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Research on smoking and lung cancer: a landmark in the history of chronic disease epidemiology.

White, C.
Fonte: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Publicador: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 EN
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This paper describes the history of the epidemiologic research on lung cancer prior to 1970 and its effect on chronic disease epidemiology. In the 1930s, epidemiology was largely concerned with acute infectious diseases. As the evidence grew that the incidence of lung cancer was increasing among men, however, epidemiologists undertook research into the etiology of the disease. In 1950, Doll and Hill, in England, and Wynder and Graham, in the United States, published substantial case-control studies that implicated the use of tobacco as a major risk factor for the disease. A controversy developed over the credibility of this finding and was increased in 1954 when a cohort study by Doll and Hill and another by Hammond and Horn each gave estimates that the risk of lung cancer was greatly increased among smokers relative to the risk among comparable non-smokers. An account is given of the disputes surrounding these and related studies. The controversy had a stimulating effect in fostering the developing discipline of chronic disease and epidemiology.

Epidemiology of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Lumeng, Julie C.; Chervin, Ronald D.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2008 EN
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26.32%
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has become widely recognized only in the last few decades as a likely cause of significant morbidity among children. Many of the clinical characteristics of pediatric OSA, and the determinants of its epidemiology, differ from those of adult OSA. We systematically reviewed studies on the epidemiology of conditions considered part of a pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) continuum, ranging from primary snoring to OSA. We highlight a number of methodologic challenges, including widely variable methodologies for collection of questionnaire data about symptomatology, definitions of habitual snoring, criteria for advancing to further diagnostic testing, and objective diagnostic criteria for SDB or OSA. In the face of these limitations, estimated population prevalences are as follows: parent-reported “always” snoring, 1.5 to 6%; parent-reported apneic events during sleep, 0.2 to 4%; SDB by varying constellations of parent-reported symptoms on questionnaire, 4 to 11%; OSA diagnosed by varying criteria on diagnostic studies, 1 to 4%. Overall prevalence of parent-reported snoring by any definition in meta-analysis was 7.45% (95% confidence interval, 5.75–9.61). A reasonable preponderance of evidence now suggests that SDB is more common among boys than girls...

The Era of Genomic Epidemiology

Traynor, Bryan J.
Fonte: S. Karger AG Publicador: S. Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.32%
The recent revolution in genomics is already having a profound impact on the practice of epidemiology. The purpose of this commentary is to demonstrate how genomics and epidemiology will continue to rely heavily on each other, now and in the future, by illustrating a number of interaction points between these 2 disciplines: (1) the use of genomics to estimate disease heritability; (2) the impact of genomics on analytical study design; (3) how genome-wide data can be employed to effectively overcome residual population stratification arising from selection bias; (4) the importance of genomics as a tool in epidemiological investigation; (5) the importance of epidemiology in the collection of adequately phenotyped samples for genomics studies, and (6) for unraveling the clinical and therapeutic relevance of genetic variants once they are discovered.

The role of mathematical modelling in understanding the epidemiology and control of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a review

Gubbins, Simon; Touzeau, Suzanne; Hagenaars, Thomas J.
Fonte: EDP Sciences Publicador: EDP Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.32%
To deal with the incompleteness of observations and disentangle the complexities of transmission much use has been made of mathematical modelling when investigating the epidemiology of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and, in particular, scrapie. Importantly, these modelling approaches allow the incidence of clinical disease to be related to the underlying prevalence of infection, thereby overcoming one of the major difficulties when studying these diseases. Models have been used to investigate the epidemiology of scrapie within individual flocks and at a regional level; to assess the efficacy of different control strategies, especially selective breeding programmes based on prion protein (PrP) genotype; to interpret the results of scrapie surveillance; and to inform the design of surveillance programmes. Furthermore, mathematical modelling has played an important role when assessing the risk to human health posed by the possible presence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep. Here, we review the various approaches that have been taken when developing and analysing mathematical models for the epidemiology and control of sheep TSE and assess their impact on our understanding of these diseases. We also identify areas that require further work...

The pre-vaccination epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella in Europe: implications for modelling studies.

