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Role of the luxS Quorum-Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis

Xu, Lin; Li, Hualin; Vuong, Cuong; Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Wang, Jianping; Yao, Yufeng; Otto, Michael; Gao, Qian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 EN
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Nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. Quorum-sensing regulation plays a major role in the biofilm development of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe luxS, a quorum-sensing system in staphylococci that has a significant impact on biofilm development and virulence. We constructed an isogenic ΔluxS mutant strain of a biofilm-forming clinical isolate of S. epidermidis and demonstrated that luxS signaling is functional in S. epidermidis. The mutant strain showed increased biofilm formation in vitro and enhanced virulence in a rat model of biofilm-associated infection. Genetic complementation and addition of autoinducer 2-containing culture filtrate restored the wild-type phenotype, demonstrating that luxS repressed biofilm formation through a cell-cell signaling mechanism based on autoinducer 2 secretion. Enhanced production of the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in the mutant strain is presumably the major cause of the observed phenotype. The agr quorum-sensing system has previously been shown to impact biofilm development and biofilm-associated infection in a way similar to that of luxS, although by regulation of different factors. Our study indicates a general scheme of quorum-sensing regulation of biofilm development in staphylococci...

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Requires the Lpf, Pef, and Tafi Fimbriae for Biofilm Formation on HEp-2 Tissue Culture Cells and Chicken Intestinal Epithelium

Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Frye, Jonathan G.; McClelland, Michael; Jones, Bradley D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 EN
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Recent work has demonstrated that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium forms biofilms on HEp-2 tissue culture cells in a type 1 fimbria-dependent manner. To investigate how biofilm growth of HEp-2 tissue culture cells affects gene expression in Salmonella, we compared global gene expression during planktonic growth and biofilm growth. Microarray results indicated that the transcription of ∼100 genes was substantially altered by growth in a biofilm. These genes encode proteins with a wide range of functions, including antibiotic resistance, central metabolism, conjugation, intracellular survival, membrane transport, regulation, and fimbrial biosynthesis. The identification of five fimbrial gene clusters was of particular interest, as we have demonstrated that type 1 fimbriae are required for biofilm formation on HEp-2 cells and murine intestinal epithelium. Mutations in each of these fimbriae were constructed in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain BJ2710, and the mutants were found to have various biofilm phenotypes on plastic, HEp-2 cells, and chicken intestinal tissue. The pef and csg mutants were defective for biofilm formation on each of the three surfaces tested, while the lpf mutant exhibited a complete loss of the ability to form a biofilm on chicken intestinal tissue but only an intermediate loss of the ability to form a biofilm on tissue culture cells and plastic surfaces. The bcf mutant displayed increased biofilm formation on both HEp-2 cells and chicken intestinal epithelium...

Critical Role of Bcr1-Dependent Adhesins in C. albicans Biofilm Formation In Vitro and In Vivo

Nobile, Clarissa J; Andes, David R; Nett, Jeniel E; Smith, Frank J; Yue, Fu; Phan, Quynh-Trang; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Mitchell, Aaron P
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently associated with catheter-based infections because of its ability to form resilient biofilms. Prior studies have shown that the transcription factor Bcr1 governs biofilm formation in an in vitro catheter model. However, the mechanistic role of the Bcr1 pathway and its relationship to biofilm formation in vivo are unknown. Our studies of biofilm formation in vitro indicate that the surface protein Als3, a known adhesin, is a key target under Bcr1 control. We show that an als3/als3 mutant is biofilm-defective in vitro, and that ALS3 overexpression rescues the biofilm defect of the bcr1/bcr1 mutant. We extend these findings with an in vivo venous catheter model. The bcr1/bcr1 mutant is unable to populate the catheter surface, though its virulence suggests that it has no growth defect in vivo. ALS3 overexpression rescues the bcr1/bcr1 biofilm defect in vivo, thus arguing that Als3 is a pivotal Bcr1 target in this setting. Surprisingly, the als3/als3 mutant forms a biofilm in vivo, and we suggest that additional Bcr1 targets compensate for the Als3 defect in vivo. Indeed, overexpression of Bcr1 targets ALS1, ECE1, and HWP1 partially restores biofilm formation in a bcr1/bcr1 mutant background in vitro...

