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Ocupação, emprego e remuneração na cana-de-açúcar e em outras atividades agropecuárias no Brasil, de 1992 a 2007; Occupation, employment and earnings in the sugar-cane crop and in other agricultural activities in Brazil, from 1992 to 2007

Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina Ribeiro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2009 PT
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36.37%
O trabalho analisa a evolução do mercado de trabalho da agropecuária nacional e regional, apresentando indicadores sobre a ocupação, o emprego, a qualificação e a remuneração de trabalhadores, de 1992 a 2007. Usando os dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios - PNAD, considerou-se o conjunto de todas as pessoas ocupadas e empregadas no setor agropecuário como um todo e destacou-se as informações daqueles que exercem atividades nos segmentos pecuário e agrícola, e em culturas específicas, com ênfase na cana-de-açúcar. O trabalho também é voltado para a investigação dos diferenciais da remuneração e salários na agropecuária brasileira, por meio do ajuste de equações de rendimentos. Além dos fatores usualmente adotados em equações de rendimentos estimadas para o setor, como idade (proxy da experiência), escolaridade, sexo, posição na ocupação, situação do domicílio (rural ou urbano), cor da pele e horas semanais de trabalho, também foram incluídas como variáveis explanatórias o segmento de atividade (agrícola, pecuário, ou ramos mais específicos) e, no caso das equações dos assalariados, variáveis referentes à posse ou não de carteira de trabalho, à natureza do emprego (permanente ou temporário e especializado ou não especializado). Os resultados revelam que o mercado de trabalho agropecuário eliminou muitos postos de trabalho nos últimos 15 anos...

Indicadores de desempenho logístico: estudo de múltiplos casos no setor de bens de capital agrícolas; Logistics performance indicators: study of multiples cases in agricultural capital goods sector

Careta, Catarina Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
O setor de bens de capital agrícolas é um dos mais tradicionais da indústria brasileira e cumpre um papel de relevância na difusão de novas tecnologias e como dinamizador do desenvolvimento econômico, obtendo atualmente crescimentos acentuados de sua produção. Contudo as empresas deste setor enfrentam dificuldades para sustentar seus avanços produtivos e entre os principais problemas apontados está o custo da atividade logística. Sendo a atividade logística determinante para a obtenção de competitividade, a medição de desempenho passa a exercer um papel fundamental nas organizações, representando uma das mais importantes ferramentas a serem utilizadas na estratégia de gerenciamento de recursos e no alcance da melhor prática logística. Com base nestas considerações, o presente estudo objetivou identificar e analisar os indicadores de desempenho logístico e práticas associadas de empresas do setor de bens de capital agrícolas, por meio de revisão bibliográfica e estudo de múltiplos casos junto às empresas do setor. Os resultados apontaram os indicadores comuns às empresas e que práticas de gestão associadas a estes indicadores, possuem algumas diferenças significantes em relação ao recomendado pela literatura...

Inovação tecnologica e aprendizado agricola : uma abordagem Schumpeteriana; Technological innovation and agricultural learning : a Schumpeterian approach

Jose Eustaquio Ribeiro Vieira Filho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
A interação entre a ciência, a tecnologia e a produção é bastante discutida sob o enfoque da teoria evolucionária. A definição do setor agrícola como sendo dominado pelos fornecedores é uma pressuposição muito restritiva, já que define a mudança tecnológica como residual. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo procura responder ao problema de qual seria o tratamento mais adequado do setor agrícola de produção como dinâmico e propulsor de efeitos de transbordamento. A compreensão adequada do setor agrícola deve identificar que nem todo o desenvolvimento tecnológico e geração de novos conhecimentos estão cristalizados nos insumos produtivos. A agricultura não funciona por meio de agentes receptores passivos de tecnologias. O processo de inovação na agricultura, que define tanto a questão da adoção quanto os parâmetros da difusão tecnológica, é estruturado dentro de complexos arranjos produtivos e de instituições (públicas e privadas) promotoras do conhecimento. Considerando a existência prévia de um arcabouço institucional que fomenta a geração de conhecimento público e de oportunidades tecnológicas, este trabalho vem demonstrar que a inovação na agricultura depende da acumulação do conhecimento. O processo de aprendizado do agricultor no decorrer do tempo é responsável pelo aumento da produtividade e...

Does Employment Generation Really Matter for Poverty Reduction?

