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Superação das barreiras técnicas ao comércio internacional pelas pequenas e médias empresas de base tecnológica - o caso da exportação de produtos eletromédicos para a União Européia; Overcoming technical barriers to international trade by the small and medium technological based companies the case of medical devices exportation to European Community

D'Elia, Marco Antonio Grecco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Com a redução das barreiras tarifárias ao comércio internacional, as normas técnicas, regulamentos técnicos e procedimentos de avaliação da conformidade vêm se tornando importantes mecanismos protecionistas e de restrição ao comércio. Esse trabalho tem por objetivo estudar essas questões, tendo como foco principal a exportação para a União Européia dos equipamentos eletromédicos produzidos por pequenas e médias empresas brasileiras. Realiza-se uma revisão bibliográfica buscando-se identificar e comparar as normas técnicas, os regulamentos técnicos e os mecanismos de avaliação da conformidade para os dispositivos eletromédicos, praticados pela União Européia e os vigentes no Brasil. É desenvolvida uma pesquisa junto a PMEs Pequenas e Médias Empresas fabricantes de dispositivos eletromédicos e exportadores para a União Européia, buscando-se identificar as dificuldades encontradas, as formas de superação dessas e os apoios recebidos. É elaborado um método, baseado nas experiências estudadas e adquiridas a partir da pesquisa junto às PMEs, para a identificação e superação das dificuldades técnicas para a exportação dos equipamentos eletromédicos para a União Européia. Conclui-se que não existem propriamente barreiras técnicas e que as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas empresas podem ser superadas com a participação nos fóruns de normalização...

Elaboração e padronização de escala avaliativa do comportamento de crianças em sua primeira consulta odontológica; Elaboration and standardization of evaluating children’s behavior scale in the first pediatric dentistry attendance

Tambellini, Marcela Maia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/05/2005 PT
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A Odontopediatria e a Psicologia se inter-relacionam e completam, principalmente quando existe necessidade de atendimento odontopediátrico. Quando o paciente é criança em idade pré-escolar, torna-se imperioso uma interação entre estas áreas, para que o resultado final traga benefícios para o paciente. A observação do comportamento das crianças em Odontopediatria é ferramenta importante para a elaboração do plano de tratamento. Levantamento bibliográfico sobre instrumentos para avaliação do comportamento de crianças em ambiente odontológico, mostrou que escalas eram o instrumento mais utilizado, porém, não se encontrou escalas aplicáveis às faixas etárias abaixo de 36 meses. Predominantemente, escalas para avaliação de comportamento estavam direcionadas a medir medo e ansiedade, pressupondo sua existência. Nesta pesquisa buscou-se elaborar e aplicar uma escala observacional para avaliação do comportamento, em primeira consulta odontológica, em crianças entre um e três anos de idade. A escala foi denominada EOCI – Escala de Observação do Comportamento Infantil. A finalidade era avaliar o comportamento em todas as etapas do primeiro atendimento, identificando o grau de cooperação e participação, e não quantificar ou classificar a presença de medo ou ansiedade. A escala foi aplicada em 398 sujeitos de ambos os sexos...

Normalização da manutenção preventiva numa empresa de mobiliário; Preventive maintenance standardization in a furniture company

Ferreira, Lúcia Manuela Leite
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 POR
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Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia e Gestão Industrial; Este trabalho surge no âmbito da realização da dissertação de Mestrado de Engenharia e Gestão Industrial. Tem como principal objetivo proporcionar documentação standard sobre o plano de manutenção preventiva numa empresa de produção de mobiliário com o intuito de ser utilizado por todos os colaboradores, e assim aumentar a eficiência do sistema de gestão da manutenção. Com a normalização dos documentos de manutenção pretendeu-se reduzir as falhas dos equipamentos, através do planeamento das intervenções a realizar, proporcionando assim o aumento de eficiência e, consequentemente, a diminuição do número e tempo de paragens. Pretende-se que a manutenção preventiva passe a ser um ato integrado, com o intuito de prevenir as falhas. Na revisão bibliográfica efetuada foram abordados os tipos de manutenção existentes, a organização da manutenção, os custos associados e a importância dos indicadores que medem o processo da gestão da manutenção. Foi também abordada a filosofia TPM e principalmente um dos pilares principais a manutenção preventiva. Uma análise e diagnóstico da situação atual da manutenção na empresa permitiu identificar e relatar os principais problemas e a documentação que necessitava ser atualizada e restruturada. A classificação dos equipamentos existente podia ser melhorada com a priorização dos equipamentos mais críticos. De forma a colmatar tais problemas...