Alcohol Dehydrogenase Restricts the Ability of the Pathogen Candida albicans To Form a Biofilm on Catheter Surfaces through an Ethanol-Based Mechanism‡

Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Mohamed, Sotohy; Chandra, Jyotsna; Kuhn, Duncan; Liu, Shuqing; Antar, Omar S.; Munyon, Ryan; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Andes, David; Chance, Mark R.; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 EN
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Candida biofilms formed on indwelling medical devices are increasingly associated with severe infections. In this study, we used proteomics and Western and Northern blotting analyses to demonstrate that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is downregulated in Candida biofilms. Disruption of ADH1 significantly (P = 0.0046) enhanced the ability of Candida albicans to form biofilm. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that the adh1 mutant formed thicker biofilm than the parent strain (210 μm and 140 μm, respectively). These observations were extended to an engineered human oral mucosa and an in vivo rat model of catheter-associated biofilm. Inhibition of Candida ADH enzyme using disulfiram and 4-methylpyrazole resulted in thicker biofilm (P < 0.05). Moreover, biofilms formed by the adh1 mutant strain produced significantly smaller amounts of ethanol, but larger amounts of acetaldehyde, than biofilms formed by the parent and revertant strains (P < 0.0001), demonstrating that the effect of Adh1p on biofilm formation is mediated by its enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we found that 10% ethanol significantly inhibited biofilm formation in vitro, with complete inhibition of biofilm formation at ethanol concentrations of ≥20%. Similarly, using a clinically relevant rabbit model of catheter-associated biofilm...

Comparative Antibody-Mediated Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermidis Cells Grown in a Biofilm or in the Planktonic State

Cerca, Nuno; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Oliveira, Rosario; Pier, Gerald B.; Azeredo, Joana
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
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Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infections. Virulence is attributable to elaboration of biofilms on medical surfaces that protect the organisms from immune system clearance. Even though leukocytes can penetrate biofilms, they fail to phagocytose and kill bacteria. The properties that make biofilm bacteria resistant to the immune system are not well characterized. In order to better understand the mechanisms of resistance of bacteria in biofilms to the immune system, we evaluated antibody penetration throughout the biofilm and antibody-mediated phagocytic killing of planktonic versus biofilm cells of S. epidermidis by using a rabbit antibody to poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG). These antibodies are opsonic and protect against infection with planktonic cells of PNAG-positive Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Antibody to PNAG readily penetrated the biofilm and bound to the same areas in the biofilm as did wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin known to bind to components of staphylococcal biofilms. However, biofilm cells were more resistant to opsonic killing than their planktonic counterparts in spite of producing more PNAG per cell than planktonic cells. Biofilm extracts inhibited opsonic killing mediated by antibody to PNAG...

Therapeutic Failures of Antibiotics Used To Treat Macrolide-Susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes Infections May Be Due to Biofilm Formation

Baldassarri, Lucilla; Creti, Roberta; Recchia, Simona; Imperi, Monica; Facinelli, Bruna; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Pataracchia, Marco; Alfarone, Giovanna; Orefici, Graziella
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
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Streptococcus pyogenes infections often fail to respond to antibiotic therapy, leading to persistent throat carriage and recurrent infections. Such failures cannot always be explained by the occurrence of antibiotic resistance determinants, and it has been suggested that S. pyogenes may enter epithelial cells to escape antibiotic treatment. We investigated 289 S. pyogenes strains isolated from different clinical sources to evaluate their ability to form biofilm as an alternative method to escape antibiotic treatment and host defenses. Up to 90% of S. pyogenes isolates, from both invasive and noninvasive infections, were able to form biofilm. Specific emm types, such as emm6, appeared to be more likely to produce biofilm, although variations within strains belonging to the same type might suggest biofilm formation to be a trait of individual strains rather than a general attribute of a serotype. Interestingly, erythromycin-susceptible isolates formed a significantly thicker biofilm than resistant isolates (P < 0.05). Among resistant strains, those carrying the erm class determinants formed a less organized biofilm than the mef(A)-positive strains. Also, prtF1 appeared to be negatively associated with the ability to form biofilm (P < 0.01). Preliminary data on a selection of strains indicated that biofilm-forming isolates entered epithelial cells with significantly lower efficiency than biofilm-negative strains. We suggest that prtF1-negative macrolide-susceptible or mef(A)-carrying isolates...