Gutierrez, Catalina; Orecchia, Carlo; Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper analyzes how the employment/productivity profile of growth and its sectoral pattern are correlated with poverty reduction. The authors use a sample of 104 short-run growth spells in developing countries, between 1980 and 2001. They also identify some conditions of the labor market and the economic environment that are associated with employment-intensive growth or specific sectoral growth. The results show that, in the short run, although the aggregate employment-rate intensity of growth does not matter for poverty reduction any more than the aggregate productivity intensity of growth, the sectoral pattern of employment growth and productivity growth is important. Employment-intensive growth in the secondary sector is associated with decreases in poverty, while employment-intensive growth in agriculture is correlated with poverty increases. Similarly, productivity-intensive growth in agriculture is associated with decreases in poverty. Although the study does not address causality, coincidence of these phenomena in this large sample of heterogeneous countries and periods suggests that...

The WTO Doha Round, Cotton Sector Dynamics and Poverty Trends in Zambia

Balat, Jorge F.; Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Zambian cotton sector went through significant reforms during the 1990s. After a long period of parastatal control, a process of liberalization in cotton production and marketing began in 1994. These reforms were expected to benefit agricultural farmers. In Zambia, these are rural, often vulnerable, smallholders. The authors investigate the connection between the dynamics of the cotton sector and the dynamics of poverty and evaluate to what extent cotton can work as a vehicle for poverty alleviation. They find that cotton can indeed act as an effective mechanism for increased household welfare. They also find income gains associated with cotton production, as well as positive impacts on the long-run nutritional status of Zambian children. The impacts, however, are relatively small.

Venezuela - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Venezuela, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Venezuela has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are the largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential is large and there are several reforestation programs have been initiated. Venezuela is among the few countries in Latin America without a single clean development mechanism (CDM) project, and carbon trading opportunities can be explored. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to weather extremes. A greater emphasis on developing and applying adaptation and mitigation programs, as well as adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

Food and Agricultural Policy in Russia : Progress to Date and the Road Forward

Csaki, Csaba; Nash, John; Matusevich, Vera; Kray, Holger
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The overall finding of this report is that much agricultural policy is made at the regional level, and here the explicit price, and trade policy distortions are significantly worse than at the federal level. The result is patchwork of inconsistent policies, that has fragmented the Russian national market. The most serious policy issues at the federal level, are in the legal framework, the continued state domination of some markets, and, the administration of limited subsidies, in ways that undermine market development. A major problem is that large farms face soft budget constraints, with tolerance of non-payment of debt, resulting in an increasing debt burden, little incentive for true restructuring, and an uneven playing field with respect to the private sector. The government recently addressed the issue of farm insolvency, through the Resolution on Agricultural Debt Restructuring, and, a fundamental approach to this problem is being elaborated in the draft Law on Financial Rehabilitation of Agricultural Enterprises. But the key to giving enterprises an incentive to participate in real restructuring...

Azerbaijan : Inclusive Growth in a Resource-Rich Economy

Onder, Harun
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Azerbaijan experienced a 'golden age' in the last decade, during which the average growth rate reached record high levels and poverty decreased significantly. On average, the economy grew by 15.3 percent per year in real terms during this period, mainly driven by the oil sector (21.5 percent growth per year), but with a significant contribution from the non-oil sector (11.1 percent per year). As a result, poverty declined dramatically from 49.6 percent in 2001 to 15.8 percent in 2008 the latest year for which household survey data was available when this report was prepared. This report takes an inclusive growth approach to investigating the ways in which the country's high growth was translated into significant poverty reduction. First chapter summarizes the sources of growth in Azerbaijan with an emphasis on structural transformation and discusses highlights of the inclusive growth methodology. Second chapter explores how growth helped to reduce poverty. Third chapter analyzes the sustainability and inclusiveness of the recent growth. Finally...

Romania - Functional Review : Agriculture and Rural Development Administration

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This report presents the outcomes of the functional review of Romania's agricultural administration. Given the sectoral and territorial relevance of its regulatory domain, Romania s Agricultural and Rural Development Administration is a key administrative body undergoing this Functional Review. The review will examine whether the policy goals and objectives of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADR) and its agencies are clearly defined in measurable and achievable terms; whether the management systems, policies, staffing, and internal organizational structure are appropriate to meet objectives; and whether and to what extent factors external to the institutions impede the ability to meet objectives fully. The review analyzes factors promoting and/or limiting the efficiency and effectiveness of the agricultural and rural policy delivery in Romania. It aims at providing practical recommendations on: enhanced strategic coordination of policies and programs in the agricultural and rural policy domain; improved management and implementation of CAP support measures...

Growth without Borders : A Regional Growth Pole Diagnostic for Southern Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Several countries in Southern Africa have enormous potential to expand trade and mutually benefit from regional integration, and thus truly achieve 'growth without borders'. At the same time, several African countries are adopting growth pole strategies in order to deepen the economic linkages around the development of their natural resources and improve their competitiveness and connectivity to domestic and international markets. This report stems from economic sector work whose purpose was to identify potential growth poles across Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in three industries, agribusiness, mining, and tourism, that might benefit from improved regional integration. This report used geographic information systems (GIS) to identify potential growth poles based on the spatial distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI), market connectivity, revenue sources, and other input factors and then selected from that list those areas which might benefit from regional cooperation. This report provides background information...

