Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade de Adelaide

A Universidade de Adelaide é uma instituição de ensino superior australiana fundada em 1874. É a terceira mais antiga universidade da Austrália.

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Changes in meal composition and duration affect postprandial endothelial function in healthy humans

Thazhath, S.S.; Wu, T.; Bound, M.J.; Checklin, H.L.; Jones, K.L.; Willoughby, S.R.; Horowitz, M.; Rayner, C.K.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Background: Endothelial function, measured by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), predicts cardiovascular events, and is impaired postprandially. Objective: To evaluate the effects of changes in composition or duration of ingestion of a meal, which slows gastric emptying and/or small intestinal nutrient exposure, on postprandial endothelial function. Design: 12 healthy subjects (6 male, 6 female; 33 ± 6 years) were each studied on 3 occasions, in a randomised, crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed a (13)C-octanoic acid labeled mashed potato meal ('meal 1'), or 'meal 1' mixed with 9 g guar ('meal 2') within 10 min, or 'meal 1' divided into 12 equal portions over 60 min ('meal 3'). Brachial artery FMD was measured every 30 min for 120 min. Blood glucose, serum insulin, and gastric emptying (breath test), were evaluated for 240 min. Data are means ± SEM. Results: Compared to 'meal 1', 'meal 2' was associated with slower gastric emptying (half-emptying time 285 ± 27 vs. 208 ± 15 min, P < 0.05), lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin (P < 0.001 for both), and a delayed, but more sustained, suppression of FMD (P < 0.001). After 'meal 3', both glycemic increment and reduction in FMD were less than after 'meal 2' (P < 0.05 for both). The decrement in FMD was directly related to the increment in blood glucose (r = 0.46...

Impaired integration of disambiguating evidence in delusional schizophrenia patients

Sanford, N.; Veckenstedt, R.; Moritz, S.; Balzan, R.P.; Woodward, T.S.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
It has been previously demonstrated that a cognitive bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) is associated with delusions. However, small samples of delusional patients, reliance on difference scores and choice of comparison groups may have hampered the reliability of these results. In the present study we aimed to improve on this methodology with a recent version of the BADE task, and compare larger groups of schizophrenia patients with/without delusions to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, a population with persistent and possibly bizarre beliefs without psychosis.A component analysis was used to identify cognitive operations underlying the BADE task, and how they differ across four groups of participants: (1) high-delusional schizophrenia, (2) low-delusional schizophrenia, (3) OCD patients and (4) non-psychiatric controls.As in past studies, two components emerged and were labelled 'evidence integration' (the degree to which disambiguating information has been integrated) and 'conservatism' (reduced willingness to provide high plausibility ratings when justified), and only evidence integration differed between severely delusional patients and the other groups, reflecting delusional subjects giving higher ratings for disconfirmed interpretations and lower ratings for confirmed interpretations.These data support the finding that a reduced willingness to adjust beliefs when confronted with disconfirming evidence may be a cognitive underpinning of delusions specifically...

Acute effect of a supplemented milk drink on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women is influenced by the metabolic syndrome

Thomas, S.D.C.; Morris, H.A.; Nordin, B.E.C.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors acutely influence the rate of bone resorption, as demonstrated by changes in serum bone resorption markers. Dietary calcium exerts its effect by reducing parathyroid hormone levels while other components induce gut incretin hormones both of which reduce bone resorption markers. The impact of dietary calcium on bone turnover when energy metabolism is modulated such as in metabolic syndrome has not been explored. This study was designed investigate whether metabolic syndrome or a greater amount of visceral fat influences the impact of dietary calcium on bone turnover. METHODS: The influence of the metabolic syndrome on effects of dietary calcium on bone turnover in community dwelling postmenopausal women was studied. Twenty five volunteers consumed 200 mL of low fat milk with additional 560 mg calcium (one serve of Milo®) in the evening on one occasion. Fasting morning serum biochemistry before and after the milk drink with lumber spine bone density, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and waist circumference were measured. The women were divided into 2 groups using the waist measurement of 88 cm, as a criterion of metabolic syndrome. Student's t tests were used to determine significant differences between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The lumbar spine mineral content was higher in women with metabolic syndrome. After consuming the milk drink...