σB Regulates IS256-Mediated Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Phenotypic Variation▿

Valle, Jaione; Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Merino, Nekane; Penadés, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus is subject to phase variation, and biofilm-negative derivatives emerge sporadically from a biofilm-positive bacterial population. To date, the only known mechanism for generating biofilm phenotypic variation in staphylococci is the reversible insertion/excision of IS256 in biofilm-essential genes. In this study, we present evidence suggesting that the absence of the σB transcription factor dramatically increases the rate of switching to the biofilm-negative phenotype in the clinical isolate S. aureus 15981, under both steady-state and flow conditions. The phenotypic switching correlates with a dramatic increase in the number of IS256 copies in the chromosomes of biofilm-negative variants, as well as with an augmented IS256 insertion frequency into the icaC and the sarA genes. IS256-mediated biofilm switching is reversible, and biofilm-positive variants could emerge from biofilm-negative σB mutants. Analysis of the chromosomal insertion frequency using a recombinant IS256 element tagged with an erythromycin marker showed an almost three-times-higher transposition frequency in a ΔσB strain. However, regulation of IS256 activity by σB appears to be indirect, since transposase transcription is not affected in the absence of σB and IS256 activity is inhibited to wild-type levels in a ΔσB strain under NaCl stress. Overall...

Hydrogen Peroxide Linked to Lysine Oxidase Activity Facilitates Biofilm Differentiation and Dispersal in Several Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Egan, Suhelen; Thomas, Torsten; Webb, Jeremy S.; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Kjelleberg, Staffan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces an antibacterial and autolytic protein, AlpP, which causes death of a subpopulation of cells during biofilm formation and mediates differentiation, dispersal, and phenotypic variation among dispersal cells. The AlpP homologue (LodA) in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea was recently identified as a lysine oxidase which mediates cell death through the production of hydrogen peroxide. Here we show that AlpP in P. tunicata also acts as a lysine oxidase and that the hydrogen peroxide generated is responsible for cell death within microcolonies during biofilm development in both M. mediterranea and P. tunicata. LodA-mediated biofilm cell death is shown to be linked to the generation of phenotypic variation in growth and biofilm formation among M. mediterranea biofilm dispersal cells. Moreover, AlpP homologues also occur in several other gram-negative bacteria from diverse environments. Our results show that subpopulations of cells in microcolonies also die during biofilm formation in two of these organisms, Chromobacterium violaceum and Caulobacter crescentus. In all organisms, hydrogen peroxide was implicated in biofilm cell death, because it could be detected at the same time as the killing occurred...

Neutrophil enhancement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development: human F-actin and DNA as targets for therapy

Parks, Quinn M.; Young, Robert L.; Poch, Katie R.; Malcolm, Kenneth C.; Vasil, Michael L.; Nick, Jerry A.
Fonte: Society for General Microbiology Publicador: Society for General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 EN
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In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa results from biofilm formation in a neutrophil-rich environment. We tested the capacity of human neutrophils to modify early biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, and an isogenic CF strain isolated early and years later in infection. In a static reactor, P. aeruginosa biofilm density of all strains was enhanced at 24 h in the presence of neutrophils, with the greatest relative increase associated with the lowest inoculum of P. aeruginosa tested. Previously, neutrophil-induced biofilm enhancement was shown to largely result from the incorporation of F-actin and DNA polymers into the bacterial biofilm. This finding was advanced by the comparison of biofilm enhancement from intact unstimulated neutrophils and from lysed or apoptotic neutrophils. Apoptotic neutrophils, with an intact cell membrane, were unable to contribute to biofilm enhancement, while lysed neutrophils evoked a similar response to that of intact cells. Using F-actin and DNA as targets, the capacity of negatively charged poly(amino acids) to disrupt, or prevent, early biofilm formation was tested. Anionic poly(aspartic acid) effectively prevented or disrupted biofilm formation. Combination of poly(aspartic acid) with DNase resulted in a synergistic increase in biofilm disruption. These results demonstrate that the presence of dying neutrophils can facilitate the initial stages of biofilm development by low inocula of P. aeruginosa. Neutrophil F-actin represents a potential new therapeutic target for disruption of pathogenic biofilms.