A survey on e-learning content standardization

Queirós, Ricardo; Leal, José Paulo
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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eLearning has been evolved in a gradual and consistent way. Along with this evolution several specialized and disparate systems appeared to fulfill the needs of teachers and students such as repositories of learning objects, intelligent tutors, or automatic evaluators. This heterogeneity poses issues that are necessary to address in order to promote interoperability among systems. Based on this fact, the standardization of content takes a leading role in the eLearning realm. This article presents a survey on current eLearning content standards. It gathers information on the most emergent standards and categorizes them according three distinct facets: metadata, content packaging and educational design.

Missões empresariais com enquadramento oficial : um processo standard?

Pacheco, Inês Margarida Cabeçadas Sancho Martins
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Trabalho de projeto submetido como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Administração Pública; Na estrutura organizativa do Estado, a AICEP enquadra-se no setor empresarial, sendo a entidade pública promotora de várias ações que vão desde a organização de missões empresariais, feiras, exposições, visitas de importadores, até à divulgação de oportunidades de negócio, informação sobre mercados e ações de capacitação empresarial. A aplicação do conceito de estandardização nas diversas conceções de Administração foi variando ao longo do tempo. A Organização Científica do Trabalho de Taylor coloca a tónica sobretudo nos aspetos formais da organização, na especialização das incumbências, na estandardização e uniformidade dos processos de trabalho. Ford foi um dos mais conhecidos percursores desta conceção administração, que através da racionalização dos elementos de produção idealizou a linha de montagem, permitindo a produção em série. A conceção de Weber está pensada para produzir produtos e serviços standard aos destinatários da sua atividade. A estandardização do processo organizativo de missões empresariais é encarada como uma ferramenta de gestão e controlo. Representa a forma eficaz de gerir e organizar as atividades do serviço que agregam valor...

Standardization of serological tests for detecting anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in dogs

Lauricella,M. A.; Wisnivesky-Colli,C.; Gürtler,R.; Petersen,R.; Bujas,M.; Segura,E. L.
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1993 EN
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This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and hemagglutination test (IHAT) were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT) and direct agglutination test (DAT) were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1) parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA) of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134); (2) non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285); (3) dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6); (4) non-infected dogs (n = 56) which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA), one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively...

Face and content validity of smoking-related and matched control pictures; Face and content validity of smoking-related and matched control pictures; La validez aparente y de contenido de imágenes relacionadas con el tabaquismo y sus controles pareados

Lopes, Fernanda Machado; Wagner, Flavia; Peuker, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Silvia; Trentini, Clarissa; Bizarro, Lisiane
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2012 ENG; SPA
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Smoking-related pictures and matched controls are useful tools in experimental tasks of attentional bias. Noteworthy the procedures used to produce and validate these pairs of pictures are poorly reported. This study aimed to describe the production and evidence of validity of a set of smoking-related pictures and their matched controls. Two studies were conducted to assess validity. An online internet-based survey was used to assess face validity of 12 pictures related to smoking behavior and 12 matched controls. All pictures were colored and were 95mm length x 130mm width. Participants were asked if the pictures were related or not to the smoking behavior and also rated how much each picture was related to smoking behavior. The second study investigated attentional bias in smokers (n = 47) and non-smokers (n = 50), and examined how they assessed all pictures in terms of pleasantness and the 12 smoking-related pictures in terms of relevance to their own smoking behavior. Craving was assessed before and after the experiment. Results indicate that this set of pictures are valid since smoking-related pictures were considered more related to smoking behavior compared to their matched controls. Moreover, smokers showed greater attentional bias for smoking-related pictures than non-smokers. Craving and relevance of the smoking-related pictures were higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Smokers considered smoking-related pictures them less unpleasant than non-smokers. These findings provide evidence of face and content validity of this set of pictures...