Romania - Restructuring for EU Integration--The Policy Agenda : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Main Report and Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) looks at the broad reform program, including institutional, governance, and economic restructuring reforms Romania is pursuing, which are anchored in its process for accession to the European Union (EU). The challenge is to expand integration with the EU more broadly throughout the economy, by relying on market driven mechanisms in a predictable rules-based policy environment, with the state sharply focused on the provision of essential public goods. Implementing the institutional reform agenda is the first priority in the accession-led reform, having the country the largest increase in its share of EU external imports among the Central Eastern European Countries (CEECs), with trade diversification providing a robust foundation for trade expansion. But, to deepen trade integration, Romania would need to broaden its trade performance throughout the economy. On restructuring the enterprise sector, the CEM indicates enterprise reform needs to be accelerated, and budget constraint discipline needs to be extended to the transaction interface between the state and enterprises. As for implementing agricultural transformation...

Long-Run Impacts of China's WTO Accession on Farm-Nonfarm Income Inequality and Rural Poverty

Anderson, Kym; Huang, Jikun; Ianchovichina, Elena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Many fear China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) will impoverish its rural people by way of greater import competition in its agricultural markets. Anderson, Huang, and Ianchovichina explore that possibility bearing in mind that, even if producer prices of some (land-intensive) farm products fall, prices of other (labor-intensive) farm products could rise. Also, the removal of restrictions on exports of textiles and clothing could boost town and village enterprises, so demand for unskilled labor for nonfarm work in rural areas may grow even if demand for farm labor in aggregate falls. New estimates, from the global economywide numerical simulation model known as GTAP, of the likely changes in agricultural and other product prices as a result of WTO accession are drawn on to examine empirically the factor reward implications of China's WTO accession. The results suggest farm-nonfarm and Western-Eastern income inequality may well rise in China but rural-urban income inequality need not. The authors conclude with some policy suggestions for alleviating any pockets of farm household poverty that may emerge as a result of WTO accession.

Moldova - Agricultural Policy Notes : Policy Priorities for Agricultural Development, Volume1. Land

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The objective of this policy note on land is to assist the Government of Moldova in improving the effectiveness of land management in agriculture, with a view to enhancing the sector's contribution to Moldova's economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. The note reviews the progress that has been made to date on land reform in Moldova, and provides rigorous economic analysis of the impacts of the reforms and the state of land markets today. It also makes recommendations on options for improving the functioning of land markets. This note is organized as follows. Chapter one explore in detail the progress of land reform, including changes in land ownership and land use since 1990; then describe the results of farm reorganization efforts, including some comparisons with farm structure in market economies. Chapter two examines the impacts of land reform on economic indicators such as productivity for different farm types. Chapter three analyze the development of land markets to date based on new information gathered for this work from the Cadastre Agency...

Where Have All the Poor Gone? : Cambodia Poverty Assessment 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Over the seven years from 2004 through 2011, Cambodian economic growth was tremendous, ranking amid the best in the world. Moreover, household consumption increased by nearly 40 percent. And this growth was pro-poor, not only reducing inequality, but also proportionally boosting poor people's consumption further and faster than that of the non-poor. As a result, the poverty rate dropped from 52.2 to 20.5 percent, surpassing all expectations. However, the majority of these people escaped poverty only slightly: they remain highly vulnerable, even to small shocks, which could quickly bring them back into poverty. The main drivers of poverty reduction were better prices of rice for farmers, better wages for agricultural workers, increases in salary jobs for the urban labor force, and better income for non-agricultural businesses for rural households. Improvements in health and education, as well as government investment in infrastructure, provided a favorable environment for the poor, allowing many of them to pull themselves out of poverty. Looking forward...

Distributional Implications of Climate Change in India

Jacoby, Hanan; Rabassa, Mariano; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Global warming is expected to heavily impact agriculture, the dominant source of livelihood for the world's poor. Yet, little is known about the distributional implications of climate change at the sub-national level. Using a simple comparative statics framework, this paper analyzes how changes in the prices of land, labor, and food induced by modest temperature increases over the next three decades will affect household-level welfare in India. The authors predict a substantial fall in agricultural productivity, even allowing for farmer adaptation. Yet, this decline will not translate into a sharp drop in consumption for the majority of rural households, who derive their income largely from wage employment. Overall, the welfare costs of climate change fall disproportionately on the poor. This is true in urban as well as in rural areas, but, in the latter sector only after accounting for the effects of rising world cereal prices. Adaptation appears to primarily benefit the non-poor, since they own the lion's share of agricultural land. The results suggest that poverty in India will be roughly 3-4 percentage points higher after thirty years of rising temperatures than it would have been had this warming not occurred.