Effects of Trp- and Arg-Containing Antimicrobial-Peptide Structure on Inhibition of Escherichia coli Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation ▿ †

Hou, Shuyu; Liu, Zhigang; Young, Anne W.; Mark, Sheron L.; Kallenbach, Neville R.; Ren, Dacheng
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Biofilms are sessile microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections with high morbidity and mortality. In order to develop more effective approaches for biofilm control, a series of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with various arginine (Arg or R) and tryptophan (Trp or W) repeats [(RW)n-NH2, where n = 2, 3, or 4] were rigorously compared to correlate their structures with antimicrobial activities affecting the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Escherichia coli. The chain length of AMPs appears to be important for inhibition of bacterial planktonic growth, since the hexameric and octameric peptides significantly inhibited E. coli growth, while tetrameric peptide did not cause noticeable inhibition. In addition, all AMPs except the tetrameric peptide significantly reduced E. coli biofilm surface coverage and the viability of biofilm cells, when added at inoculation. In addition to inhibition of biofilm formation, significant killing of biofilm cells was observed after a 3-hour treatment of preformed biofilms with hexameric peptide. Interestingly, treatment with the octameric peptide caused significant biofilm dispersion without apparent killing of biofilm cells that remained on the surface; e.g., the surface coverage was reduced by 91.5 ± 3.5% by 200 μM octameric peptide. The detached biofilm cells...

Dispersion as an Important Step in the Candida albicans Biofilm Developmental Cycle

Uppuluri, Priya; Chaturvedi, Ashok K.; Srinivasan, Anand; Banerjee, Mohua; Ramasubramaniam, Anand K.; Köhler, Julia R.; Kadosh, David; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Biofilms are dynamic microbial communities in which transitions between planktonic and sessile modes of growth occur interchangeably in response to different environmental cues. In the last decade, early events associated with C. albicans biofilm formation have received considerable attention. However, very little is known about C. albicans biofilm dispersion or the mechanisms and signals that trigger it. This is important because it is precisely C. albicans cells dispersed from biofilms that are the main culprits associated with candidemia and establishment of disseminated invasive disease, two of the gravest forms of candidiasis. Using a simple flow biofilm model recently developed by our group, we have performed initial investigations into the phenomenon of C. albicans biofilm dispersion, as well as the phenotypic characteristics associated with dispersed cells. Our results indicate that C. albicans biofilm dispersion is dependent on growing conditions, including carbon source and pH of the media used for biofilm development. C. albicans dispersed cells are mostly in the yeast form and display distinct phenotypic properties compared to their planktonic counterparts, including enhanced adherence, filamentation, biofilm formation and...

Extracellular DNA-dependent biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A in response to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics

Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Jabbouri, Saïd; Sadovskaya, Irina
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We measured the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to form biofilms in the presence of subminimal inhibitory (sub-MIC) concentrations of vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid and novobiocin. Six strains that produce different amounts of biofilm were tested. The three strains that produced the highest amounts of biofilm exhibited steady-state or decreased biofilm formation in the presence of sub-MIC antibiotics, whereas the three strains that produced lower amounts of biofilm exhibited up to 10-fold-increased biofilm formation in the presence of sub-MIC antibiotics. In two of the inducible strains (9142 and 456a), antibiotic-induced biofilm formation was inhibited by dispersin B, an enzyme that degrades poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) biofilm polysaccharide. In the third inducible strain (RP62A), dispersin B inhibited biofilm formation in response to sub-MIC vancomycin, but not to sub-MIC tigecycline. In contrast, DNase I efficiently inhibited biofilm formation by strain RP62A in response to sub-MIC tigecycline and vancomycin. DNase I had no effect on antibiotic-induced biofilm formation in strains 9142 and 456a. Our findings indicate that antibiotic-induced biofilm formation in S. epidermidis is both strain- and antibiotic-dependent and that S. epidermidis RP62A utilizes an extracellular DNA-dependent mechanism to form biofilms in response to sub-MIC antibiotics.

Planktonic versus Biofilm Catabolic Communities: Importance of the Biofilm for Species Selection and Pesticide Degradation ▿

Verhagen, Pieter; De Gelder, Leen; Hoefman, Sven; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
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Chloropropham-degrading cultures were obtained from sludge and soil samples by using two different enrichment techniques: (i) planktonic enrichments in shaken liquid medium and (ii) biofilm enrichments on two types of solid matrixes (plastic chips and gravel). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting showed that planktonic and biofilm cultures had a different community composition depending on the presence and type of added solid matrix during enrichment. This was reflected in the unique chloropropham-degrading species that could be isolated from the different cultures. Planktonic and biofilm cultures also differed in chloropropham-degrading activity. With biofilm cultures, slower chloropropham removal was observed, but with less build-up of the toxic intermediate 3-chloroaniline. Disruption of the biofilm architecture resulted in degradation characteristics shifting toward those of the free suspensions, indicating the importance of a well-established biofilm structure for good performance. These results show that biofilm-mediated enrichment techniques can be used to select for pollutant-degrading microorganisms that like to proliferate in a biofilm and that cannot be isolated using conventional shaken-liquid procedures. Furthermore...

