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Tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TICs) e democracia; Information and communication technologies (ICTs) and democracy

Viana, Fernanda Martins
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciência Política, 2006.; A consideração de que as Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TICs) promovem transformações na sociedade não permite conclusões de que tais mudanças são necessariamente positivas. Ao contrário, é justificado o aumento no número de estudos na área, que buscam identificar a medida dessas modificações, suas vantagens, desvantagens e sua apropriação pelas formas de organização já existentes na sociedade. Entretanto, é ponto pacífico que todas essas alterações indicam um novo escopo de relações e comportamentos sociais. E, nesse contexto, a democracia tende a incorporar esses novos mecanismos referenciados. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar a relação das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação e a democracia. Para tanto, é dividido em duas etapas fundamentais: (1) a análise da bibliografia contemporânea referente à democracia, a fim de identificar qual o lugar das TICs na mesma; e (2) o estudo dos canais de interação oferecidos pelo Programa Comunidade Virtual do Poder Legislativo (Interlegis), com o propósito de compreender como as TICs atuam na prática democrática vigente. O conceito de democracia trabalhado é o de democracia contemporânea...

Democracia, direitos humanos e educação : para uma perspectiva crítica de educação para os direitos humanos

Estêvão, Carlos V.
Fonte: Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias. Centro de Estudos e Intervenção em Educação e Formação (CeiEF) Publicador: Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias. Centro de Estudos e Intervenção em Educação e Formação (CeiEF)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 POR
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Após uma breve análise dos direitos humanos segundo algumas teorias de Estado, apresentam-se três concepções de democracia: a deliberativa, a comunicativa e a democracia como direitos humanos. A partir deste enquadramento, e depois de reflectir sobre o lugar da justiça e dos direitos na educação, o autor aborda a perspectiva crítica da educação para os direitos humanos e as suas implicações em termos de concepções de escola, de cultura escolar, de currículo e de aprendizagem, favorecedoras de uma democracia mais densa e comprometida com a emancipação e os direitos humanos.; After a brief review of human rights theoretical perspectives according to the prevailing conceptions of state, the author presents three understandings of democracy: deliberative democracy, communicative democracy and democracy as human rights. From this framework, and taking into account the place of justice and rights in education, the author addresses a critical perspective of human rights education and its implications for conceptions of school, school culture, curriculum, learning, committed to emancipatory democracy.

Públicos, media e vida pública: uso e opinião sobre media e informação em Portugal, na 1ª década do século XXI

Barreiros, José Jorge
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Doutoramento em Sociologia - Comunicação, Cultura e Educação; A presente dissertação desenvolve uma investigação sobre públicos, media, comunicação, política e democracia em dois patamares interligados: um equacionamento teórico desta problemática; uma pesquisa empírica de usos e opinião sobre media e informação na realidade portuguesa da primeira década do século XXI. Os públicos são entendidos como sujeitos dos processos sociais de comunicação e informação e da vida pública em democracia; simultaneamente, consumidores e utilizadores de media, utentes de informação e cidadãos, instância soberana da democracia, como tal relevante vector de opinião pública sobre a vida cívica e política, nomeadamente, no que respeita aos desempenhos públicos via media. Da análise da realidade portuguesa sobressaem: (i) a importância e responsabilidade da televisão como referência de comunicação pública comum aos diferentes públicos - onde a informação surge como ‘conteúdo’ mais relevado – num contexto de progressiva adopção da internet, sobretudo pelos públicos mais qualificados e mais jovens; (ii) a emergência de ‘modos de informar-se’ ‘personalizados’, flexíveis, ‘à medida’ de disponibilidades e interesses próprios...

Relações econômicas internacionais, isomorfismo institucional e democracia na América Latina: explicando as convergências (inesperadas?) entre Uruguai, Brasil e Honduras

Lopes,Dawisson Belém
Fonte: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP) da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) Publicador: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP) da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 PT
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Along this article, we sought to apprehend the logic underlying the triangular relation between international economic powers, structural reforms of the State, and democracy in Latin America. The study is based on the findings expressed in the Report on "A Democracia na América Latina: Rumo a uma Democracia de Cidadãs e Cidadãos" ["Democracy in Latin America: towards a Democracy of Female and Male Citizens"] (PNUD, 2004). The data subject to scrutiny refer to three States - Uruguay, Brazil and Honduras. Two hypotheses have been tested: (1) structural reforms of the State in Latin America have been conditioned by the dynamics of the international economy; and (2) the democracy that is possible in Latin America is a formalist democracy, and it does not inhibit the rational choice of market oriented economic agents. The conclusions of this work are discussed in the light of political theories and international relations.

