st century, the field of communication policies studies has launched a timely process of revision of notions of ‘communication policy’ and ‘media policy’ in the light of changes observed in their definition, scope and praxis. One of the central aspects of the discussion is the growing strength gained since the mid-1980s by private actors, supranational political organisations and independent bodies with regard to the definition, adoption and implementation of regulatory measures, to the detriment of state government leadership. This article aims to contribute to that debate in two ways. The first is to draw on 1970s’ Latin-American thought on national communication policies (NCPs) as cultural autonomy and development tools. The second is to present how these ideas were received by a number of scholars in Catalonia in the 1980’s and how they have re-elaborated the NCPs concept on the basis of the importance of public communication policies for national reconstruction in a stateless nation.

La correlación ontológica del lenguaje en Ángel Amor Ruibal (precursor lingüístico del siglo XX)

Domínguez Rey, Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 SPA
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A comienzos del siglo XX, entre 1900 y 1905, el pensador gallego Amor Ruibal realiza una síntesis histórica del pensamiento filológico y gramatical de los orígenes orientales y occidentales. Sigue su desarrollo desde la Edad Media hasta el siglo XIX con el comparatismo. Deduce de ello una relación continua entre análisis gramatical (egipcio, sánscrito, hebreo), concreción simbólica de la voz (chino, lenguas indias de América) y síntesis lógica (griego, latín). Advierte en el indoeuropeo esta relación sintética y analítica así como su pervivencia en la derivación romance del latín. El análisis del hecho natural del lenguaje (lenguas) revela también una síntesis psicológica de concreción material sonora del pensamiento. El tipo fonético es forma constitutiva de la raíz y etimología de las palabras. Su organización revela un principio relacional y genético que constituye las primeras unidades morfo-sintácticas con carácter semántico propio: sílaba, palabra, frase (proposición). Amor Ruibal deduce de ello, y antes que Saussure, Sapir y otros lingüistas, la naturaleza del signo lingüístico, su función simbólica y retórica. Con estas reflexiones introduce los fundamentos de la Lingüística del siglo XX...

Ciencia Ficción y Pensamiento Social

Tirado Serrano, Francisco Javier
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 SPA
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Este texto aborda las relaciones entre ciencia ficción y pensamiento social y propone una posible agenda para una introducción al Pensamiento Social desde textos de la ciencia ficción.; This text approaches the relationships between science fiction and social thought. It also presents a possible agenda for an introduction to Social Thought using science fiction texts.

Filosofía oriental y ciencias cognitivas : una introducción

Puente Vigiola, Iker
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
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Este ensayo se propone reflexionar sobre la introducción e influencia de la filosofía orien­tal en el pensamiento occidental, y en particular su relación con las ciencias cognitivas. Se inicia la discusión con un repaso histórico de la introducción de la filosofía oriental en el pensamiento occidental. Después se repasa el progresivo aumento de interés que se produjo a lo largo del siglo xx, propiciado por el interés mostrado por filósofos, lingüistas, psicólogos y físicos occidentales, entre otros. Tras repasar brevemente las principales inves­tigaciones realizadas sobre las diferentes prácticas de meditación, se concluye revisando dos de las principales fuentes de interés hacia la filosofía oriental que aparecieron en la segunda mitad del siglo xx: la psicología transpersonal y las ciencias cognitivas. A partir de este repaso histórico, se concluye que la filosofía oriental puede ser una fuente de inspiración para la psicología y las ciencias cognitivas, y pueden servir de modelo para nuevas formas creativas de entender la relación entre los seres humanos, la mente y la naturaleza.; The aim of this essay is to reflect on the introduction and influence of Eastern philosophy in Western thought, and in particular its relationship to cognitive science. Discussion begins with a historical review of the introduction of Eastern philosophy in Western thought. Then reviews the gradual increase of interest that occurred over the twentieth century...

Reencuentros más allá de las etiquetas

Casacuberta, David,
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
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En el texto se presentan cuáles son las diferencias centrales entre la filosofía oriental y la occidental, haciendo un especial hincapié en el carácter experiencial de la primera, que es lo que hace que el pensamiento oriental sea especialmente fructífero a la hora de analizar filosóficamente las ciencias cognitivas. Seguidamente, se analizan tres problemas clave de la filosofía de la mente actual —las emociones como sistemas cognitivos, el valor de la introspección y convertir la psicología en una disciplina transpersonal— indicando de qué forma el pensamiento oriental puede ayudar a la comprensión de estas cuestiones.; The paper presents what are the key differences between Eastern and Western philosophy, with particular emphasis on the experiential character of the first, which is what makes the Eastern thought to be particularly fruitful in philosophically analyzing cognitive sciences. Next, we analyze three key problems of current philosophy of mind —emotions and cognitive systems, the value of introspection and convert psychology in a transpersonal discipline— indicating how Eastern thought can help to the understanding of these issues.