Quantifying the source of reentrant line variability and the effects of processes standardization on tool availability variability

Peavey, Milo Camp
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 57 p.
ENG
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This thesis quantifies the sensitivity of tool availability variability with respect to product throughput and examines how Intel's High Precision Maintenance initiative can be used to minimize these effects. Tools with variable availability release spikes of material into a route which can cause down stream areas to experience irregular queues. The reentrant multi product loops typical to Intel's manufacturing processes can make it difficult to identify the source of long queues. The variability analysis, developed during the internship uses D2 facility availability and cycle time data to generate a variability correlation, called TAC-TOOT which identifies tools within the facility contributing to throughput time. The High Precision Maintenance initiative is an Intel developed program which focuses on the standardization of maintenance processes. The success of the High Precision Maintenance initiative is closely linked to the ability of factory management to motivate equipment technicians. The thesis examines a number of tools with highly variable availability, the effects of the high precision initiative on variability and levers factory management can use to motivate technicians.; by Milo Camp Peavey.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

An analysis of the impact of modularization and standardization of vehicles electronics architecture on the automotive industry

Gaillard, Christophe-Loïc, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 p.; 7077729 bytes; 7085116 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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The growing use of electronics in automobiles designs and their dependency on it, has increased the level of complexity of the car-system and created new challenges. But at the same time, it has created new opportunities and the potential to reduce complexity through modularization. This represents a new architectural paradigm for OEMs and suppliers. This thesis suggests an approach to this new era of automobiles designs. It looks at the effect of modularization and the advent of electronics on the supply chain in other industries. It evaluates the risks of value migration in the automotive industry and studies the mechanisms of such migrations through several interviews, financial data research, systems functional decomposition and system dynamics analysis. Electronics, along with software and control algorithms, enable an encapsulation of functionalities by creating higher levels of abstraction. While early vehicles had an all-mechanical interface between operator and actuation, electronics has allowed the separation of the processing of signals coming from the operator, the control/functionality infusion, the transfer of information and the transfer of energy. Thus, what was once integral has now the potential to be modular.; (cont.) Such a separation increases the modularizability of the automobile's architecture and gives it an opportunity to get closer to a lower bound "essential complexity" floor. While integrality helps prevent knowledge from fleeing away...

Safe water storage in Kenya's modified clay pot : standardization, tap design, and cost recovery

Young, Suzanne E
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 leaves; 7055199 bytes; 7060253 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water from some distance or purchase vended water and traditionally store this water in their homes in clay pots. CARE/Kenya, a non-governmental organization working in conjunction with local women potters and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, modified these clay pots so that they fit the definition of designated safe storage water containers, which contain the following three characteristics: a narrow mouth, a lid, and a tap to prevent recontamination. Three pottery production sites were visited in order to document, analyze, and suggest improvements for the design of the modified clay pots, specifically with regards to the standardization of the size and shape of the pots, so as to allow simple and convenient standardized household chlorine dosing, and the tap design and attachment, because the current tap design is expensive and prone to leaking.; (cont.) The modified clay pots displayed little variability in pot dimensions, and the 20 liter modified clay pots from the Amilo location showed a less than or equal to 10% volume variability that is acceptable according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention household chlorine dosing procedure. A reference rope tool developed to help standardize the size of modified clay pots can be used to train new potters but is not necessary for experienced potters. The spring-operated plastic tap was found to be the most promising design to replace the current metal tap design. The material cost of the modified clay pots at the three sites was determined with some certainty to range from 202-370 KSH (US$2.70-US$4.90). However...

Standardization of finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) cooling tests

Olsen, Niels
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2005 EN
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A finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) cooling test was introduced in 1977 and standardized during the following years for the optimal provocation and best characterization of an attack of vasospastic Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). The purpose of the present review is to compare and analyse some different techniques used in FSBP cooling tests from different countries and described in the final draft of the international standard, ISO/DIS 14835-2 (2004). The selected FSBP test results indicate to some extent that the tests are reliable and have acceptable diagnostic values despite the use of different techniques to obtain them. However, only a few studies used a zero-pressure FSBP%(0) to verify an ongoing attack of vasospastic RP. Most studies used an abnormal cold reaction FSBP%(A) located below the lower limit of controls, to make the anamnestic diagnosis of RP probable. According to the ISO draft, different types of finger cooling and body thermostating can be used together in the seated or supine position, and FSBP%(A) is indicated to be used for diagnostic purposes. Further studies are recommended to solve future standardization problems not included in the upcoming ISO standard. An international agreement on the presentation and comparison of test results is needed as a supplement to ISO/DIS 14835-2.

