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Concordant Phylogeographies of 2 Malaria Vectors Attest to Common Spatial and Demographic Histories

PEDRO, Pedro M.; UEZU, Alexandre; SALLUM, Maria Anice Mureb
Fonte: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC Publicador: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
The phylogeography of South American lineages is a topic of heated debate. Although a single process is unlikely to describe entire ecosystems, related species, which incur similar habitat limitations, can inform the history for a subsection of assemblages. We compared the phylogeographic patterns of the cytochrome oxidase I marker from Anopheles triannulatus (N = 72) and previous results for A. darlingi (N = 126) in a broad portion of their South American distributions. Both species share similar population subdivisions, with aggregations northeast of the Amazon River, in southern coastal Brazil and 2 regions in central Brazil. The average (ST) between these groups was 0.39 for A. triannulatus. Populations northeast of the Amazon and in southeastern Brazil are generally reciprocally monophyletic to the remaining groups. Based on these initial analyses, we constructed the a priori hypothesis that the Amazon and regions of high declivity pose geographic barriers to dispersal in these taxa. Mantel tests confirmed that these areas block gene flow for more than 1000 km for both species. The efficacy of these impediments was tested using landscape genetics, which could not reject our a priori hypothesis but did reject simpler scenarios. Results form summary statistics and phylogenetics suggest that both lineages originated in central Amazonia (south of the Amazon River) during the late Pleistocene (579 000 years ago) and that they followed the same paths of expansion into their contemporary distributions. These results may have implications for other species sharing similar ecological limitations but probably are not applicable as a general paradigm of Neotropical biogeography.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo FAPESP[05/53973-0]; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo FAPESP[08/06099-0]

Bridging genomics and quantitative genetics of Eucalyptus: genome-wide prediction and genetic parameter estimation for growth and wood properties using high-density SNP data; Conectando a genômica à genética quantitativa de Eucalyptus: predição genômica e estimação de parâmetros genéticos para crescimento e propriedades de madeira usando alta densidade de SNPs

Lima, Bruno Marco de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Convergence of quantitative genetics and genomics is becoming the way that fundamental genetics and applied breeding will be carried out in the next decades. This study bridges the quantitative genetics of complex growth and wood properties traits with genomic technologies towards a more innovative approach to tree breeding. Planted forests play a major role to fulfill the growing world demand for wood products and energy. Eucalypts stand out for their high productivity and versatile wood resulting from the advanced breeding programs associated to clonal propagation and modern silviculture. Despite their fast growth, breeding cycles still take several years and wood properties assessment is limited to a sample of trees in the late stages of selection due to the costs involved in wood phenotyping, not exploitingthe range of genetic variation in wood properties. In this study, we examined fifteen traits including growth and wood chemical and physical properties in 1,000 individuals sampled from an elite Eucalyptus breeding population. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) models were developed and used for high-throughput phenotyping of wood traits.Highdensity data for 29,090 SNPs was used to obtain accurate pedigree-record-free estimates of trait variance components...

Análise do risco da ocorrência de biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas; The risk of finding herbicide resistant weed biotypes

Vidal, Ribas Antonio; Fleck, Nilson Gilberto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
A análise do risco da ocorrência de biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas dispõe de fundamentos teóricos adequados, porém é limitada pela falta de mais informações genéticas das espécies daninhas. O risco de encontrar uma área infestada com biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas depende de dois aspectos : da probabilidade de seleção de um mutante resistente a certo mecanismo de ação herbicida; e da probabilidade de infestação da área com plantas resistentes, a partir daquele mutante selecionado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de fatores genéticos na probabilidade de seleção de um mutante resistente a determinado mecanismo de ação herbicida e assim prever o risco de serem encontrados biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas. Os fatores que determinam a probabilidade de selecionar um mutante resistente aos herbicidas podem ser agrupados em três categorias: os relacionados à genética da resistência; os relacionados ao número de plantas daninhas sob seleção; e os relacionados ao herbicida. Os fatores relacionados à genética da resistência são dependentes da freqüência inicial do alelo de resistência, da dominância e do tipo de polinização da espécie. Os fatores relacionados ao número de indivíduos são a área tratada com o herbicida e o grau de infestação da área. Os fatores relacionados aos herbicidas são o seu mecanismo de ação e a sua freqüência de uso na área. As previsões matemáticas indicam alto risco de ocorrência de resistência em áreas com alta infestação de plantas daninhas e que são aspergidas com herbicidas cujos mecanismos de ação apresentam histórico de alta freqüência inicial do alelo de resistência nas populações de plantas daninhas.; The prediction of occurrence of weed resistance to herbicides is limited by the scarcity of information on weed genetics. The risk of finding a resistant weed biotype depends on two aspects : the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant...

Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a literature review

Mathis, Maria Alice de; Alvarenga, Pedro de; Funaro, Guilherme; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Moraes, Ivanil; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Zilberman, Monica L; Hounie, Ana Gabriela
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 390-399
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC) é um quadro heterogêneo, no qual subtipos têm sido propostos. Estudos anteriores sugerem que gênero desempenha papel relevante na expressão fenotípica. O objetivo foi realizar uma revisão convencional da literatura sobre diferenças de gênero em relação a aspectos clínicos e genéticos ou familiares do TOC. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão convencional da literatura incluindo todos os artigos que investigaram aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos e genéticos do TOC, de acordo com o gênero. A pesquisa foi baseada em publicações disponíveis nas bases de dados Medline e PsycInfo nos últimos 20 anos, usando como palavras-chave: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), e: gender, sex, male, female, demographic characteristics, clinical features, clinical characteristics, genetic, genes, genetics gender OCD, genes OCD, genes OCD males, genes OCD females. RESULTADO: Sessenta e três artigos de fenótipo e genética foram selecionados. Na maioria dos estudos, o sexo masculino associou-se mais que o feminino com: ser solteiro, apresentar início mais precoce dos sintomas, maior prejuízo social, mais sintomas sexuais...

Analise de variação e estrutura populacional em loci de microsatelites baseada em distancias geneticas; Analysis of variation and population structure in microsatellite loci based on genetics distances

Tatiana Buratto Bordin Taglianetti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2007 PT
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Neste trabalho, o principal interesse é estudar as medidas de distância genética para loci de microsatélites baseadas nos desvios absolutos e quadráticos sob o modelo de mutação ?stepwise?. Os estudos em microsatélites têm sido cada vez mais freqüentes devido a sua importância na aplicação em mapeamento genético. Desta forma, surgeriu-se um modelo para explicar a mutação nas seqüências de repetições nos loci de microsatélites, que é conhecido por modelo de mutação ?stepwise?. Nesse modelo supõe-se que a cada geração,cada alelo pode sofrer mutação para outra classe alélica. Na sua forma mais simples,que é o modelo mutacional de um passo o alelo pode sofrer mutação, aumentando ou diminuindo em um estado com probabilidade B. Vamos assumir o modelo de mutação?stepwise? de um passo para desenvolver as medidas de distância baseadas nos desvios absolutos e quadráticos. Propõe-se dois testes de homogeneidade, um baseado na medida de distância dos desvios quadráticos e outro na dos devios absolutos. Suas distribuições assintóticas são estudadas utilizando-se a teoria de Estatística U. Para verificar os resultados analíticos com respeito a distribuição assintótica, um modelo de simulação foi aplicado baseado no modelo de mutação ?stepwise? de um passo e na teoria de coalescência. Os testes de homogeneidade são aplicados a dados reais com o interesse de verificar se existe ou não diferença na variação do número de repetições para os grupos definidos pela etnia e o índice de alcolismo (ALDX1) em um determinado locus; In this work...

Anemia falciforme : um problema nosso. Uma abordagem bioética sobre a nova genética; Sickle cell anaemia : a Brazilian problem. A bioethical approach to the new genetics

Diniz, Debora; Guedes, Cristiano
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Este artigo analisa uma das ações educativas adotadas pelo Ministério da Saúde no campo das hemoglobinopatias: o folheto informativo Anemia Falciforme: Um Problema Nosso. O objetivo é discutir as premissas e os valores morais que se encontram associados a iniciativas no campo da educação genética, tendo as políticas públicas sobre anemia falciforme no Brasil como estudo de caso. A análise mostra que o conteúdo do folheto oscila entre políticas de prevenção para doenças e promoção de direitos fundamentais, uma característica da nova genética. Além disso, o excesso de informação biomédica especializada no folheto dificulta sua divulgação em massa. Os resultados encontrados foram discutidos à luz do debate bioético contemporâneo sobre a nova genética. _________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; This article analyzes one of the educational initiatives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health on hemoglobinopathies: the leaflet entitled Sickle Cell Anaemia: A Brazilian Problem. The purpose is to discuss the moral values associated with initiatives in genetics education, and the case study focuses on public policies related to sickle cell anaemia in Brazil. The analysis shows that the topics in the leaflets fluctuate between disease prevention policies and human rights protection...

