Página 19 dos resultados de 806 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Acute appendicitis in an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

Bannister, S. L.; Wong, A. L.; Leung, A. K.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 EN
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A preterm infant with acute appendicitis in an incarcerated inguinal hernia is described. We suggest that extraluminal compression of the neck of a hernial sac caused by incarceration may be a predisposing factor for appendicitis.

Deficits in diagnosis, treatment and continuity of care in African-American children and adolescents with ADHD.

Hervey-Jumper, Heather; Douyon, Karl; Franco, Kathleen N.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 EN
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Despite the evidence that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just a diagnosis of whites, it often goes undiagnosed and is underresearched in the African-American population. There are higher rates of delinquency, incarceration, teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases associated with inadequate or delayed treatment of ADHD. Afrcan Americans generally respond well to treatments, but access to evaluation, medication and psychotherapy is limited or absent for many, The purpose of this research is to compare descriptive characteristics of African-American children with ADHD to age-matched Caucasian children with the same diagnosis. Age at diagnosis, treatment offered, perception of outcome, adherence, comorbid symptoms and frequency of follow-up were collected retrospectively from charts of children treated in the sections of child and adolescent psychiatry and pediatric neurology.

The African-American male: brief insights on health, drugs, and incarceration--Part 1.

Dawson, G.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1997 EN
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16.31%

Hepatitis B Virus Infection in US Correctional Facilities: A Review of Diagnosis, Management, and Public Health Implications

Gupta, Shaili; Altice, Frederick L.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Among the blood-borne chronic viral infections, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one that is not only treatable but also preventable by provision of vaccination. Despite the availability of HBV vaccine for the last 15 years, more than 1.25 million individuals in the USA have chronic HBV infection, and about 5,000 die each year from HBV-related complications. From a societal perspective, access to treatment of chronic viral infections, like HIV and viral hepatitis, is highly cost-effective and has lasting benefits by reducing risk behaviors, morbidity, mortality, as well as disease transmission in the community. Individuals in correctional facilities are specially predisposed to such chronic viral infections because of their high-risk behaviors. The explosion of incarceration in the USA over the last few decades and the disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from chronic infections among the incarcerated have put incredible strains on an overcrowded system that was not originally designed to provide comprehensive medical care for chronic illnesses. Recently, there has been a call to address medical care for individuals with chronic medical conditions in correctional settings, including those with infectious diseases. The economic and public health burden of chronic hepatitis B and its sequelae...

Gender Differences in Comorbid Disorders among Offenders in Prison Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

Zlotnick, Caron; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Roberts, Mary B.; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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This study examined gender differences in a range of lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 272 offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program. Although these men and women did not differ in severity of substance use in the six months prior to incarceration, women were significantly more likely than men to report a lifetime psychiatric disorder and a lifetime severe disorder. Furthermore, gender differences emerged in the pattern of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Women reported greater lifetime major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorder, and borderline personality disorder; men were more likely than women to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Additionally, female offenders were found to have a higher degree of internalizing disorders than male offenders, but there were no gender differences in degree of externalizing disorders. The study concluded that women offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program present with a greater psychiatric vulnerability and a different pattern of psychiatric comorbidity than their male counterparts.

Substance Use Treatment Outcomes in a Sample of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders

Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Naranjo, Diana
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The current study examined drug treatment-related reductions in alcohol and marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and non-drug offending among male adolescents who had been adjudicated of a serious (almost exclusively felony) offense. Results indicated that the “real world” drug treatments that these adolescents experienced had significant effects on substance use, which could not be explained solely by incarceration in controlled environments. However, effects on cigarette smoking and criminal offending were found only for treatments that included family involvement. Results suggest that involving families in adolescents’ treatment may be useful for promoting desistence from criminal offending in this population.

HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Ketamine and Non-Ketamine Using Criminal Offenders Prior to Prison Entry

Oser, Carrie; Havens, Jennifer; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wong, Conrad; Leukefeld, Carl; Prendergast, Michael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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This study is the first to examine ketamine use and its association with HIV sexual risk behaviors among a criminal offending population in the United States. Data were collected from 716 inmates as part of the Transitional Case Management (TCM) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses were used to identify differences between ketamine users (n=44) and non-ketamine users (n=672). Three Poisson regression models were used to identify the significant correlates of high risk sexual behaviors in the 30 days prior to incarceration-- (1) number of times had unprotected sex while high, (2) number of times had unprotected vaginal sex, and (3) number of times had unprotected anal sex. Results indicate that ketamine was a significant correlate in all of the Poisson regression models. Findings add to the literature and indicate that ketamine use may be a marker for engaging in HIV risk behaviors among criminal offenders.