Determinants of Democracy

Barro, Robert J.
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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A panel study of over 100 countries from 1960 to 1995 finds that improvements in the standard of living predict increase in democracy, as measured by a subjective indicator of electoral rights. The propensity for democracy rises with per capita GDP, primary schooling, and a smaller gap between male and female primary attainment. For a given standard of living, democaracy tends to fall with urbnization and with a greater reliance on natrual resources. Democracy has little relation to country size but rises with the middle‐class share of income. The apparently strong relation of democracy to colonial heritage mostly disappears when the economic variables are held constant. Similarly, the allowance for these economic variables weakens the interplay between democracy and religious affiliation. However, negative effects from Muslim and non‐religious affiliations remain intact.; Economics

The Warrior’s curse : what decolonization teaches us about democracy promotion and ethnic conflict

Ray, Subhasish (1975 - ); Powell, G. Bingham
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xi, 148 leaves
ENG
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Political Science, 2010.; This study examines the hazards of democracy promotion in multi-ethnic societies. I begin by developing a simple formal model, which isolates the main features of the strategic context of democracy promotion that can trigger ethnic conflict. The key intuition of the model is that democracy promotion creates a commitment problem between ethnic majorities and minority groups that are demographically over-represented in the coercive forces of the authoritarian regime that has been removed to install democracy. Specifically, the majority cannot credibly commit to these groups not to purge them from the coercive forces of the future regime creating strong incentives for them to mobilize while they still have control over the means of coercion of the state. Based on this intuition, the model predicts that minority groups that are demographically over-represented in the coercive forces of the authoritarian regime – their share of the manpower of these forces exceeds their population share – are more likely to rebel against the new regime imposed by the democracy-promoter than minority groups that are demographically under-represented. Further, the more demographically over-represented the demographically over-represented minority group the more likely it is to rebel. I denote this proposition the warrior’s curse. I test my warrior’s curse prediction in the empirical context of transitions from British colonial rule post-World War I...

A relação histórica entre democracia e liberalismo. Um diálogo crítico com Norberto Bobbio.

Scavo, Davide Giacobbo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This work seeks to examine the historical relationships established between liberalism and democracy, questioning the apparent inseparability between the two ideologies. Methodologically construct a hypothetical dialogue with the Italian thinker Norberto Bobbio, one of the most important systematizers of liberal democracy, defending a theoretical and conceptual complementarity between the two ideologies. Following the Bobbio theoretical propose, it presents the political contributions of classical liberalism that the Italian thinker identify as logical and axiological antecedent of the modern democracy, naturalizing and universalizing the principles and ideals of classical liberalism. Going counter, it problematizes the political contributions of classical liberalism, emphasizing the tension between liberal theory and its practice, between the declared political principles and their translation into concrete historical reality, reserving rights and freedoms to property minority and severe restrictions to the majority. The critical analysis of classical liberalism allows questioning the privilege position that Bobbio reserves to the liberalism in the democracy history, to restore the important contribution of illiberal politics currents in the civil...

Democracia e liberdade a legitimidade do governo, segundo Jean-Jacques Rousseau

ALVES, Vital Francisco Celestino
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Filosofia; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Filosofia; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Even though Rousseau had stated that democracy is a gods regime and that such form of government is surrounded by difficulties, mainly regarding its conservation, Rousseau notably is not an oppose of this model, but he recognizes and points out the most recurrent problems of the democratic government. Nevertheless, as he carries out the exceptional function of a legislator in Corsica, when he operates the transition between the political theory and the practice, he surprised us suggesting that country should govern itself democratically. With this at sight, the present dissertation aims at investigating the issue: Democracy and Liberty the legitimacy of the government, according to Jean-Jacques Rousseau . In this sense, it will investigate three topics, which are considered essential for the understanding of the object of this research. First, the political fundamentals for the sustaining of the concept of sovereignty, that is, this study will investigate the social pact and the notion of liberty; second, it will examine the political difficulties of the government, or else, it will focus in dealing with two actions: the one which decrees and the one which institutes the government; and this research will highlight the tensions in the relation between the private and the general will...