Structure, activity, and inhibition of the carboxyltransferase β-Subunit of acetyl coenzyme a carboxylase (AccD6) from mycobacterium tuberculosis; Structure, activity, and inhibition of the carboxyltransferase beta-Subunit of acetyl coenzyme a carboxylase (AccD6) from mycobacterium tuberculosis

Reddy, M.C.M.; Breda, A.; Bruning, J.B.; Sherekar, M.; Valluru, S.; Thurman, C.; Ehrenfeld, H.; Sacchettini, J.C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiolgy Publicador: American Society for Microbiolgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the carboxylation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to produce malonyl-CoA, a building block in long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis, is catalyzed by two enzymes working sequentially: a biotin carboxylase (AccA) and a carboxyltransferase (AccD). While the exact roles of the three different biotin carboxylases (AccA1 to -3) and the six carboxyltransferases (AccD1 to -6) in M. tuberculosis are still not clear, AccD6 in complex with AccA3 can synthesize malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA. A series of 10 herbicides that target plant acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACC) were tested for inhibition of AccD6 and for whole-cell activity against M. tuberculosis. From the tested herbicides, haloxyfop, an arylophenoxypropionate, showed in vitro inhibition of M. tuberculosis AccD6, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 21.4 ± 1 μM. Here, we report the crystal structures of M. tuberculosis AccD6 in the apo form (3.0 Å) and in complex with haloxyfop-R (2.3 Å). The structure of M. tuberculosis AccD6 in complex with haloxyfop-R shows two molecules of the inhibitor bound on each AccD6 subunit. These results indicate the potential for developing novel therapeutics for tuberculosis based on herbicides with low human toxicity.; Manchi C. M. Reddy...

Curious case of the Kangaroo Island honeybee Apis melliferaLinnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) sanctuary

Glatz, R.V.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Humans have had a long association with the honeybee Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, which has been exploited for production of honey and for the crop pollination services it provides. This association facilitated movement of this species to such a degree that it is now virtually ubiquitous in all areas with flowering plants and available water. On Kangaroo Island (KI), a ‘sanctuary’ was created for the Ligurian bee subspecies A. mellifera ligustica, which is exotic to Australia and the entire New World. The Ligurian Bee Act was enacted in 1885 on the basis of perceived genetic purity and isolation of KI honeybee populations, and was updated in 1931 and 1997. It supports biosecurity protocols preventing importation of bees, bee-keeping equipment and bee-related products such as honey and wax. This represents a rare example of legislative protection for an invertebrate in Australia. This legislation and the apparent isolation of KI bees from mainland bees in the time since its enactment have led to the popular assertion that KI honeybee populations represent the last ‘pure’ genetic population of A. mellifera ligustica. However, historical accounts of bee introductions to KI show that A. mellifera mellifera-like bees were present on KI prior to the introduction of A. mellifera ligustica...

Identification of trophic niches of subterranean diving beetles in a calcrete aquifer by DNA and stable isotope analyses

Bradford, T.M.; Humphreys, W.F.; Austin, A.D.; Cooper, S.J.B.
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
The Yilgarn calcrete aquifers in Western Australia are an interesting system for investigating the process of speciation within subterranean habitats, because of the limited opportunities for dispersal between isolated calcretes. The presence of different-sized diving beetles (Dytiscidae) in separate calcretes, including sympatric sister-species pairs, suggests that species may have evolved within calcretes by an adaptive shift as a result of ecological-niche differentiation. We have studied the potential for trophic niche partitioning in a sister triplet of diving beetles, of distinctly different sizes, from a single aquifer. Fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene, specific to known species of amphipods and copepods, were polymerase chain reaction-amplified from each of the three beetle species, indicating that there is an overlap in their prey items. Significant differences were found in the detected diets of the three species, and results showed a propensity for prey preferences of amphipods by the large beetles and one species of copepod for the small beetles. A terrestrial source of carbon to the calcrete was suggested by stable isotope analyses. The combined approach of molecular, stable isotope and behavioural studies have provided insight into the trophic ecology of this difficult-to-access environment...