CGC Genetics case study : a Portuguese SME in a global market

Oliva, Inês
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 10/03/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
This master thesis is divided in three parts: case study, literature review and teaching notes, aiming to provide a real business case used for class discussion in a strategic-based course, where students can apply strategic frameworks and their knowledge in an authentic case. CGC Genetics was the first private medical genetics laboratory in Portugal in 1992. In 2012, CGC offers abroad more than 1500 laboratory and clinical tests that cover all medical areas. In order to provide the best and complete services, besides the laboratory services, the company also provided consults medical genetics and psychological support. In 2012, CGC was supplying 32 countries through the laboratories in Portugal, Spain and United States of America. However, the internationalization to both countries, Spain and United Sates was troubled. The company was not successful when it entered at the first time into Spain, so there was a need to take strategic decisions to improve this situation. However, due the experience gained through the internationalization to Spain, CGC entered in the U.S. market as an American firm, which significantly reduced the barriers. As the company ensures the major capacity in Oporto and the perception about Portugal and Portuguese products or services...

A landscape genetics approach to a contact zone of two salamandra salamandra subspecies in southwest Portugal

Silva, Ana Catarina Afonso, 1988-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011; The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is distributed in the center and south of Europe and has a high genetic and morphological variability. In Portugal there are two subspe-cies described, S. s. gallaica with a northern and central distribution and S. s crespoi with a more restricted distribution in the south. Defining the geographical boundaries between populations and subspecies is frequent-ly difficult because there are often uncertainties on their distribution limits at putative or proven contact areas. One approach being increasingly used to detect cryptic geographic boundaries between populations is landscape genetics. This is an emerging field that inte-grates population genetics, landscape ecology and spatial statistics and it aims to provide in-formation about the interaction between landscape features and microevolutionary processes. I attempted here to determine the geographic distribution and limits of the two aforemen-tioned subspecies at their putative contact zone in southwest Portugal, using data from mi-crosatellites and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome-b analysed with landscape genetics tools. This approach allowed evaluating if the two subspecies are currently in allopatry and the oc-currence of gene flow between them. Results show that the two subspecies are separated by a narrow barrier that contains the Sado River and imposes a very reduced gene flow...

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, updated

Huret, Jean-Loup; Dessen, Philippe; Bernheim, Alain
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The ‘Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology’ (http://www.infobiogen.fr/services/chromcancer) is an Internet database aimed at genes involved in cancer, cytogenetics and clinical entities in cancer, and cancer-prone diseases. It presents information in concise and updated reviews (cards) or longer texts (deep insights), a (new) case report section, a huge portal towards genetics and/or cancer databases, and teaching items in genetics for students in medicine and the sciences. This database is made for and by clinicians and researchers in the above-mentioned fields, who are encouraged to contribute. It deals with cancer research, genomics and cytogenomics. It is at the crossroads of research, post-university teaching and telemedicine. The Atlas is available at no cost.

Hypermutable Non-Synonymous Sites are Under Stronger Negative Selection

Schmidt, Steffen; Gerasimova, Anna; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Adzuhbei, Ivan A.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Mutation rate varies greatly between nucleotide sites of the human genome and depends both on the global genomic location and the local sequence context of a site. In particular, CpG context elevates the mutation rate by an order of magnitude. Mutations also vary widely in their effect on the molecular function, phenotype, and fitness. Independence of the probability of occurrence of a new mutation's effect has been a fundamental premise in genetics. However, highly mutable contexts may be preserved by negative selection at important sites but destroyed by mutation at sites under no selection. Thus, there may be a positive correlation between the rate of mutations at a nucleotide site and the magnitude of their effect on fitness. We studied the impact of CpG context on the rate of human–chimpanzee divergence and on intrahuman nucleotide diversity at non-synonymous coding sites. We compared nucleotides that occupy identical positions within codons of identical amino acids and only differ by being within versus outside CpG context. Nucleotides within CpG context are under a stronger negative selection, as revealed by their lower, proportionally to the mutation rate, rate of evolution and nucleotide diversity. In particular, the probability of fixation of a non-synonymous transition at a CpG site is two times lower than at a CpG site. Thus...