Racial Differences in HIV/AIDS Discussion Strategies and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Drug Abusing Female Criminal Offenders

Oser, Carrie B.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Mooney, Jennifer L.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Duvall, Jamieson L.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
African American female inmates are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), with heterosexual contact as the primary mode of transmission. This could be the result of racial differences in the strategies used by women to persuade a potential sexual partner to discuss AIDS and engage in condom use. Data were collected from 336 female inmates in three correctional institutions as part of the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses indicated that African American drug using women were more likely than Whites to use the rational, withdrawal, and persistence approaches to discuss AIDS with an intimate sexual partner. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify which interpersonal discussion strategies were significant correlates of the number of the times White participants and African American participants had unprotected vaginal sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. Results from the multivariate model indicate that White women who are more likely to use the rational discussion strategy were 15% less likely to engage in vaginal sex without a condom; however...

Buprenorphine and Methadone Maintenance in Jail and Post-Release: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Magura, Stephen; Lee, Joshua D.; Hershberger, Jason; Joseph, Herman; Marsch, Lisa; Shropshire, Carol; Rosenblum, Andrew
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Buprenorphine has rarely been administered as an opioid agonist maintenance therapy in a correctional setting. This study introduced buprenorphine maintenance in a large urban jail, Rikers Island in New York City. Heroin-dependent men not enrolled in community methadone treatment and sentenced to 10-90 days in jail (N=116) were voluntarily randomly assigned either to buprenorphine or methadone maintenance, the latter being the standard of care for eligible inmates at Rikers. Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance completion rates in jail were equally high, but the buprenorphine group reported for their designated post-release treatment in the community significantly more often than did the methadone group (48% vs. 14%, p <.001). Consistent with this result, prior to release from Rikers, buprenorphine patients stated an intention to continue treatment after release more often than did methadone patients (93% vs. 44%, p <.001). Buprenorphine patients were also less likely than methadone patients to withdraw voluntarily from medication while in jail (3% vs. 16%, p <.05). There were no post-release differences between the buprenorphine and methadone groups in self-reported relapse to illicit opioid use, self-reported re-arrests, self-reported severity of crime or re-incarceration in jail. After initiating opioid agonist treatment in jail...

“Epidemiological Criminology”: Coming Full Circle

Akers, Timothy A.; Lanier, Mark M.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 EN
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Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare.

Fever, Sacral Pain, and Pregnancy: An Incarcerated Uterus

Sweigart, Amy N.; Matteucci, Michael J.
Fonte: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine Publicador: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 EN
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Uterine incarceration is an uncommon but serious presentation in the emergency department that requires early recognition to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

Sociodemographic, Sexual, and HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk Profiles of Nonhomosexual-Identified Men Who Have Sex With Men

Jeffries, William L.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2009 EN
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I examined sociodemographic, sexual, and HIV and other sexually transmitted disease risk differences among homosexual- and nonhomosexual-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Non-Mexican Latino ethnicity, marriage or cohabitation, religiosity, and incarceration history were positively associated with being nonhomosexual identified. Being nonhomosexual identified was associated with some risk (e.g., more sexual intercourse while intoxicated) and protective (e.g., fewer male partners) behaviors. Probabilistic sampling strategies may be useful in future research and intervention efforts.

Initiation, Adherence, and Retention in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy

Maru, Duncan Smith-Rohrberg; Bruce, R. Douglas; Walton, Mary; Mezger, Jo Anne; Springer, Sandra A.; Shield, David; Altice, Frederick L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) can improve health outcomes among HIV-infected drug users. An understanding of the utilization of DAART—initiation, adherence, and retention—is critical to successful program design. Here, we use the Behavioral Model to assess the enabling, predisposing, and need factors impacting adherence in our randomized, controlled trial of DAART versus self-administered therapy (SAT) among 141 HIV-infected drug users. Of 88 participants randomized to DAART, 74 (84%) initiated treatment, and 51 (69%) of those who initiated were retained in the program throughout the entire six-month period. Mean adherence to directly observed visits was 73%, and the mean overall composite adherence score was 77%. These results were seen despite the finding that 75% of participants indicated that they would prefer to take their own medications. Major causes of DAART discontinuation included hospitalization, incarceration, and entry into drug-treatment programs. The presence of depression and the lack of willingness to travel greater than four blocks to receive DAART predicted time-to-discontinuation.