Edmunds, W. J.; Gay, N. J.; Kretzschmar, M.; Pebody, R. G.; Wachmann, H.;
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 EN
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Data on the pre-vaccination patterns of infection for measles, mumps and rubella are collated from a number of European countries in order to compare the epidemiology of the three viruses. Key epidemiological parameters, such as the age-specific force of infection and the basic reproduction number (R0) are estimated from case notification or serological data using standard techniques. A method is described to compare force of infection estimates derived from serological data. Analysis suggests that the pre-vaccination patterns of measles and mumps infection in the different countries were similar. In contrast, the epidemiology of rubella was highly variable between countries. This suggests that it may be acceptable to use parameter values estimated from other countries to model measles and mumps transmission, but that this approach to modelling rubella transmission requires more caution. Estimates of R0 depend on underlying mixing assumptions. Constraints were placed on R0 estimates by utilising knowledge of likely mixing patterns. The estimates for R0 were highest for measles, intermediate for mumps, and generally lowest for rubella. Analysis of within- and between-age-group transmission rates suggested that mumps transmission tends to be more concentrated within young children than the other two viruses. The implications for the design of immunization programmes are that mumps may be the easiest to control via infant immunization since it is predominantly transmitted between the very young and the variability in rubella epidemiology requires that careful consideration of the possible effects of vaccination options should be made using local data when planning rubella immunization programmes.

Epidemiology of varicella zoster virus infection in Canada and the United Kingdom.

Brisson, M.; Edmunds, W. J.; Law, B.; Gay, N. J.; Walld, R.; Brownell, M.; Roos, L.; De Serres, G.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 EN
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Many countries are currently studying the possibility of mass vaccination against varicella. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of the pre-vaccine epidemiology of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) to aid in the design of immunization programs and to adequately measure the impact of vaccination. Population-based data including physician visit claims, sentinel surveillance and hospitalization data from Canada and the United Kingdom were analysed. The key epidemiological characteristics of varicella and zoster (age specific consultation rates, seasonality, force of infection, hospitalization rates and inpatient days) were compared. Results show that the overall epidemiology of varicella and zoster is remarkably similar between the two countries. The major difference being that, contrary to Canada, the epidemiology of varicella seems to be changing in the United Kingdom with an important decrease in the average age at infection that coincides with a significant increase in children attending preschool. Furthermore, differences exist in the seasonality between the United Kingdom and Canada, which seem to be primarily due to the school calendar. These results illustrate that school and preschool contact patterns play an important role in the dynamics of varicella. Finally...

Integration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing and Genotyping with Epidemiological Data Analysis To Gain Insight into the Epidemiology of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Malatya, Turkey▿

Agarwal, Mansi; Gunal, Selami; Durmaz, Riza; Yang, Zhenhua
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.32%
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) presents a major challenge to global TB control. To gain a better understanding of drug-resistant TB epidemiology in Malatya, Turkey, we conducted the present study using 397 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected from Malatya, Turkey, in recent years (2000-2007). Resistance to any anti-TB drug was found in 29% (114 of 397) of the study isolates, while the multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was ∼4.5% (18 of 397). Resistances to isoniazid (15.5%) and streptomycin (13.4%) were about twice as high as resistance to rifampin (RMP) (6.3%) and ethambutol (EMB) (6.0%). Importantly, 28% (7 of 25) of the RMP-resistant isolates were non-MDR isolates, as when a significant proportion of RMP-resistant isolates in a population are non-MDR, the predictive value of molecular detection of RMP resistance for MDR can be significantly reduced. Both identical and varied drug resistance patterns were seen in the same genotyping-defined clusters, suggesting that both primary and acquired resistance have contributed to the drug-resistant TB epidemic in Malatya, Turkey. In addition, drug-resistant cases were found to be more likely to be males (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.82 [1.13, 2.94]), suggesting a potential role of gender in the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB in the study population. This study demonstrates that the integration of drug susceptibility testing with genotyping and epidemiological data analysis represents a useful approach to studying the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB.

Heart-Kidney Interaction: Epidemiology of Cardiorenal Syndromes

Cruz, Dinna N.; Bagshaw, Sean M.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/12/2010 EN
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26.32%
Cardiac and kidney diseases are common, increasingly encountered, and often coexist. Recently, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Working Group convened a consensus conference to develop a classification scheme for the CRS and for five discrete subtypes. These CRS subtypes likely share pathophysiologic mechanisms, however, also have distinguishing clinical features, in terms of precipitating events, risk identification, natural history, and outcomes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of heart-kidney interaction stratified by the proposed CRS subtypes is increasingly important for understanding the overall burden of disease for each CRS subtype, along with associated morbidity, mortality, and health resource utilization. Likewise, an understanding of the epidemiology of CRS is necessary for characterizing whether there exists important knowledge gaps and to aid in the design of clinical studies. This paper will provide a summary of the epidemiology of the cardiorenal syndrome and its subtypes.

Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2011 EN
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26.32%
Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program.

Molecular Pathologic Epidemiology of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Emerging Transdisciplinary and Interdisciplinary Field

Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.32%
Colorectal cancer is a complex disease resulting from somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations, including locus-specific CpG island methylation and global DNA or LINE-1 hypomethylation. Global molecular characteristics such as microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), global DNA hypomethylation, and chromosomal instability cause alterations of gene function in a genome-wide scale. Activation of oncogenes including KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA affects intracellular signaling pathways and has been associated with CIMP and MSI. Traditional epidemiology research has investigated various factors in relation to an overall risk of colon and/or rectal cancer. However, colorectal cancers comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases with different sets of genetic and epigenetic alterations. To better understand how a particular exposure influences the carcinogenic process, somatic molecular changes and tumor biomarkers have been studied in relation to the exposure of interest. Moreover, an investigation of interactive effects of tumor molecular changes and the exposures of interest on tumor behavior (prognosis or clinical outcome) can lead to a better understanding of tumor molecular changes, which may be prognostic or predictive tissue biomarkers. These new research efforts represent “Molecular Pathologic Epidemiology”...

The Prevention of Schizophrenia—What Can We Learn From Eco-Epidemiology?

Kirkbride, James B.; Jones, Peter B.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
The search for the causes of schizophrenia has predominantly originated from 2 research paradigms; genetics and epidemiology. While each approach has made important contributions to etiological understanding, neither has fully resolved the exact milieu of risk factors for schizophrenia, and there is growing recognition that several pathways to the onset of such disorders may exist. Eco-epidemiology offers an integrative framework to study schizophrenia etiology, incorporating multiple, interactive levels of causation, including genetic, epigenetic, individual, familial, community, and societal domains over the life course. In this article, we review the current evidence base, through the lens of eco-epidemiology, to determine whether it warrants the design and implementation of putative prevention strategies for schizophrenia. We argue that while there are potentially large public health gains available, we do not currently have sufficient empirical data to design effective prevention strategies. It will be important for the research community to more fully elucidate the likely multifactorial, multilevel, polygenetic, and eco-epidemiological basis of schizophrenia before we can design useful prevention strategies. We conclude by speculating on the forms effective strategies might take.

The development of molecular epidemiology to elucidate cancer risk and prognosis: a historical perspective

Ambrosone, Christine B; Harris, Curtis C
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2010 EN
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26.32%
Molecular epidemiology in cancer research grew from the field of chemical carcinogenesis and the use biomarkers for environmental exposures, with incorporation of principles from early pharmacogenetics. Over the years, molecular epidemiology has become extremely complex, with studies evaluating associations between cancer risk and prognosis and numerous markers of susceptibility, exposure and early effects, as well as epidemiologic factors. In this article, we review the field of molecular epidemiology from a historical perspective, commenting on current status of the field and future directions.

A Review of the Experience, Epidemiology, and Management of Pain among American Indian, Alaska Native, and Aboriginal Canadian Peoples

Jimenez, Nathalia; Garroutte, Eva; Kundu, Anjana; Morales, Leo; Buchwald, Dedra
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Substantial literature suggests that diverse biological, psychological, and sociocultural mechanisms account for differences by race and ethnicity in the experience, epidemiology, and management of pain. Many studies have examined differences between Whites and minority populations, but American Indians (AIs), Alaska Natives (ANs), and Aboriginal peoples of Canada have been neglected both in studies of pain and in efforts to understand its bio-psychosocial and cultural determinants. This article reviews the epidemiology of pain and identifies factors that may affect clinical assessment and treatment in these populations. We searched for peer-reviewed articles focused on pain in these populations, using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and the University of New Mexico Native Health Database. We identified 28 articles published 1990-2009 in 3 topic areas: epidemiology of pain, pain assessment and treatment, and healthcare utilization. A key finding is that AI/ANs have a higher prevalence of pain symptoms and painful conditions than the U.S. general population. We also found evidence for problems in provider-patient interactions that affect clinical assessment of pain, as well as indications that AI/AN patients frequently use alternative modalities to manage pain. Future research should focus on pain and comorbid conditions and develop conceptual frameworks for understanding and treating pain in these populations.