The role of medical libraries in undergraduate education: a case study in genetics*

Tennant, Michele R.; Miyamoto, Michael M.
Fonte: Medical Library Association Publicador: Medical Library Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Between 1996 and 2001, the Health Science Center Libraries and Department of Zoology at the University of Florida partnered to provide a cohesive and comprehensive learning experience to undergraduate students in PCB3063, “Genetics.” During one semester each year, a librarian worked with up to 120 undergraduates, providing bibliographic and database instruction in the tools that practicing geneticists use (MEDLINE, GenBank, BLAST, etc.). Students learned to evaluate and synthesize the information that they retrieved, coupling it with information provided in classroom lectures, thus resulting in well-researched short papers on an assigned genetics topic. Exit surveys of students indicated that the majority found the library sessions and librarian's instruction to be useful. Responses also indicated that the project facilitated increased understanding of genetics concepts and appreciation for the scientific research process and the relevance of genetics to the real world. The library benefited from this partnership on a variety of fronts, including the development of skilled library users, pretrained future clientele, and increased visibility among campus research laboratories. The course and associated information instruction and assigned projects can be considered models for course-integrated instruction and the role of medical libraries in undergraduate education.

Cats as an aid to teaching genetics.

Christensen, A C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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I have used an exercise involving domestic cats in the General Genetics course at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln for the past 5 years. Using a coherent set of traits in an organism familiar to the students makes it easy to illustrate principles of transmission and population genetics. The one-semester course consists primarily of sophomores and juniors who have either taken a one-semester introductory biology course, a one-semester cell biology course, or have a strong high school biology background. The students are given a handout and asked to determine the genotype at seven unlinked loci of at least one cat. To fill out the form, the students have to grasp such concepts as dominance, incomplete dominance, temperature-sensitive mutations, epistatic interactions, sex linkage, and variable expressivity. Completing the form reinforces these concepts as they observe the cat's phenotype and fill in the genotype. I then analyze the collected data and use it in my lectures on population genetics to illustrate the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate allele frequencies, and use statistics. This allows the students to look at population genetics in a very positive light and provides concrete examples of some often misunderstood principles.

Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research

Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process...

Mining the human genome after Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics

Evans, Barbara J
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
The Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics portrays the human genome as a product of nature. This frames medical genetics as an extractive industry that mines a natural resource to produce valuable goods and services. Natural resource law offers insights into problems medical geneticists can expect after this decision and suggests possible solutions. Increased competition among clinical laboratories offers various benefits but threatens to increase fragmentation of genetic data resources, potentially causing waste in the form of lost opportunities to discover the clinical significance of particular gene variants. The solution lies in addressing legal barriers to appropriate data sharing. Sustainable discovery in the field of medical genetics can best be achieved through voluntary data sharing rather than command-and-control tactics, but voluntary mechanisms must be conceived broadly to include market-based approaches as well as donative and publicly funded data commons. The recently revised Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule offers an improved—but still imperfect—framework for market-oriented data sharing. This article explores strategies for addressing the Privacy Rule's remaining defects. America is close to having a legal framework that can reward innovators...

Clinical Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease

Zou, Zhangyu; Liu, Changyun; Che, Chunhui; Huang, Huapin
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common form of dementia in the elderly. It is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. There are two major types of AD, early onset and the more common late onset. The genetics of early-onset AD are largely understood with mutations in three different genes leading to the disease. In contrast, while susceptibility loci and alleles associated with late-onset AD have been identified using genetic association studies, the genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are not fully understood. Here we review the known genetics of early- and late-onset AD, the clinical features of EOAD according to genotypes, and the clinical implications of the genetics of AD.