Un groupe religieux à l’épreuve du parti politique Sécularisation de l’islamisme au Maroc : mouvement de l’unicité et de la réforme-Parti de la justice et du développement (1996-2011)

Fadil, Mohamed
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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À travers le monde islamique, une famille de partis politiques que l’on appelle à tort ou à raison « les partis islamistes modérés » enregistre des résultats électoraux exceptionnels chaque fois qu’un de ses membres participe à un scrutin qui comporte un minimum de transparence, notamment en Turquie, au Maroc et en Palestine. Les premières participations des islamistes aux élections des pays du Printemps arabe confirment davantage cette règle, comme l’illustrent les cas de l’Égypte et de la Tunisie. Sur le plan académique, ce contexte laisse émerger une importante hypothèse. L’évolution de bon nombre d’organisations islamistes en partis politiques qui participent activement à la vie publique de leurs pays serait l’indice d’une sécularisation de ces organisations, animée par une sincère conversion à la démocratie. Cette hypothétique tendance à la sécularisation et la conversion à la démocratie de l’islamisme ferait penser à une expérience remarquablement similaire, que l’on trouve dans le monde chrétien occidental, soit, l’évolution théorique et organisationnelle du christianisme politique qui a donné naissance, en réponse à un long parcours de révisions intellectuelles, à ce que l’on appelle aujourd’hui « la démocratie chrétienne ». L’islamisme modéré serait-il en train d’évoluer vers une sécularisation et une conversion à la démocratie selon un mode similaire à celui qui a donné naissance aux partis démocrates-chrétiens en Occident? Il est question dans cette thèse...

Democratic purgatory: The failure of democracy in Venezuela

Brown, Christopher Matthew
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This research provides an understanding of the conditions that presage the failure of consolidated democratic political regimes through constitutional processes. In seeking to answer the question of how democracy might fail through democratic means, this study has revealed a gap in the literature on democratization. Venezuela was selected as a heuristic case study to explain this phenomenon. Heuristic case studies place less emphasis on the more configurative or descriptive elements of the case itself, and instead see the case as a point of departure for the formulations of theoretical propositions. While in-case hypotheses are possible, heuristic case studies make it an explicit research plan to tease out mechanisms that exist in a particular case study that might survive in other situations. ^ This study demonstrates that the elements in society that act as direct participants in the establishment of a democratic political system are able to maintain their position in the new order largely through an expansion of their ability to meet popular demands through clientelistic arrangements. While these corporatist groups may serve to facilitate social mobilization during the establishment of democratic regimes, they do so only in so far as they can maintain social control of in-group membership without fully providing for representative democracy. Once these democratic institutions are consolidated as key parts of the democratic structure...

Deliberative capacity as an indicator of democratic quality: the case of the Philippines

Curato, Nicole
Fonte: SAGE Publications (UK and US) Publicador: SAGE Publications (UK and US)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 18 pages
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The theory and practice of democracy have moved on from the paradigm of electoral democracy to conceptualising alternative models that can facilitate democratic deepening in different contexts. Methodology should follow too. In this piece, I build on Morlino’s framework, which takes a step towards a pluralised assessment of democratic qualities but remains largely hinged on the electoral model of democracy. I suggest that Morlino’s heuristic tools can be further sharpened by incorporating a deliberative democratic criterion. I provide an empirical illustration through the Philippine case – a country that already exhibits formal features of electoral democracy but fails to translate democratic impulses into democratic deepening.

Deliberative Demokratie und Diskurs ; eine Debatte zwischen Habermas und Rawls; Deliberative Democracy and „Diskurs“ ; the Discussion between Habermas and Rawls

Papadopoulou, Theodora
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Die Deliberation stellt eine neue Herausforderung für die Demokratie dar, während die Partizipation durch die Deliberation regeneriert werden kann. Was macht eine Demokratietheorie zu einer deliberativen Demokratie? Die Autorin bietet eine neue Intepretation der deliberativen Demokratie an, indem sie auf einen daurhaften Dialog basieren muss, der nach aktiven Bürgern verlangt, die ihre Thesen bezüglich politischer Angelegenheiten argumentativ rechtfertigen. Deliberation gibt Demokratie Authentizität zurück. Unter diesen Rahmen werden die Thesen von Habermas, Rawls und Höffe diskutiert. Was ist deliberativ in ihren Theorien? Was ist unter Deliberation bei Habermas und Rawls zu verstehen? Ist der sogenannten Diskurs auch bei Rawls zu finden?; Deliberation is the new challenge for democracy, while the democratic participation can be also regenerated by the deliberation. Which principles should be included in a theory of deliberative democracy? The authoress offers a new interpretation to the deliberative democracy, by pointing out the meaning of a lasting dialogue for this concept as well as the requirement for active citizens, who should exercise the public power together based on reasons and arguments. Deliberation can restore democracy her authenticity that she lost. We will discuss the theses of Habermas...