Implementation of G-Computation on a Simulated Data Set: Demonstration of a Causal Inference Technique

Snowden, Jonathan M.; Rose, Sherri; Mortimer, Kathleen M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.32%
The growing body of work in the epidemiology literature focused on G-computation includes theoretical explanations of the method but very few simulations or examples of application. The small number of G-computation analyses in the epidemiology literature relative to other causal inference approaches may be partially due to a lack of didactic explanations of the method targeted toward an epidemiology audience. The authors provide a step-by-step demonstration of G-computation that is intended to familiarize the reader with this procedure. The authors simulate a data set and then demonstrate both G-computation and traditional regression to draw connections and illustrate contrasts between their implementation and interpretation relative to the truth of the simulation protocol. A marginal structural model is used for effect estimation in the G-computation example. The authors conclude by answering a series of questions to emphasize the key characteristics of causal inference techniques and the G-computation procedure in particular.

Review and International Recommendation of Methods for Typing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and Their Implications for Improved Knowledge of Gonococcal Epidemiology, Treatment, and Biology

Unemo, Magnus; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
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26.32%
Summary: Gonorrhea, which may become untreatable due to multiple resistance to available antibiotics, remains a public health problem worldwide. Precise methods for typing Neisseria gonorrhoeae, together with epidemiological information, are crucial for an enhanced understanding regarding issues involving epidemiology, test of cure and contact tracing, identifying core groups and risk behaviors, and recommending effective antimicrobial treatment, control, and preventive measures. This review evaluates methods for typing N. gonorrhoeae isolates and recommends various methods for different situations. Phenotypic typing methods, as well as some now-outdated DNA-based methods, have limited usefulness in differentiating between strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Genotypic methods based on DNA sequencing are preferred, and the selection of the appropriate genotypic method should be guided by its performance characteristics and whether short-term epidemiology (microepidemiology) or long-term and/or global epidemiology (macroepidemiology) matters are being investigated. Currently, for microepidemiological questions, the best methods for fast, objective, portable, highly discriminatory, reproducible, typeable, and high-throughput characterization are N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) or full- or extended-length porB gene sequencing. However...

Toxicology and Epidemiology: Improving the Science with a Framework for Combining Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence to Establish Causal Inference

Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Smith, Lewis L.; Swenberg, James A.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S.; Pastoor, Timothy P.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step “Epid-Tox” process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality...

Current states of opinion and future directions on the epidemiology of sex differences in human pain

Vigil, Jacob M
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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26.32%
One of the most commonly neglected findings in the human pain literature is the observation of sex differences in the mechanisms that support the phenotypic expression of pain. The present commentary describes an assessment of the prevalence of observed sex differences in various pain processes, and of how expert pain researchers interpret the epidemiology and, hence, the proximate and ultimate causes of such differences. Forty-two pain investigators completed an anonymous survey on the epidemiology of sex differences in the human pain experience. Investigator responses indicated that sex differences are pervasive across various areas of pain research, that sex differences are particularly pronounced in the area of situational influences on pain behaviors, and that contemporary pain researchers largely disagree on the epidemiology of, and hence, proximate and ultimate causes of the differences. The relevance of social situational factors on sex differences in pain behaviours is discussed in the context of evolutionary, developmental, social psychology and pain sensory systems that may function, in part, for regulating interpersonal intimacy.

The NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS and REDS-II): Twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability

Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.32%
The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989–2001, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), conducted from 2004–2012, were National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The three major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as XMRV. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of HIV, HTLV I/II, HCV, HBV, WNV, CMV, HHV-8, B19V, malaria, CJD, influenza, and T. cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized: blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors’ perception of the blood donation screening process...

Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

Matos, Olga; Lobo, Maria Luisa; Xiao, Lihua
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.

Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology

Burns, Carol J.; Swaen, Gerard M. H.
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
A qualitative review of the epidemiological literature on the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and health after 2001 is presented. In order to compare the exposure of the general population, bystanders and occupational groups, their urinary levels were also reviewed. In the general population, 2,4-D exposure is at or near the level of detection (LOD). Among individuals with indirect exposure, i.e. bystanders, the urinary 2,4-D levels were also very low except in individuals with opportunity for direct contact with the herbicide. Occupational exposure, where exposure was highest, was positively correlated with behaviors related to the mixing, loading and applying process and use of personal protection. Information from biomonitoring studies increases our understanding of the validity of the exposure estimates used in epidemiology studies. The 2,4-D epidemiology literature after 2001 is broad and includes studies of cancer, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In general, a few publications have reported statistically significant associations. However, most lack precision and the results are not replicated in other independent studies. In the context of biomonitoring, the epidemiology data give no convincing or consistent evidence for any chronic adverse effect of 2...