A Randomized Trial of Probation Case Management for Drug-Involved Women Offenders

Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Monica; Bostrom, Alan; Jessup, Martha; Davis, Thomas; Marsh, Cheryl
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 EN
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This paper reports findings from a clinical trial of a probation case management (PCM) intervention for drug-involved women offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to either PCM (n=92) or standard probation (n=91), and followed for 12 months using measures of substance abuse, psychiatric symptoms, social support and service utilization. Arrest data were collected from administrative datasets. The sample (N=183) included mostly African American (57%) and White (20%) women, with a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 9.2) and mean education of 11.6 years (SD = 2.1). Cocaine and heroin were the most frequently reported drugs of abuse, 86% reported prior history of incarceration, and 74% had children. Women assigned to both PCM and standard probation showed change over time in the direction of clinical improvement on 7 of 10 outcomes measured. However, changes observed for the PCM group were no different than those observed for the standard probation group. Higher levels of case management, drug abuse treatment, and probationary supervision may be required to achieve improved outcomes in this population.

“You Can’t Do Nothing in This Damn Place”: Sex and Intimacy Among Couples With an Incarcerated Male Partner

Comfort, Megan; Grinstead, Olga; McCartney, Kathleen; Bourgois, Philippe; Knight, Kelly
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 EN
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In an effort to deepen our understanding of how circumstances of forced separation and the interdiction of physical contact affect women’s sexual behavior, we investigated the development and maintenance of heterosexual couples’ intimacy when the male partner is incarcerated. As HIV-prevention scientists who work with women visiting men at a California state prison, we recognize that correctional control extends to these women’s bodies, both when they are within the facility’s walls visiting their mates and when they are at home striving to remain connected to absent men. This paper analyzes the impact of a peculiar public “place”—a penitentiary— on couples’ romantic and sexual interactions, drawing out the implications of imprisonment for relationship decision making, sexual health, and HIV risk. Using qualitative interviews with 20 women who visit their incarcerated partners and 13 correctional officers who interact with prison visitors, we examine how institutional constraints such as the regulation of women’s apparel, the prohibition of physical contact, and the lack of privacy result in couples forging alternative “spaces” in which their relationships occur. We describe how romantic scripts, the build-up of sexual tension during the incarceration period...

Client and program factors associated with dropout from court mandated drug treatment

Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Hser, Yih-Ing
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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To examine why court mandated offenders dropout of drug treatment and to compare their characteristics, treatment experiences, perceptions, and outcomes with treatment completers, we analyzed self-reported and administrative data on 542 dropouts (59%) and 384 completers (41%) assessed for Proposition 36 treatment by thirty sites in five California counties during 2004. At intake, dropouts had lengthier criminal histories, lower treatment motivation, more severe employment and psychiatric problems, and more were using drugs, especially heroin. Relatively fewer dropouts received residential treatment and their retention was much shorter. A similar proportion of dropouts received services as completers and the mean number of services received per day by dropouts was generally more, especially to address psychiatric problems, during the first three months of treatment. The most commonly offender-reported reasons for dropout included low treatment motivation (46.2%) and the difficulty of the Proposition 36 program (20.0%). Consequences for dropout included incarceration (25.3%) and permission to try treatment again (24.0%). Several factors predicting drug treatment dropout were identified. Both groups demonstrated improved functioning at one-year follow-up...

Risky Business: Focus-Group Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Drug use and Victimization among Incarcerated Women in St. Louis

Millay, Tamara A.; Satyanarayana, Veena A.; O’Leary, Catina C.; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release.

Methamphetamine use and rates of incarceration among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting: a cross-sectional analysis

Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2009 EN
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16.31%

The dynamics of deterrence

Kleiman, Mark; Kilmer, Beau
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Because punishment is scarce, costly, and painful, optimal enforcement strategies will minimize the amount of actual punishment required to effectuate deterrence. If potential offenders are sufficiently deterrable, increasing the conditional probability of punishment (given violation) can reduce the amount of punishment actually inflicted, by “tipping” a situation from its high-violation equilibrium to its low-violation equilibrium. Compared to random or “equal opportunity” enforcement, dynamically concentrated sanctions can reduce the punishment level necessary to tip the system, especially if preceded by warnings. Game theory and some simple and robust Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate these results, which, in addition to their potential for reducing crime and incarceration, may have implications for both management and regulation.

Compensation for Incarcerated Research Participants: Diverse State Policies Suggest a New Research Agenda

Smoyer, Amy B.; Blankenship, Kim M.; Belt, Brandis
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2009 EN
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Research with prisoners is essential to understanding the incarceration experience and creating interventions to mediate its effects on individual and community health. Policies on research involving incarcerated participants can influence the extent to which researchers are able or willing to conduct prison studies. We attempted to collect data on inmate compensation policies from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. We found that 44% of these jurisdictions allow compensation for inmates who participate in research, with wide variations in terms of the clarity of and ease of access to policy information. Anecdotal data suggest considerable administrative discretion in the implementation of these policies. Further study is needed on how compensation policies are formulated and enacted and their effects on research with prisoners.