Oral Biofilm Analysis of Palatal Expanders by Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Klug, Barbara; Rodler, Claudia; Koller, Martin; Wimmer, Gernot; Kessler, Harald H.; Grube, Martin; Santigli, Elisabeth
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2011 EN
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Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of natural heterogeneous biofilm is today facilitated by a comprehensive range of staining techniques, one of them being fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).1,2 We performed a pilot study in which oral biofilm samples collected from fixed orthodontic appliances (palatal expanders) were stained by FISH, the objective being to assess the three-dimensional organization of natural biofilm and plaque accumulation.3,4 FISH creates an opportunity to stain cells in their native biofilm environment by the use of fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeting probes.4-7,19 Compared to alternative techniques like immunofluorescent labeling, this is an inexpensive, precise and straightforward labeling technique to investigate different bacterial groups in mixed biofilm consortia.18,20 General probes were used that bind to Eubacteria (EUB338 + EUB338II + EUB338III; hereafter EUBmix),8-10 Firmicutes (LGC354 A-C; hereafter LGCmix),9,10 and Bacteroidetes (Bac303).11 In addition, specific probes binding to Streptococcus mutans (MUT590)12,13 and Porphyromonas gingivalis (POGI)13,14 were used. The extreme hardness of the surface materials involved (stainless steel and acrylic resin) compelled us to find new ways of preparing the biofilm. As these surface materials could not be readily cut with a cryotome...

Low Levels of β-Lactam Antibiotics Induce Extracellular DNA Release and Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus

Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Izano, Era A.; Gopal, Prerna; Karwacki, Michael T.; Kim, Sangho; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Horswill, Alexander R.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2012 EN
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Subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics have been shown to induce bacterial biofilm formation. Few studies have investigated antibiotic-induced biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen. Our goal was to measure S. aureus biofilm formation in the presence of low levels of β-lactam antibiotics. Fifteen phylogenetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were employed. Methicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were added to cultures at concentrations ranging from 0× to 1× MIC. Biofilm formation was measured in 96-well microtiter plates using a crystal violet binding assay. Autoaggregation was measured using a visual test tube settling assay. Extracellular DNA was quantitated using agarose gel electrophoresis. All four antibiotics induced biofilm formation in some strains. The amount of biofilm induction was as high as 10-fold and was inversely proportional to the amount of biofilm produced by the strain in the absence of antibiotics. MRSA strains of lineages USA300, USA400, and USA500 exhibited the highest levels of methicillin-induced biofilm induction. Biofilm formation induced by low-level methicillin was inhibited by DNase. Low-level methicillin also induced DNase-sensitive autoaggregation and extracellular DNA release. The biofilm induction phenotype was absent in a strain deficient in autolysin (atl). Our findings demonstrate that subminimal inhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics significantly induce autolysin-dependent extracellular DNA release and biofilm formation in some strains of S. aureus.

Xylella fastidiosa Differentially Accumulates Mineral Elements in Biofilm and Planktonic Cells

Cobine, Paul A.; Cruz, Luisa F.; Navarrete, Fernando; Duncan, Daniel; Tygart, Melissa; De La Fuente, Leonardo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/01/2013 EN
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Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial plant pathogen that infects numerous plant hosts. Disease develops when the bacterium colonizes the xylem vessels and forms a biofilm. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used to examine the mineral element content of this pathogen in biofilm and planktonic states. Significant accumulations of copper (30-fold), manganese (6-fold), zinc (5-fold), calcium (2-fold) and potassium (2-fold) in the biofilm compared to planktonic cells were observed. Other mineral elements such as sodium, magnesium and iron did not significantly differ between biofilm and planktonic cells. The distribution of mineral elements in the planktonic cells loosely mirrors the media composition; however the unique mineral element distribution in biofilm suggests specific mechanisms of accumulation from the media. A cell-to-surface attachment assay shows that addition of 50 to 100 µM Cu to standard X. fastidiosa media increases biofilm, while higher concentrations (>200 µM) slow cell growth and prevent biofilm formation. Moreover cell-to-surface attachment was blocked by specific chelation of copper. Growth of X. fastidiosa in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions showed that addition of 50 µM Cu to the media accelerated attachment and aggregation...