International Committee for Standardization in Haematology of the European Society of Haematology: Recommendations and requirements for haemoglobinometry in human blood

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1965 EN
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Scientific symposia on haemoglobinometry were held at the ninth congress of the European Society of Haematology at Lisbon in 1963 (see `Erythrocytometric methods and their standardization' Bibl. haemat., 1964, Fasc. 18) and at the tenth congress of the International Society of Haematology at Stockholm in 1964 (`Standardization, documentation and normal values in haematology', Bibl. haemat., 1965, fasc. 21).

Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys12345

Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Kinsella, Michael; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Tian, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Lucey, Alice; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary F; Sempos, Christopher T
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Background: The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing procedures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measurement in National Health/Nutrition Surveys to promote 25(OH)D measurements that are accurate and comparable over time, location, and laboratory procedure to improve public health practice.

Optimization and standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol for serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

Trottier, Y L; Wright, P F; Larivière, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1992 EN
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An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol has been optimized with special emphasis given to assay standardization and quality control. Technical aspects such as choice of a microplate, antigen immobilization, buffer composition, optimal screening dilution of sera, and kinetics of the enzymatic reaction were studied and evaluated in order to design a standard protocol offering maximal analytical sensitivity and specificity, as well as to obtain minimal within- and between-plate variability. Among the 27 plates tested, the Nunc 475-094 and 269-620 immunoplates were found to be the best in terms of high positive-to-negative ratio and low variability. No significant differences in antigen immobilization were found by using buffers of various compositions or pHs; however, the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+; 0.02 M) resulted in a twofold increase in nonspecific background. An optimal screening dilution of sera was established at 1:200. A 1-h incubation period for test serum was found to be optimal. Maximum enzymatic activity for peroxidase was obtained by adjusting both substrate (H2O2) and hydrogen donor [2,2' -azinobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline sulfonic acid)] concentrations to 4 and 1 mM, respectively. To control between-plate variability...

Classification of Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems—Synthesis, Standardization and Analysis Methods in the NanoMag Project

Bogren, Sara; Fornara, Andrea; Ludwig, Frank; del Puerto Morales, Maria; Steinhoff, Uwe; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel; Kazakova, Olga; Johansson, Christer
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/08/2015 EN
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26.39%
This study presents classification of different magnetic single- and multi-core particle systems using their measured dynamic magnetic properties together with their nanocrystal and particle sizes. The dynamic magnetic properties are measured with AC (dynamical) susceptometry and magnetorelaxometry and the size parameters are determined from electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using these methods, we also show that the nanocrystal size and particle morphology determines the dynamic magnetic properties for both single- and multi-core particles. The presented results are obtained from the four year EU NMP FP7 project, NanoMag, which is focused on standardization of analysis methods for magnetic nanoparticles.

Standardization of Assay Procedures for Analysis of the CSF Biomarkers Amyloid β(1-42), Tau, and Phosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer's Disease: Report of an International Workshop

Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Verwey, Niek A.; Kester, Maartje I.; van Uffelen, Kees; Blankenstein, Marinus A.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2010 EN
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Large variation in assay performance and outcomes of CSF Aβ1-42, total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) (at amino acid 181) levels is observed between laboratories. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in assay procedures between several experienced international laboratories, as potential sources of error. 14 groups performed the Aβ42, Tau, and pTau assays according to the guidelines of the manufacturer. Differences in analytical procedures between the laboratories were monitored. At least 23 items in assay procedures were identified that varied between the laboratories, including procedures for washing, pipetting, incubation, finishing, and sample handing. In general, the inter- and intra-assay variation between the groups was generally below 10% for all three assays. We concluded that 17 international centers that use the same assays for Aβ42, Tau and pTau on a regular basis do not uniformly adhere to the procedures recommended by the manufacturer. For harmonization of intercenter results of these biomarkers standardization of protocols is highly needed.