Modelling infection as a two-step process combining gene-for-gene and matching-allele genetics.

Agrawal, Aneil F; Lively, Curtis M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/02/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
The genetic basis of infection determines the dynamics of host-parasite coevolution and associated phenomena such as local adaptation and the evolution of sex and recombination. Here, we present parasite resistance as a two-step process in which hosts must first detect parasites and then eradicate them; failure at either step results in infection. The model incorporates 'matching-allele' (MA) genetics for detection and 'gene-for-gene' (GFG) genetics for eradication. We found that the oscillatory dynamics were similar to pure GFG genetics when the cost of 'virulence' alleles was low, but resembled pure MA genetics when the cost was high. The magnitude of the cost that switched the dynamics from GFG dominated to MA dominated depended on the genetic architecture of defence (i.e. the number of GFG and MA loci).

Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans

McDonald, Jasmine A.; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Shea, Judy A.; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-sectional survey of donation intentions. Results: The majority of respondents (73%) were willing to donate a biological sample for cancer genetics research. The results of the multivariate regression model found that respondents who received care at a facility other than a doctor's office (e.g., community center) were about five times more likely to be willing to donate a sample for cancer genetics research (odds ratio [OR]=5.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.16–24.12, p=0.03); whereas, greater levels of religiosity (OR=0.09, 95% CI=0.01–0.75, p=0.02) and present temporal orientation (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.06–0.79, p=0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of donating a sample. Conclusion: Efforts to enhance donation of biological samples for cancer genetics research may need to target diverse clinical sites for recruitment. Additionally...

Genetics of autoimmune diseases: insights from population genetics

Ramos, Paula S; Shedlock, Andrew M; Langefeld, Carl D
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Human genetic diversity is the result of population genetic forces. This genetic variation influences disease risk and contributes to health disparities. Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a family of complex heterogeneous disorders with similar underlying mechanisms characterized by immune responses against self. Collectively, ADs are common, exhibit gender and ethnic disparities, and increasing incidence. As natural selection is an important influence on human genetic variation, and immune function genes are enriched for signals of positive selection, it is thought that the prevalence of AD risk alleles seen in different population is partially the result of differing selective pressures (for example, due to pathogens). With the advent of high-throughput technologies, new analytical methodologies and large-scale projects, evidence for the role of natural selection in contributing to the heritable component of ADs keeps growing. This review summarizes the genetic regions associated with susceptibility to different ADs and concomitant evidence for selection, including known agents of selection exerting selective pressure in these regions. Examples of specific adaptive variants with phenotypic effects are included as an evidence of natural selection increasing AD susceptibility. Many of the complexities of gene effects in different ADs can be explained by population genetics phenomena. Integrating AD susceptibility studies with population genetics to investigate how natural selection has contributed to genetic variation that influences disease risk will help to identify functional variants and elucidate biological mechanisms. As such...

Brief of Amici Curiae for the American Medical Association, et al.

Andrews, Lori
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 19/02/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Amicus ("friend of the court") brief written by American Medical Association, American Society of Human Genetics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Osteopathic Association, American College of Legal Medicine, and the Medical Society of the State of New York in support of petitioners in AMP v. Myriad Genetics (Supreme Court Case Docket No. 12-398).

How can molecular ecology contribute to forest restoration?

Siqueira, Marcos Bohrer Monteiro; Sujii, Patricia Sanae; Bajay, Miklos; Grando, Carolina; Schwarcz, Kaiser; Macrin, Camila; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada
Fonte: Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Publicador: Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
The advance of scientific knowledge in various areas of molecular ecology has allowed the adoption of newstrategies, particularly in forest restoration. The fusion of multidisciplinary areas and the implementation ofmanagement methodologies in order to get better results in forest restoration are current realities. In order toreview the main ideas about the role of molecular techniques in the service of ecology restoration, this paperoutlines how forest recovery can benefit from genetic and genomic plant population studies. The next challenges inconservation genetics can be brought by the quest for more efficient forest restorations from the point of view ofbiodiversity as well as the ecological dynamics as a whole. It is believed that in the coming years we will observeintegrated strategies in molecular ecology with specific methodologies for restoration in tropical forests.Keywords: forest restoration, conservation genetics, molecular ecology, population genetics.