A comparison of regular consumption of fresh lean pork, beef and chicken on body composition: a randomized cross-over trial

Murphy, K.J.; Parker, B.; Dyer, K.A.; Davis, C.R.; Coates, A.M.; Buckley, J.D.; Howe, P.R.C.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.; Karen J. Murphy...

Discrete element modelling of geocell-reinforced track ballast under static and cyclic loading

Liu, Y.; Deng, A.; Jaksa, M.B.
Fonte: International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE); New Zealand Publicador: International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE); New Zealand
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2015 EN
A geocell is a geosynthetic material developed to reinforce soils and aggregates. Similar to the configuration of a honeycomb, a geocell panel is designed to encompass consecutive confined cells where soils and aggregates are placed. The cellular confinement system of the geocell is beneficial in the reinforcement of track ballast, which helps restrain lateral movement and minimise vertical subsidence of a trackbed. To gain an understanding of the reinforcement, a numerical study has been conducted. The study uses the discrete element method to simulate the interaction between the geocell and the discrete particles of ballast. Both static and cyclic loading environments are considered. Displacements and stresses at both micro- and macro-scales are assessed for control and reinforced scenarios. The outcomes of this study seek to encourage likely reduction in trackbed thickness and width, to save construction cost and improve the sustainability of the railway trackbed.; Y. Liu, A. Deng and M.B. Jaksa

How climate, migration ability and habitat fragmentation affect the projected future distribution of European beech

Saltré, F.; Duputié, A.; Gaucherel, C.; Chuine, I.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Recent efforts to incorporate migration processes into species distribution models (SDMs) are allowing assessments of whether species are likely to be able to track their future climate optimum and the possible causes of failing to do so. Here, we projected the range shift of European beech over the 21st century using a process-based SDM coupled to a phenomenological migration model accounting for population dynamics, according to two climate change scenarios and one land use change scenario. Our model predicts that the climatically suitable habitat for European beech will shift north-eastward and upward mainly because (i) higher temperature and precipitation, at the northern range margins, will increase survival and fruit maturation success, while (ii) lower precipitations and higher winter temperature, at the southern range margins, will increase drought mortality and prevent bud dormancy breaking. Beech colonization rate of newly climatically suitable habitats in 2100 is projected to be very low (1-2% of the newly suitable habitats colonised). Unexpectedly, the projected realized contraction rate was higher than the projected potential contraction rate. As a result, the realized distribution of beech is projected to strongly contract by 2100 (by 36-61%) mainly due to a substantial increase in climate variability after 2050...

Are outbreaks of cambium-feeding beetles generated by nutritionally enhanced phloem of drought-stressed trees?

White, T.C.R.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Outbreaks of cambium-feeding beetles follow droughts, becoming most severe in overmature trees and those growing on stressful sites or planted beyond their natural range. Outbreaks develop from small endemic populations confined to a few senescing or damaged trees and expand into neighbouring trees that become newly stressed as a drought intensifies, eventually coalescing as a full-blown outbreak. The beetles' larvae normally face a severe nutritional challenge feeding on the slow outflow of dilute nutrients in the phloem of damaged or senescing trees. This is reflected in their slow rate of growth. But when drought stresses trees, they senesce more quickly, releasing a faster flow of more concentrated nutrients that enhances the survival of the insects. The increased survival and faster rate of growth of larvae feeding in this enriched phloem can generate an outbreak. Both the dieback of the trees and the outbreaks of these insects are generated by drought. This hypothesis presents a parsimonious explanation for outbreaks of cambium-feeding insects. Apart from providing a focus for future research, it has the added benefit that it replaces non-explanatory descriptions of these outbreaks with a testable biological explanation based on known plant and insect physiology.; T. C. R. White; Perspective

Have mining royalties been beneficial to Australia?