The Gap between Liberal and Electoral Democracy Revisited. Some Conceptual and Empirical Clarifications

MOLLER, Jorgen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 153344 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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Since the late 1990s, many students of democratisation have emphasised that a salient empirical gap is emerging between liberal and electoral democracy. In this paper, I reappraise the gap by revisiting Larry Diamond’s important contribution from Developing Democracy. Emphasising both the electoral and the liberal component of democracy, with assistance from classical and modern authors, the paper arrives at a fourfold typology of the political regime form. When reanalysing the 1990s using this typology - and when extending the analysis to the 2000s - the gap between liberal and electoral democracy turns out not to be in the increase at all. The reason is a simple one: because I systematically treat the two components of liberal democracy as different attributes, conceptually independent of each other, I do not identify a gap that is based on a difference in degree, not in kind.

A Farewell to Constitutional Authorship? A Critique of the Presentist Turn in the Legitimacy of Constitutional Democracy

KUO, Ming-Sung
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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“We the People” and the corresponding concept of constitutional authorship have gripped our imagination of the legitimacy of constitutional democracy since the American and French Revolutions. In contrast to this Big Bang scenario of constitutionmaking, the constitutionalization of the European Union (EU) as a supranational entity is the product of a decades-long process, departing from the Revolutionary tradition of constitutionalism. Whether this “presentist” project of constitutionalization without making a constitution, which is characterized by polyarchical everyday policy negotiations and apolitical judicial decisions in the normality of the constitutional order, will succeed in reconstructing our imagination of political order as an alternative to constitutional authorship remains to be seen. This paper aims to answer this question through a close inspection of Frank Michelman’s critical engagement with theories of constitutional legitimacy. My investigation shows that Michelman arrives at a presentist view of constitutional democracy after pointing out the inadequacy of theories of constitutional legitimacy rooted in the Revolutionary tradition of constitutionalism. I argue, however, that Michelman’s presentist view cannot fully account for the legitimacy of public institutions in constitutional democracy without presupposing a transtemporal view of identity...

Defending Democracy: Reactions to extremist parties in interwar European democracies

CAPOCCIA, Giovanni
Fonte: Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press Publicador: Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press
Tipo: Livro
EN
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How does a democracy deal with threats to its stability and continued existence when those threats come from political parties that play the democratic game? In Defending Democracy, political scientist Giovanni Capoccia studies key European nations between World Wars I and II which survived such democratic crises.

A comprehensive and thoughtful historical analysis of the democracies of interwar Europe, Defending Democracy provides a unique perspective on the many lessons to be learned from their successes and failures. With this exclusively empirical investigative approach, Capoccia develops a methodology for analyzing contemporary democracies -- such as Algeria, Turkey, Israel, and others -- where similar political conditions are present. Given the rise of terrorism and the persistence of extremism in both established and new democracies today, continued research and dialogue on the defense of democracy are necessary for its preservation.; --PART I: The Theoretical Framework --Democratic Stability and Democratic Crisis 3 --2 The Challenges: Antisystem Parties 27 --3 The Defense: Strategies against Extremism 47 --PART ii: Case Studies --4 Czechoslovakia --5 Belgium --6 Finland --PART III: Comparative Perspectives --7 Defense of Democracy: Actors and Strategies in Comparative --Perspective 179 --8 Conclusion 221 --Appendix A: Party Names and Translations 247 --Appendix B: Government Coalitions and Alignments in --Presidential Elections 249 --Appendix C: Anti-extremist Legislation in Czechoslovakia...

Critical trust : social movements and democracy in times of crisis

DELLA PORTA, Donatella
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The recent financial crisis and, especially, anti-austerity policies, reflects and, at the same time, contribute to a crisis of representative democracy. In this article, I discuss which different conceptions of trust (and relations to democracy) have been debated in the social sciences, and in public debates in recent time. The financial crisis has in fact stimulated a hot debate on “whose trust” is relevant for “whose democracy”. After locating the role of trust in democratic theory, I continue with some illustrations of a declining political trust in Europe, coming from my own research on social movements, but also of the emergence, in theory and practices, of other conceptions of democracy and democratic spaces, where critical trust develops. Indignados’ movements in Spain and Greece as well as the Occupying Wall Street protest in the US are just the most visible reaction of a widespread dissatisfaction with the declining quality of democratic regimes. They testify for the declining legitimacy of traditional conceptions of democracy, as well as for the declining trust in representative institutions. At the same time, however, these movements conceptualize and practice different democratic models that emphasize participation over delegation and deliberation over majority voting. In doing this...

Mobilizing for democracy : comparing 1989 and 2011

DELLA PORTA, Donatella
Fonte: OUP Publicador: OUP
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Strangely enough, while the pictures used to illustrate the most recent wave of protests for democracy in North Africa represent mass protest, research on social movements and democratization have rarely interacted. This volume aims to fill this gap by looking at episodes of democratization through the lens of social movement studies. Without assuming that democratization is always produced from below, the author singles out different paths of democratization by looking at the ways in which the masses interact with the elites, and protest with bargaining: eventful democratization, participated pacts and troubled democratization. The main focus is on the first of the paths: eventful democratization, that is cases in which authoritarian regimes break down following-often short but intense-waves of protest. Recognizing the particular power of some transformative events, the analysis locates them within the broader mobilization processes, including the multitude of less visible, but still important protests that surround them. Cognitive, affective and relational mechanisms are singled out as transforming the contexts in which dissidents act. In all three paths, mobilization of resources, framing processes and appropriation of opportunities will develop in action...

Do democracy clauses matter? : the effects of regional integration associations on political stability and democratic consolidation

GENNA, Gaspare M.; HIROI, Taeko
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This paper examines the mechanisms by which democracy clauses promote democracy and domestic political stability. It begins by noting that political instability in one country can have a negative spillover and impede the economic success of regional integration. Domestic political instability may also hinder cooperation among member states. Thus, domestic political stability is a collective good for regional integration organization (RIO) member states. Legalizing democratic conditionality helps member states to overcome collective action problems and equips RIOs with the necessary credibility, justification, and tools for intervention in member states’ domestic political affairs. In addition, RIOs deepen economic integration among member states, which in turn raises the stakes for the member states to collectively defend democratic institutions and inflates the costs of sanctions for countries under threat. We test the main arguments using data gathered for 40 RIOs in the world. The econometric analyses of RIO coup rates and democratic backsliding rates demonstrate that democracy clauses are indeed effective in preventing coups and backsliding within countries that are members of RIOs with such clauses. Moreover, an analysis of democratic gains indicates that democracy clauses are also effective in the promotion of democracy within RIO member states.

An emerging security community in the Americas? : a theoretical analysis of the consequences of the post-Cold War Inter-American democracy regime

Sanchez, David J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The purpose of this thesis is to assess the actual and potential consequences of the inter-American democracy regime in the post-Cold War world. This thesis has three major arguments. First, the inter-American democracy regime "matters" because it can positively impact state and individual behavior in the post-Cold War inter-American system. Second, the three principles that constitute this regime (democracy, interdependence, and international organizations) are mutually reinforcing in perpetuating the "community of democracies" in the Western Hemisphere. Finally, this inter-American "community of democracies" is plausibly on a path to a pluralistic security community based on the logic of the post-Cold War inter-American democracy regime. This thesis places the actual and potential consequences of this regime into a broader, systemic context. This thesis critically examines two high-profile cases of democratic crisis, Paraguay (1996) and Peru (2000) to assess the actual impact of the post-Cold War inter-American democracy regime. These research findings are later extrapolated to assess the potential impact of this regime in the post-Cold War inter-American system. In short, this thesis concludes that, in the post-Cold War world, the Western Hemisphere is evidence of a liberal...

Egypt's failure to transition to democracy under the Muslim Brotherhood

Guenaien, Moez
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; A year after a democratic presidential election, Egyptian protestors returned to Tahrir Square to demand the resignation of President Mohammed Morsi because he refused to agree to an early election. Shortly after, President Morsi was toppled through a popularly-supported military coup, and his Muslim Brotherhood (MB) organization was thoroughly repressed. Today, the democratic process ushered in by the 25 January Revolution in 2011 has come to an end. Egypt seems to have returned to the previous authoritarian order that existed for over 60 years. Why did democracy fail to take hold in Egypt under the MB regime and President Mohammed Morsi? This thesis explores four hypotheses: Egypt’s non-readiness for democracy because of lack of socio-economic conditions; the failure of Egypt’s political actors to form a pact; the hostility of the Gulf States toward democracy and limited support from the international community; and the dissatisfaction of the deep state and economic elite with the MB in power. While all of these issues contributed to democracy failure in Egypt, the most critical component was that of the contribution of the political actors. If the political actors had formed a pact with the understanding that democracy would benefit all parties...