A Systems-Level Approach for Investigating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

Xu, Zhaobin; Fang, Xin; Wood, Thomas K.; Huang, Zuyi Jacky
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/02/2013 EN
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Prevention of the initiation of biofilm formation is the most important step for combating biofilm-associated pathogens, as the ability of pathogens to resist antibiotics is enhanced 10 to 1000 times once biofilms are formed. Genes essential to bacterial growth in the planktonic state are potential targets to treat biofilm-associated pathogens. However, the biofilm formation capability of strains with mutations in these essential genes must be evaluated, since the pathogen might form a biofilm before it is eliminated. In order to address this issue, this work proposes a systems-level approach to quantifying the biofilm formation capability of mutants to determine target genes that are essential for bacterial metabolism in the planktonic state but do not induce biofilm formation in their mutants. The changes of fluxes through the reactions associated with the genes positively related to biofilm formation are used as soft sensors in the flux balance analysis to quantify the trend of biofilm formation upon the mutation of an essential gene. The essential genes whose mutants are predicted not to induce biofilm formation are regarded as gene targets. The proposed approach was applied to identify target genes to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It is interesting to find that most essential gene mutants exhibit high potential to induce the biofilm formation while most non-essential gene mutants do not. Critically...

Staphopains Modulate Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Integrity

Mootz, Joe M.; Malone, Cheryl L.; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Horswill, Alexander R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
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Staphylococcus aureus is a known cause of chronic biofilm infections that can reside on medical implants or host tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for proteinaceous material in the biofilm structure. The S. aureus genome encodes many secreted proteases, and there is growing evidence that these enzymes have self-cleavage properties that alter biofilm integrity. However, the specific contribution of each protease and mechanism of biofilm modulation is not clear. To address this issue, we utilized a sigma factor B (ΔsigB) mutant where protease activity results in a biofilm-negative phenotype, thereby creating a condition where the protease(s) responsible for the phenotype could be identified. Using a plasma-coated microtiter assay, biofilm formation was restored to the ΔsigB mutant through the addition of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 or by using Staphostatin inhibitors that specifically target the extracellular cysteine proteases SspB and ScpA (called Staphopains). Through construction of gene deletion mutants, we determined that an sspB scpA double mutant restored ΔsigB biofilm formation, and this recovery could be replicated in plasma-coated flow cell biofilms. Staphopain levels were also found to be decreased under biofilm-forming conditions...

Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2013 EN
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Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly...

Disturbance Frequency Determines Morphology and Community Development in Multi-Species Biofilm at the Landscape Scale

Milferstedt, Kim; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Escudié, Renaud; Bernet, Nicolas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/11/2013 EN
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Many natural and engineered biofilm systems periodically face disturbances. Here we present how the recovery time of a biofilm between disturbances (expressed as disturbance frequency) shapes the development of morphology and community structure in a multi-species biofilm at the landscape scale. It was hypothesized that a high disturbance frequency favors the development of a stable adapted biofilm system while a low disturbance frequency promotes a dynamic biofilm response. Biofilms were grown in laboratory-scale reactors over a period of 55-70 days and exposed to the biocide monochloramine at two frequencies: daily or weekly pulse injections. One untreated reactor served as control. Biofilm morphology and community structure were followed on comparably large biofilm areas at the landscape scale using automated image analysis (spatial gray level dependence matrices) and community fingerprinting (single-strand conformation polymorphisms). We demonstrated that a weekly disturbed biofilm developed a resilient morphology and community structure. Immediately after the disturbance, the biofilm simplified but recovered its initial complex morphology and community structure between two biocide pulses. In the daily treated reactor, one organism largely dominated a morphologically simple and stable biofilm. Disturbances primarily affected the abundance distribution of already present bacterial taxa but did not promote growth of previously undetected organisms. Our work indicates that disturbances can be used as lever to engineer biofilms by maintaining a biofilm between two developmental states.