Ergas, H.; Pincus, J.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
The “Henry tax review,” Australia's Future Tax System (Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Treasury, 2010), recommended that royalties be abolished and replaced by a resource rent tax. Regarding abolition, AFTS drew on KPMG Econtech (2010a) (http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/html/commissioned_work/downloads/KPMG_Econtech_Efficiency%20of%20Taxes_Final_Report.pdf), a major report commissioned by Treasury to investigate the efficiencies of a wide range of Australian taxes, using MM900, a proprietary CGE model. That report estimated that the average excess burden of royalties and crude oil excise, taken together, was 50 cents per dollar of public revenue, and that the marginal excess burden, at 70 cents, was the highest of all imposts except those on gambling. We argue that the KPMG Econtech long-run comparative static framework was inappropriate for policy purposes. By ignoring that mining is largely foreign owned, the model missed a large “rectangle” of gain – which we calculate using a partial equilibrium model. More fundamentally, the finding that royalties do harm is difficult to reconcile with the widely accepted claim that a rise in the terms of trade is beneficial. Using a partial equilibrium model, we conclude that royalties are likely to have brought substantial benefits to Australians...

Validating a human biotelemetry system for use in captive blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus)

Laubscher, L.L.; Hoffman, L.C.; Pitts, N.I.; Raath, J.P.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
We fitted two blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) with modified versions of the Equivital™ EQ02 wireless monitoring system to evaluate if the device could accurately measure heart rate and respiration rate in this species whilst anaesthetized as well as whilst fully conscious in captivity. Whilst under anaesthesia, we monitored each animal's heart rate and respiration rate using the Equivital™ biotelemetry belt, a Cardell(®) veterinary monitor and manual measurements. The animals were also administered doxapram hydrochloride (Dopram(®) ) and adrenaline intravenously at different times to stimulate changes in respiration and heart rate, respectively. Once 30 minutes of monitoring was completed, we reversed the anaesthetic and left the animals in captivity for 24 hours whilst wearing the Equivital™ belts. After 24 hr, we repeated the anaesthesia and monitoring as well as the administration of the doxapram hydrochloride and adrenaline. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) calculated between all three monitoring methods showed moderate to excellent agreements for heart rate on both days (ICC: 0.73-0.98). ICCs calculated between the three methods for respiration rate showed good to excellent agreement between the Equivital belt and the other two methods (0.82-0.92) with the exception of occasions when only poor to fair agreements were found between the Cardell(®) measurements and manual measurements. Heart rate and respiration rate were also found to increase with motion while animals were in captivity. The results indicate that a modified version of the Equivital™ EQ02 system can be used as a potential biotelemetry device for measuring heart and respiration rate in captive blue wildebeest.; Liesel L. Laubscher...

The bee as a model to investigate brain and behavioural asymmetries

Frasnelli, E.; Haase, A.; Rigosi, E.; Anfora, G.; Rogers, L.; Vallortigara, G.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
The honeybee Apis mellifera, with a brain of only 960,000 neurons and the ability to perform sophisticated cognitive tasks, has become an excellent model in life sciences and in particular in cognitive neurosciences. It has been used in our laboratories to investigate brain and behavioural asymmetries, i.e., the different functional specializations of the right and the left sides of the brain. It is well known that bees can learn to associate an odour stimulus with a sugar reward, as demonstrated by extension of the proboscis when presented with the trained odour in the so-called Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) paradigm. Bees recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. They also retrieve short-term memory of this task better when using the right antenna. On the other hand, when tested for long-term memory recall, bees respond better when using their left antenna. Here we review a series of behavioural studies investigating bees’ lateralization, integrated with electrophysiological measurements to study asymmetries of olfactory sensitivity, and discuss the possible evolutionary origins of these asymmetries. We also present morphological data obtained by scanning electron microscopy and two-photon microscopy. Finally...