Highly Variable Contents of Phenolics in St John's Wort Products Impact Their Transport in the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Model: Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Rationale for Product Standardization

Gao, Song; Jiang, Wen; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/06/2010 EN
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The purposes of this study were to determine content uniformity of phenolics in the St John's Wort (SJW) supplements, and to demonstrate how variations in the product matrices affect their absorption and efflux. LC and LC-MS/MS methods were used to determine the phenolic contents of twelve different products purchased locally or from the internet. Three representative extracts were further submitted to Caco-2 cell transport experiment and transport of rutin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin were evaluated. The results indicated that twelve different products displayed twelve different HPLC fingerprints, but all products contained the following major compounds: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and amentoflavone. The content uniformity of these major compounds was poor across products, with the smallest difference in the amounts of amentoflavone (2.6 folds) and largest difference in that of isoquercitrin (28.8 folds). The Caco-2 experiments indicated transport of rutin was vectorial, with the permeabilities varied about 2 folds in both direction of transport. The vectorial permeabilities of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were similarly different. Use of efflux transporter inhibitors studies suggested that MRP2 was involved in isoquercitrin's efflux and the product matrix affected the extent of its efflux. In conclusion...

Recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature. Pedigree Standardization Task Force of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

Bennett, R L; Steinhaus, K A; Uhrich, S B; O'Sullivan, C K; Resta, R G; Lochner-Doyle, D; Markel, D S; Vincent, V; Hamanishi, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 EN
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The construction of an accurate family pedigree is a fundamental component of a clinical genetic evaluation and of human genetic research. Previous surveys of genetic counselors and human genetic publications have demonstrated significant inconsistencies in the usage of common pedigree symbols representing situations such as pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, miscarriage, and adoption, as well as less common scenarios such as pregnancies conceived through assisted reproductive technologies. The Pedigree Standardization Task Force (PSTF) was organized through the Professional Issues Committee of the National Society of Genetic Counselors, to establish recommendations for universal standards in human pedigree nomenclature. Nomenclature was chosen based on current usage, consistency among symbols, computer compatibility, and the adaptability of symbols to reflect the rapid technical advances in human genetics. Preliminary recommendations were presented for review at three national meetings of human genetic professionals and sent to > 100 human genetic professionals for review. On the basis of this review process, the recommendations of the PSTF for standardized human pedigree nomenclature are presented here. By incorporating these recommendations into medical genetics professional training programs...

The development of the new Inmetro's AC voltage and current primary standardization system based on the PMJTC

Afonso, Edson; Almeida, Giovanna Fonseca Borghi de; Landim, Regis Pinheiro; Afonso Júnior, Renato
Fonte: Inmetro - Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Publicador: Inmetro - Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia
Tipo: Trabalho apresentado em evento / Paper
ENG
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8 p. : il.; We present the new primary standardization system for the AC voltage and current quantities at Inmetro. The development is under construction but we have obtained good results so far. The two systems are based on the new PMJTC (Planar Multijunction Thermal Converters) standards and we intend to achieve uncertainties at least, half of the ones related to the old standards that are being used along the last fifteen years.

Smart Grid Communications: Overview of Research Challenges, Solutions, and Standardization Activities

Fan, Zhong; Kulkarni, Parag; Gormus, Sedat; Efthymiou, Costas; Kalogridis, Georgios; Sooriyabandara, Mahesh; Zhu, Ziming; Lambotharan, Sangarapillai; Chin, Woon Hau
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2011
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Optimization of energy consumption in future intelligent energy networks (or Smart Grids) will be based on grid-integrated near-real-time communications between various grid elements in generation, transmission, distribution and loads. This paper discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of communications research in the areas of smart grid and smart metering. In particular, we focus on some of the key communications challenges for realizing interoperable and future-proof smart grid/metering networks, smart grid security and privacy, and how some of the existing networking technologies can be applied to energy management. Finally, we also discuss the coordinated standardization efforts in Europe to harmonize communications standards and protocols.; Comment: To be published in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials