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Determination of Mg (II) in biodiesel by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a mercury film electrode in the presence of sodium thiopentone

Zezza, Tina R. C.; Paim, Leonardo L.; Stradiotto, Nelson R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 658-669
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 08/56980-5; Processo FAPESP: 07/07700-7; A mercury film electrode was used to determine Mg (II) in biodiesel by adsorptive stripping voltammetry in presence of sodium thiopentone. A linear response was obtained for Mg (II) in the concentration range of 6.0 × 10-7 to 7.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 for SWAdSV and 8.0 × 10-7 to 9.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 for DPAdSV with detection limits of the 2.9 × 10-7 mol L-1 and 3.1 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The method was applied successfully to biodiesel samples and presented goods results of accuracy with recoveries close to 100.0 % for SWAdSV and DPAdSV. © 2013 by ESG.

Mercurio e sulfetos volatilizaveis por acidos na bacia do Rio Jundiai, SP; Mercury and acid-volatile sulfides in the Jundiai River basin, SP

Enelton Fagnani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/07/2009 PT
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O presente trabalho teve por finalidade avaliar alguns aspectos ambientais do Rio Jundiaí e do Ribeirão Piraí, principais mananciais da bacia do Rio Jundiaí, estado de São Paulo, uma sub-bacia do Comitê Piracicaba - Capivari - Jundiaí (PCJ), gerando um importante e inédito inventário para esse início de século, capaz de auxiliar nas tomadas de decisão sobre questões ambientais na região, valendo-se da determinação de parâmetros químicos em amostras de água e sedimento no período 2007-2008. Elegeram-se cinco pontos de coleta de água para a determinação de mercúrio total (HgT) e carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD), sendo três no Rio Jundiaí, um no Ribeirão Piraí e um no Rio Tietê, tomado como referência de locais degradados. As concentrações médias para HgT, em ng L-1, foram de 8,2 +- 6,4; 7,0 +- 6,6 e 5,2 +- 3,6 no Rio Jundiaí, 2,1 +- 1,9 no Ribeirão Piraí e 19,3 +- 13,6 no Rio Tietê. Já as concentrações médias de COD, em mg L-1, foram de 7,1 +- 1,5; 9,4 +- 2,2 e 28,6 +- 17,7 no Jundiaí, 3,3 +- 1,2 no Piraí e 14,9 +- 5,4 no Tietê. Correlações entre HgT e COD mostraram que em áreas menos impactadas, como o Ribeirão Piraí, há uma relação positiva entre o COD e o HgT, sendo que maiores valores de COD implicam na ocorrência de maiores valores de HgT; em áreas mais impactadas do Rio Jundiaí...

A common matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 polymorphism affects plasma MMP-2 levels in subjects environmentally exposed to mercury

JACOB-FERREIRA, Anna L. B.; LACCHINI, Riccardo; GERLACH, Raquel F.; PASSOS, Carlos J. S.; BARBOSA JR., Fernando; TANUS-SANTOS, Jose E.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Mercury (Hg) exposure is associated with disease conditions, including cardiovascular problems. Although the mechanisms implicated in these complications have not been precisely defined yet, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be involved. The gene encoding MMP-2 presents genetic polymorphisms which affect the expression and activity level of this enzyme. A common polymorphism of MMP-2 gene is the C(-1306)T (rs 243865), which is known to disrupt a Sp1-type promoter site (CCACC box), thus leading to lower promoter activity associated with the T allele. This study aimed at examining how this polymorphism affects the circulating MMP-2 levels and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in 210 subjects environmentally exposed to Hg. Total blood and plasma Hg concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MMP-2 and TIMP-2 concentrations were measured in plasma samples by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively. Genotypes for the C(-1306)T polymorphism were determined by Taqman (R) Allele Discrimination assay. We found a positive association (p = 0.0057) between plasma Hg concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 (an index of net MMP-2 activity). The C(-1306)T polymorphism modified MMP-2 concentrations (p = 0.0465) and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio (p = 0.0060) in subjects exposed to Hg...

A functional matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 polymorphism modifies plasma MMP-9 levels in subjects environmentally exposed to mercury

JACOB-FERREIRA, Anna L. B.; PASSOS, Carlos J. S.; GERLACH, Raquel F.; BARBOSA JR., Fernando; TANUS-SANTOS, Jose E.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Mercury (Hg) exposure causes health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Although precise mechanisms have not been precisely defined yet, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be involved. The gene encoding MMP-9 presents genetic polymorphisms which affect the expression and activity level of this enzyme. Two polymorphisms in the promoter region [C(-1562)T and (CA)(n)] are functionally relevant, and are implicated in several diseases. This study aimed at examining how these polymorphisms affect the circulating MMP-9 levels and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in 266 subjects environmentally exposed to Hg. Blood and plasma Hg concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations were measured in plasma samples by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively. Genotypes for the C(-1562)T and the microsatellite (CA)(n) polymorphisms were determined. We found a positive association (P<0.05) between plasma Hg concentrations and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (an index of net MMP-9 activity). When the subjects were divided into tertiles with basis on their plasma Hg concentrations, we found that the (CA)(n) polymorphism modified MMP-9 concentrations and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in subjects with the lowest Hg concentrations (first tertile)...

Fish eyes and brain as primary targets for mercury accumulation : a new insight on environmental risk assessment

Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo,Joana; Araújo, Olinda; Canário, João; Almeida, Armando; Pacheco, Mário
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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Fish eyes and brain as primary targets for mercury accumulation - a new insight on environmental risk assessment; Fish eyes and brain are highly susceptible to environmental Hg exposure but this issue is still scarcely investigated, mainly regarding methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Yet, Hg levels in fish lens have not been previously examined under field conditions. Total Hg (tHg), MeHg and inorganic Hg (iHg) levels were assessed in the brain, eye wall and lens of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) from an Hg contaminated area, both in winter and summer, together with water and sediment levels. Sampling was performed at Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) where a confined area (LAR) is severely contaminated by Hg. Fish brain, eye wall and lens accumulated higher levels of tHg, MeHg and iHg at LAR than the reference site, reflecting faithfully environmental spatial differences. The brain and eye wall responded also to the winter-summer changes found in water and sediment, accumulating higher levels of MeHg (and tHg) in winter. Contrarily, lens was unable to reflect seasonal changes, probably due to its composition and structural stability over time. The three neurosensory structures accumulated preferentially MeHg than iHg (MeHg was higher than 77% of tHg). Lens exhibited a higher retention capacity of MeHg (mean around 1 µg g(-1) at LAR)...

Removal of mercury (II) by dithiocarbamate surface functionalized magnetite particles: application to synthetic and natural spiked waters

Figueira, P.; Lopes, C. B.; Daniel-da-Silva, A. L.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C.; Trindade, T.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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In order to take advantage of the high affinity between mercury and sulphur, magnetite (Fe3O4) particles functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (CS 2 ), were synthesized to be used as a new type of sorbent to remove Hg (II) from synthetic and natural spiked waters. The effectiveness of this type of sorbent was studied, and its potential as cleanup agent for contaminated waters was assessed. Batch stirred tank experiments were carried out by contacting a volume of solution with known amounts of functionalized Fe3O4 particles, in order to study the effect of sorbent dose, salinity, and the kinetics and the equilibrium of this unit operation. A complete Hg (II) removal (ca. 99.8%) was attained with 6 mg/L of magnetic particles for an initial metal concentration of 50 mg/L. It was confirmed that highly complex matrices, such as seawater (ca. 99%) and river water (ca. 97%), do not affect the removal capacity of the functionalized magnetic particles. Concerning isotherms, no significant differences were observed between two- and three-parameter models (P ¼ 0.05%); however, Sips isotherm provided the lowest values of SS and Sx/y, predicting a maximum sorption capacity of 206 mg/g, in the range of experimental conditions under study. The solid loadings measured in this essay surmount the majority of the values found in literature for other type of sorbents.

Immunosuppression in the infaunal bivalve Scrobicularia plana environmentally exposed to mercury and association with its accumulation

Ahmad, I.; Coelho, J. P.; Mohmood, I.; Pacheco, M.; Santos, M. A.; Duarte, A. C.; Pereira, E.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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This study aimed to test the hypothesis whether mercury (Hg) activates or suppresses inappropriately the immunity of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana inhabiting a Hg contaminated area (Laranjo basin, Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Immunity endpoints, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) as a sign of damage, were evaluated in parallel with total Hg burden. Bivalves from both moderately (MO) and highly (HI) contaminated sites displayed higher haemolymph Hg load and reduced plasma agglutination. Increased haemocytes density and decreased phagocytosis were observed at HI, whereas increased oxidative burst activity (OBA) was observed at MO, pointing out that the immunotoxicity is a result of Hg direct contact involving no ROS intervention. OBA observed at MO was concomitantly associated to peroxidative damage as depicted by LPO increase in haemocytes and haemolymph plasma. Thus, S. plana can be suggested as a suitable bioindicator of metal pollution in coastal areas on the basis of Hg bioaccumulation and immunotoxicity responses.

Impact of seasonal fluctuations on the Sediment-Mercury, its accumulation and partitioning in Halimione portulacoides and Juncus maritimus collected from Ria de Aveiro Coastal Lagoon (Portugal)

Anjum, N. A.; Ahmad, I.; Válega, M.; Pacheco, M.; Figueira, E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pereira, E.
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The availability of metals to plants is a complex function of numerous environmental factors. Many of these factors are interrelated, and vary seasonally and temporally. The current study intended to understand the influence of seasonal fluctuations and the vegetation of salt marsh plants (SMPs; Halimione portulacoides, Juncus maritimus) on sediment’s mercury (Hg) and its pH and redox potential (Eh), as well as their cumulative effect on the plant’s Hg-accumulation and Hg-partitioning potential. The area selected for the study was Laranjo Basin at Ria de Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) where a known Hg gradient was existed due to chlor-alkali plant discharge. Three sampling sites (L1, L2 and L3) were selected along a transect defined by the distance from the main Hg source. Samples were also collected from the Hg-free site (R). Irrespective of the plant vegetation, Hg in sediments gradually increased with a decreasing distance towards Hg-point source. The sediment colonised by J. maritimus showed more Hg concentration compared with H. portulacoides irrespective of the season. As a whole, J. maritimus accumulated Hg more than H. portulacoides at all the sampling sites, whereas in root, stem and leaf, the concentration was ranked as: L1 > L2 > L3 in both the plant species and was differentially influenced by seasonal changes. Moreover...

Fish consumption and risk of contamination by mercury - Considerations on the definition of edible parts based on the case study of European sea bass

Mieiro, C. L.; Pacheco, M.; Duarte, A. C.; Pereira, M. E.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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In the present study, the risk to humans by consuming European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), captured at three sites along a Hg contamination gradient, was evaluated by comparing muscle and kidney total Hg (T-Hg) levels with the European regulations for marketed fish. Moreover, T-Hg and organic Hg (O-Hg) levels in muscle were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and the Reference Dose (RfD). Although T-Hg levels in muscle were below the European value allowable for marketed fish, kidney’s levels were higher than the set value, stressing the importance of redefining the concept of edible tissue and which tissues should be considered. Mercury weekly ingestion in the contaminated areas was higher than the PTWI, and O-Hg daily ingestion rates were higher than the RfD in all sampling sites. Thus, populations consuming sea bass from the contaminated sites may be at risk, with particular relevance for children and pregnant women.

Monomethylmercury behaviour in sediments collected from a mercury-contaminated lagoon

Ramalhosa, E.; Segade, S. R.; Pereira, M. E.; Vale, C.; Duarte, A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected in a mercury (Hg)-contaminated lagoon, namely Largo do Laranjo – Ria de Aveiro, Portugal and analysed in order to establish the monomethylmercury (MeHg) behaviour in this kind of environment. In surface sediments, this compound was only detected in one place (13.2 ng g−1 (dry weight)). In this site, it was determined one of the lowest redox potentials (22 mV), indicative of oxic/anoxic conditions, which favours Hg methylation by enhancing the sulphate-reducing bacteria activity. However, the MeHg percentage obtained was low, namely less than 0.1% of the total Hg. This is probably due to Hg deposition with organic matter and iron oxyhydroxides, decreasing Hg availability to methylation. At the deeper layers, MeHg was also determined, reaching 46.4 ng g−1 (dry weight) and representing less than 0.1% of the total Hg. The higher MeHg percentages were observed near the surface, where Hg seems to be faster methylated as a result of the lower sulphide concencentrations that render bioavailable the inorganic Hg. At depth the low MeHg percentages obtained are due to the formation of HgS and to the adsorption of Hg to iron monosulphides.

Adsorption of Aqueous Mercury(II)Species by Commercial Activated Carbon Fibres with and without Surface Modification

Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela; Silvestre, Sara; Duran-Valle, Carlos
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 66254 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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The adsorption of HgCl2, [HgCl4]2– and Hg2+ onto a series of activated carbon fibres was studied. These included the as-received commercial activated carbon fibre (K), that obtained after modification via by sulphuric acid oxidation (KAC) and that obtained after modification by reaction with pentaethylenehexamine (KBAS). The effects of concentration (10–1500 mg/l), solution pH (1–10) and temperature (25°C, 35°C and 45°C) were studied. The mercury(II) adsorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacities of 361.0, 142.2 and 300.3 mg/g for HgCl2, [HgCl4]2– and Hg2+, respectively. Fibre K proved to have the highest adsorption capacity towards HgCl2 but the best results for the adsorption of [HgCl4]2– and Hg2+ were obtained with the fibre KAC. The performance of fibre KBAS was always worse than those of the other two fibres tested. The negative values obtained for ΔH0 and ΔG0 indicate that the adsorption was an exothermic and spontaneous process and also demonstrated that the adsorption of Hg(II) is a feasible process.

Influence of surface ionization on the adsorption of aqueous mercury chlorocomplexes by activated carbons

Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 62228 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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The adsorption of aqueous mercury species from chloride solutions on a number of activated carbons has been studied. It was found that whereas the adsorption of neutral HgCl, or positive Hg’+ was very low, significant quantities of the tetrachloromercury(I1) complex, HgCI$-, were adsorbed. Adsorption isotherms of this complex were measured at different pH values, and the results analysed by the Langmuir equation and by a simple surface ionization and specific adsorption model in order to obtain estimates of the adsorption stoichiometry and the mean free energy of adsorption.

Mercury content in shark species from the South-Eastern Brazilian coast

LACERDA,L. D.; PARAQUETTI,H. H. M.; MARINS,R. V.; REZENDE,C. E.; ZALMON,I .R.; GOMES,M. P.; FARIAS,V.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2000 EN
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We present here the first results of Hg concentrations in three small shark species (Rhizoprionodon lalandei, R. porosus and Mustelus higmani) from the SE Brazilian coast. Mercury concentrations in R. lalandei ranged from 21.5 to 280.0 ng.g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (average 74.6 ng.g-1 d.w.; 17.9 ng.g-1 wet weight). In R. porosus, concentrations ranged from 7.6 to 90.5 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 42.2 ng.g-1 d.w., 9.4 ng.g-1 wet weight), whereas in M. higmani, concentrations ranged from 13.0 to 162.8 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 54.9 ng.g-1 d.w., 13.4 ng.g-1 wet weight). These concentration ranges are very low compared with values reported for other large shark species of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There was a significant positive correlation between Hg concentrations and individual size, suggesting that biomagnification is occurring in these animals.

Cooking process evaluation on mercury content in fish

Farias,Luciana Aparecida; Fávaro,Déborah Inês; Santos,José Osman; Vasconsellos,Marina Beatriz; Pessôa,Artemiza; Aguiar,Jaime Paiva Lopes; Yuyama,Lucia
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
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This study evaluated different cooking processes (roasted, cooked and fried) on total mercury (Hg) content in fish species most consumed by Manaus residents and surrounding communities, Amazon region. The results obtained for total Hg in natura and after the three types of preparation (roasted, cooked and fried) for 12 fish species showed a significant Hg concentration variation. In the present study the cooked and frying processes resulted in higher Hg losses for Pacu, Pescada, Jaraqui, Curimatã, Surubin and Aruanã fish species, most of them presenting detritivorous and carnivorous feeding habits. The higher Hg losses in the roasting process occurred for Sardinha, Aracu, Tucunaré, Pirapitinga, Branquinha and Tambaqui fish species, most of them being omnivorous and herbivorous fish species. Some micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) in fish species in natura were also determined in order to perform a nutritional evaluation regarding these micronutrients.

The interaction between mercury(II) and sulfathiazole

Bellú,Sebastián; Hure,Estela; Trapé,Marcela; Rizzotto,Marcela; Sutich,Emma; Sigrist,Mirna; Moreno,Virtudes
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2003 EN
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The interaction of mercury(II) with sulfathiazole has been analyzed. IR and NMR spectral studies suggest a coordination of Hg(II) with the Nthiazolic atom, unlike related Hg-sulfadrugs compounds. The complex was screened for its activity against Escherichia coli, showing an appreciable antimicrobial activity compared with the ligand.

Highly selective transport of mercury(II) ion through a bulk liquid membrane

Shokrollahi,Ardeshir; Ghaedi,Mehrorang; Shamsipur,Mojtaba
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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In this work carrier-facilitated transport of mercury(II) against its concentration gradient from aqueous 0.04 M hydrochloric acid solution across a liquid membrane containing isopropyl 2-[(isopropoxycarbothiolyl)disulfanyl]ethane thioate (IIDE) as the mobile carrier in chloroform has been investigated. Sodium thiocyanate solution (1.6 M) was the most efficient receiving phase agent among several aqueous reagents tested. Various parameters such as investigated. Under optimum conditions the transport of Hg(II) across the liquid membrane is more than 97% after 2.5 h. The carrier, IIDE, selectively and efficiently could able to transport Hg (II) ions in the presence of other associated metal ions in binary systems.

Organic and total mercury determination in sediments by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry: methodology validation and uncertainty measurements

Franklin,Robson L.; Bevilacqua,Jose E.; Favaro,Deborah I. T.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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The purpose of the present study was to validate a method for organic Hg determination in sediment. The procedure for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. Total Hg was performed according to 3051A USEPA methodology. Mercury quantification for both methodologies was then performed by CVAAS. Methodology validation was verified by analyzing certified reference materials for total Hg and methylmercury. The uncertainties for both methodologies were calculated. The quantification limit of 3.3 µg kg-1 was found for organic Hg by CVAAS.

Human mercury exposure and adverse health effects in the Amazon: a review

Passos,Carlos J. S.; Mergler,Donna
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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This paper examines issues of human mercury (Hg) exposure and adverse health effects throughout the Amazon region. An extensive review was conducted using bibliographic indexes as well as secondary sources. There are several sources of Hg (mining, deforestation, reservoirs), and exposure takes place through inhalation or from fish consumption. There is a wide range of exposure, with mean hair-Hg levels above 15µg/g in several Amazonian communities, placing them among the highest reported levels in the world today. Dietary Hg intake has been estimated in the vicinity of 1-2µg/kg/day, considerably higher than the USEPA RfD of 0.1µg/kg/day or the World Health Organization recommendation of 0.23µg/kg/day. Neurobehavioral deficits and, in some cases, clinical signs have been reported both for adults and children in relation to Hg exposure in several Amazonian countries. There is also some evidence of cytogenetic damage, immune alterations, and cardiovascular toxicity. Since fish provide a highly nutritious food source, there is an urgent need to find realistic and feasible solutions that will reduce exposure and toxic risk, while maintaining healthy traditional dietary habits and preserving this unique biodiversity.

Interaction of Mercury(II) with Humic Substances from the Rio Negro (Amazonas State, Brazil) by Means of an Ion Exchange Procedure

Rocha,Julio C.; Sene,Jeosadaque J. de; Burba,Peter; Klockow,Dieter
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/1998 EN
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The aquatic humic substances (HS) investigated in this study with respect to their binding capability towards mercury(II) were isolated from the river Rio Negro, Amazonas State - Brazil, by means of the adsorbent XAD 8. Labile/inert fractions of inorganic Hg(II) complexes formed with these HS were characterized using an ion-exchange batch and column technique, respectively, based on Chelite S. This collector exhibits high Hg(II) distribution coefficients, Kd, up to the order of 10(4) decreasing, however, in the case of small Hg(II)/HS ratios (< 0.1 mug Hg(II) / mg HS) . The influence of different complexation parameters (ratio of Hg(II)/HS, pH, contact time, complexing time) relevant for Hg(II) binding in aquatic environments was assessed. The Hg(II) lability in dissolved HS is mainly influenced by the mass ratio of Hg(II)/HS and the ageing of Hg(II)-HS species formed. This is particularly obvious in the case of low Hg(II) loading of HS where slow transformation processes of freshly formed Hg(II)-HS species significantly decrease their lability, leading to incomplete recoveries (< 20%) of the total Hg(II) bound to HS.

The effect of dye-polymer interactions on the kinetics of the isomerization of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and mercury dithizonate

Yamaki,Sahori B.; Oliveira,Marcelo G. de; Atvars,Teresa D. Z.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 EN
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Thermal and photo-isomerization reactions of mercury dithizonate and 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene were studied in solutions and in polymer matrices. We used exponential functions to calculate the rate constants for both processes. The kinetic behavior was well described by mono-exponential functions for these dyes dissolved in solvents, although bi-exponential functions are required when these dyes are dissolved in polymers. The rate constants are strongly influenced by dye/solvent and dye/polymer interactions, as well as by the aging processes of the polymer matrix. In general, the reaction is faster in more polar mediums, solvents or polymer matrices, since stabilization of different tautomers takes place. We also showed that larger molecules isomerize slowly and slower isomerization has also been observed for annealed samples. Both results are attributed to the importance of free-volumes in polymeric matrices.