Asymmetric neural coding revealed by in vivo calcium imaging in the honey bee brain

Rigosi, E.; Haase, A.; Rath, L.; Anfora, G.; Vallortigara, G.; Szyszka, P.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Left–right asymmetries are common properties of nervous systems. Although lateralized sensory processing has been well studied, information is lacking about how asymmetries are represented at the level of neural coding. Using in vivo functional imaging, we identified a population-level left–right asymmetry in the honey bee's primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). When both antennae were stimulated via a frontal odour source, the inter-odour distances between neural response patterns were higher in the right than in the left AL. Behavioural data correlated with the brain imaging results: bees with only their right antenna were better in discriminating a target odour in a cross-adaptation paradigm. We hypothesize that the differences in neural odour representations in the two brain sides serve to increase coding capacity by parallel processing.; Elisa Rigosi, Albrecht Haase, Lisa Rath, Gianfranco Anfora, Giorgio Vallortigara, Paul Szyszka

Potential role of folate in pre-eclampsia

Singh, M.D.; Thomas, P.; Owens, J.; Hague, W.; Fenech, M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Dietary deficiencies of folate and other B vitamin cofactors involved in one-carbon metabolism, together with genetic polymorphisms in key folate-methionine metabolic pathway enzymes, are associated with increases in circulating plasma homocysteine, reduction in DNA methylation patterns, and genome instability events. All of these biomarkers have also been associated with pre-eclampsia. The aim of this review was to explore the literature and identify potential knowledge gaps in relation to the role of folate at the genomic level in either the etiology or the prevention of pre-eclampsia. A systematic search strategy was designed to identify citations in electronic databases for the following terms: folic acid supplementation AND pre-eclampsia, folic acid supplementation AND genome stability, folate AND genome stability AND pre-eclampsia, folic acid supplementation AND DNA methylation, and folate AND DNA methylation AND pre-eclampsia. Forty-three articles were selected according to predefined selection criteria. The studies included in the present review were not homogeneous, which made pooled analysis of the data very difficult. The present review highlights associations between folate deficiency and certain biomarkers observed in various tissues of women at risk of pre-eclampsia. Further investigation is required to understand the role of folate in either the etiology or the prevention of pre-eclampsia.; Mansi Dass Singh...

Is internal fixation alone advantageous in selected B2 periprosthetic fractures?

Solomon, L.B.; Hussenbocus, S.M.; Carbone, T.A.; Callary, S.A.; Howie, D.W.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: Revision surgery is currently the recommended treatment for Vancouver B2 femoral periprosthetic fractures, but isolated open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) might be an effective treatment for these fractures around cemented collarless polished tapered (CCPT) stems, as these stems can re-engage in the cement mantle, regaining stability following internal fixation. The aim of this study was to determine the operative risks, post-operative complications, and radiographic and functional outcomes in two cohorts of Vancouver B2 femoral fractures around CCPT stems treated either by ORIF alone or revision surgery. METHODS: The results of 12 patients with B2 periprosthetic fractures around a CCPT stems treated by ORIF alone (median follow-up 67 months) were compared with those of nine patients with a similar fracture treated by revision surgery (median follow-up 59 months). RESULTS: All fractures treated by ORIF alone healed and all stems restabilized and remained stable within their original cement mantle. These patients had significantly shorter overall operating room times (P = 0.002), surgical times (P = 0.002) and required fewer units of blood transfusion (P = 0.008) than patients in the revision cohort. In the ORIF cohort...