Mozambique - Analysis of Public Expenditure in Agriculture : Core Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The objective of this Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) is to provide an assessment of the present situation and to offer recommendations to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public spending in agriculture in Mozambique. The report provides a sectorwide picture of the magnitude and structure of public spending for agriculture in Mozambique over the past six years, and an overall assessment of the budget process in agriculture. It is intended that this analysis will inform future decisions over priority public expenditures for agriculture and the shifts in expenditure allocations and other measures that are necessary to make the most effective and efficient use of government budgetary resources and donors' contributions in the agriculture sector. The information is also meant to inform the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) secretariat about the level and structure of spending in agriculture in Mozambique, and help the Ministry of Agriculture; since 2005 (MINAG) to report suitable figures to NEPAD. The report discusses the budget process in agriculture (budget planning...

Quantitative Value Chain Analysis : An Application to Malawi

Tchale, Hardwick; Keyser, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The Government of Malawi has since 2005 been pursuing a growth strategy mainly based on increasing the volume of agricultural exports. This entails that Malawi should endeavor to improve the competitiveness of its agricultural commodities so as to gain an increasing share of the regional and international markets. This paper analyzes the competitiveness of the country's key agricultural commodities -- tobacco, maize, cotton, and rice -- using prices that prevailed in the 2007/08 agricultural season. The paper employs a quantitative value chain methodology to assess the country's prospects for competitiveness and suggest weak links along the value chain that require attention in order to improve trade competitiveness. The results indicate that Malawi has some competitive advantage in the production and exportation of tobacco and cotton, and that this mostly derives from its low labor cost advantage. However, the results indicate that based on 2007/08 prices and costs, Malawi does not have competitive edge in maize and rice production for export. As such...

Rwanda : Toward Sustained Growth and Competitiveness, Volume 1. Synthesis and Priority Measures; Rwanda : vers une croissance et une competitivite soutenues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Rwanda established targets for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and poverty reduction, to be achieved by the year 2020; these were to (i) raise real per capita income from $230 to $900; and (ii) reduce the poverty incidence by half. To reach these targets, the Government projected in its 2002 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) that GDP growth will to be in the range of 6 to 7 percent over the medium term. The PRSP focused on six priority areas: (i) rural development and agricultural transformation; (ii) human development; (iii) economic infrastructure; (iv) good governance; (v) private sector development; and (vi) institutional capacity development. While increased spending in the social sectors led to substantial improvements in outcomes there has been only limited spending for economic services, including investment to improve productivity in agriculture and manufacturing. Improvements in poverty have been marginal, due to a number of factors: (i) lack of investment in infrastructure during the recovery and stabilization phase...

Rwanda : Toward Sustained Growth and Competitiveness, Volume 2. Main Report; Rwanda : vers une croissance et une competitivite soutenues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Rwanda established targets for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and poverty reduction, to be achieved by the year 2020; these were to (i) raise real per capita income from $230 to $900; and (ii) reduce the poverty incidence by half. To reach these targets, the Government projected in its 2002 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) that GDP growth will to be in the range of 6 to 7 percent over the medium term. The PRSP focused on six priority areas: (i) rural development and agricultural transformation; (ii) human development; (iii) economic infrastructure; (iv) good governance; (v) private sector development; and (vi) institutional capacity development. While increased spending in the social sectors led to substantial improvements in outcomes there has been only limited spending for economic services, including investment to improve productivity in agriculture and manufacturing. Improvements in poverty have been marginal, due to a number of factors: (i) lack of investment in infrastructure during the recovery and stabilization phase...

Who Will Feed China in the 21st Century? Income Growth and Food Demand and Supply in China

Fukase, Emiko; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This paper uses resource-based cereal equivalent measures to explore the evolution of China's demand and supply for food. Although demand for food calories is probably close to its peak level in China, the ongoing dietary shift to animal-based foods, induced by income growth, is likely to impose considerable pressure on agricultural resources. Estimating the relationship between income growth and food demand with data from a wide range of countries, China's demand growth appears to have been broadly similar to the global trend. On the supply side, output of food depends strongly on the productivity growth associated with income growth and on the country's agricultural land endowment, with China appearing to be an out-performer. The analyses of income-consumption-production dynamics suggest that China's current income level falls in the range where consumption growth outstrips production growth, but that the gap is likely to begin to decline as China's population growth and dietary transition slow down. Continued agricultural productivity growth through further investment in research and development...