The negative phase of the blast load

Rigby, S.E.; Tyas, A.; Bennett, T.; Clarke, S.D.; Fay, S.D.
Fonte: Multi Science Publishing Publicador: Multi Science Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Following the positive phase of a blast comes a period where the pressure falls below atmospheric pressure known as the negative phase. Whilst the positive phase of the blast is well understood, validation of the negative phase is rare in the literature, and as such it is often incorrectly treated or neglected altogether. Herein, existing methods of approximating the negative phase are summarised and recommendations of which form to use are made based on experimental validation. Also, through numerical simulations, the impact of incorrectly modelling the negative phase has been shown and its implications discussed.; Sam E. Rigby, Andrew Tyas, Terry Bennett, Sam D. Clarke, Stephen D. Fay

Carers' experiences when the person for whom they have been caring enters a residential aged care facility permanently: a systematic review

Jacobson, J.; Gomersall, J.S.; Campbell, J.; Hughes, M.
Fonte: The Joanna Briggs Institute and The University of Adelaide Publicador: The Joanna Briggs Institute and The University of Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND: Primary research, including qualitative research, as well as experts working in social services and aged care have identified the mixed feelings carers experience when the person they have been caring for is admitted into a residential aged care facility permanently. They have raised the importance of understanding these experiences as a means to implementing policies and programs that enhance carers' well-being. This systematic review was motivated by the need to use evidence to inform effective and feasible interventions to support carers, and the absence of a systematic review synthesizing the qualitative evidence on how carers experience this transition. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on the experiences of carers of older people when the person they had been providing care for is admitted permanently into a residential aged care facility, and to draw recommendations from the synthesis of the evidence on these experiences to enhance policy and programming aimed at supporting affected caregivers. INCLUSION CRITERIA: TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS:  All carers of people who had experienced the person they had been caring for at home being moved into a residential aged care facility permanently.  PHENOMENA OF INTEREST:  Experiences of the caregiver of the older person when the person they have been caring for at home is admitted into a residential aged care facility permanently. Types of studies: The review considered qualitative studies...

Initial axillary surgery: results from the BreastSurgANZ Quality Audit

Chong, C.; Walters, D.; de Silva, P.; Taylor, C.; Spillane, A.; Kollias, J.; Pyke, C.; Campbell, I.; Maddern, G.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the preference and reasons for initial axillary surgery performed on women with invasive breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand using data from the Breast Surgeon's Society of Australia and New Zealand Quality Audit (BQA) according to whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or no axillary surgery was used. METHODS: Patient data from 1999 to 2011 were categorized according to primary tumour size (≤3 cm or >3 cm) and analysed by year of diagnosis, type of initial axillary surgery and frequency of second axillary surgery following SLN biopsy. Patient age at diagnosis, health insurance status, surgeon caseload and hospital location were also examined as factors affecting the likelihood of performing different types of axillary surgery. RESULTS: Seventy thousand six hundred and eighty-eight episodes of early breast cancer with axillary surgery data were reported to the BQA in the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing SLN biopsy as the first operation increased over this period in both tumour size groups with a concomitant decline in the use of ALND as the first operation over the same interval. Elderly women (>70 years old) were four times less likely to undergo axillary surgery for their initial management when compared with women aged 41-70 years old (P < 0.001). Factors favouring ALND as the initial surgery over SLN biopsy included larger tumour size...

StructBoost: boosting methods for predicting structured output variables

Shen, C.; Lin, G.; van den Hengel, A.
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Boosting is a method for learning a single accurate predictor by linearly combining a set of less accurate weak learners. Recently, structured learning has found many applications in computer vision. Inspired by structured support vector machines (SSVM), here we propose a new boosting algorithm for structured output prediction, which we refer to as StructBoost. StructBoost supports nonlinear structured learning by combining a set of weak structured learners. As SSVM generalizes SVM, our StructBoost generalizes standard boosting approaches such as AdaBoost, or LPBoost to structured learning. The resulting optimization problem of StructBoost is more challenging than SSVM in the sense that it may involve exponentially many variables and constraints. In contrast, for SSVM one usually has an exponential number of constraints and a cutting-plane method is used. In order to efficiently solve StructBoost, we formulate an equivalent 1-slack formulation and solve it using a combination of cutting planes and column generation. We show the versatility and usefulness of StructBoost on a range of problems such as optimizing the tree loss for hierarchical multi-class classification, optimizing the Pascal overlap criterion for robust visual tracking and learning conditional random field parameters for image segmentation.; Chunhua Shen...