OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between subfertility and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: A total of 1572 women in New York and Vermont reported 3269 pregnancies between 1980 and 1990 and were able to provide an estimate of the waiting time to conception for 2967. Subfertility was defined as a delay of 1 year or more before a recognized conception was achieved. Rates of spontaneous abortion were determined among women with and without subfertility, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated via multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Spontaneous abortion rates were 23.0% in pregnancies preceded by subfertility and 14.0% in pregnancies without impaired fertility (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.94). The attributable risk of spontaneous abortion associated with subfertility was 6.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Subfertile women evidence an increased number of spontaneous abortions.
This study examines the long-term impact of a Neospora caninum-associated abortion outbreak in a large cow-calf herd in northern Alberta. Blood samples were collected 4 times from all bred females and heifer calves born during the spring before the outbreak: (1) at the time of the outbreak, (2) the following spring, (3) the subsequent fall, and, finally, (4) the second spring after the outbreak. The samples were analyzed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for N. caninum. Calves born immediately following the outbreak were also monitored. Individual calving or abortion records were available from all cows for 2 calving seasons. All cows and heifers were pregnancy tested after the 2 subsequent breeding seasons. At the time of the abortion outbreak in 1997, 81% of all bred females and 87% of the heifer calves were serologically positive. In spring 1998, 49% of the cows and 47% of the heifer calves remained positive. In fall 1998, 48% of the remaining cows and heifers were serologically positive. After the first breeding season following the outbreak (1998), 13.5% of the heifers and 22.2% of the cows were open (not pregnant). Animals that were serologically positive in the spring were more likely to be open in the fall (odds ratio...
During the first five months after the restriction of public funds for abortion, a large percentage of low-income women seeking abortions in a metropolitan area in Texas obtained abortion that were partially subsizied using a combination of reduced clinic fees and public funds for ancillary non-abortion services. Their own personal funds made up the difference between the subsidy and the full cost of the procedure.
Following legislative amendments extending the grounds for abortion in South Australia the abortion rate rose from 6.0/1000 in 1970, to 9.9/1000 in 1971, to 13.2/1000 in 1984. However, rates differ widely by marital status among young women, the age pattern varies markedly for different marital status groups, and trends over time differ for different age/marital status groups. Collection of detailed age and marital status data on every live birth and abortion is recommended in order to provide the most informative analysis of abortion trends.
Between 1972 and 1978, as legal abortion became more widely available nationally, abortion rates (abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (abortions per 1,000 live births) increased for all American teenagers; from 1972 to 1975, the rates and ratios for teenagers for Black and other races increased faster than those for White teenagers. For all seven years, abortion rates were higher for teenagers of Black and other races than for white teenagers. This reflected both higher proportions of sexually active teenagers of Black and other races and a greater risk of pregnancy in these teenagers compared with White teenagers. Race-specific differences in legal abortion ratios narrowed during the seven-year interval, as did differences in alternative outcomes of teenage premarital pregnancies (term births, illegal abortions).
Four cohorts of urban women who delivered a child before reaching age 18 were followed for periods ranging from 6 to 12 years to determine use of abortion and sterilization. The two more recent cohorts had been served by comprehensive service programs. About 40 per cent of each of teh groups used abortion or sterilization to control fertility. Most of the women seeking abortion had no subsequent term or near term deliveries, suggesting that such a request may signal a desire to terminate childbearing, at least for a few years. A high proportion of the young mothers obtained abortions during the second trimister, even for repeat abortion.
The use of prostaglandins E2 and F2α, administered by extra-amniotic instillation, for the induction of abortion was studied in 94 patients in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Abortion was successfully induced in 87% of patients within 36 hours and in 94% within 48 hours. The mean abortion time was 22·4 hours. In 60% of patients abortion was complete.
The agglutination test when carried out so as to give the entire range of serum dilutions to the limit of clumping is a delicate test which reflects a variety of conditions involved in infection with Bacillus abortus. Among these conditions are its time relation to the act of abortion and the length of time the abortion bacilli live and multiply in the pregnant uterus. It is obvious that if a uterus be infected in the 8th month of pregnancy, the opportunity for agglutinins to accumulate are poorer than if the uterine infection lasts 3 or 4 months. The presence of Bacillus abortus in the udder determines in many cases the intensity of the reaction. No definite rules can therefore be formulated for the interpretation of the agglutination reaction quantitatively, since it is bound up with a complicated process varying from case to case. In the individual cow in general a titer of 1:40 or less may be regarded as indicating that the cow is not infected with Bacillus abortus at the time of the blood examination. It does not exclude former infections in the case of older cows, nor does it absolutely exclude very recent infection (Nos. 278 and 351). The highest titers, 1:640 and above, generally indicate recent infection and in the absence of recent premature births infection of the udder. Even when abortion has just occurred...
The right to health under the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and
Cultural Rights, to which Canada is a signatory, entitles women to available,
accessible, and acceptable abortion care. Abortion care in Canada currently
fails this standard. Medication abortion (the use of drugs to terminate a
pregnancy) could improve abortion care in Canada, but its potential remains
It is well-known fact that various pathogens, including bacteria, virus, and protozoa, induce abortion in humans and animals. However the mechanisms of infectious abortion are little known. In this study, we demonstrated that Listeria monocytogenes infection in trophoblast giant cells decreased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL) expression, and that their overexpression inhibited cell death induced by the infection. Furthermore, HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression levels were also decreased by L. monocytogenes in pregnant mice. Treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin, which is known to induce HO-1, inhibited infectious abortion. Taken together, our study indicates that L. monocytogenes infection decreases HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression and induces cell death in placenta, leading to infectious abortion.
The phenomenon of pistil abortion widely occurs in Japanese apricot, and imperfect flowers with pistil abortion seriously decrease the yield in production. Although transcriptome analyses have been extensively studied in the past, a systematic study of differential gene expression has not been performed in Japanese apricot. To investigate genes related to the pistil development of Japanese apricot, high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina) was employed to survey gene expression profiles from perfect and imperfect Japanese apricot flower buds. 3,476,249 and 3,580,677 tags were sequenced from two libraries constructed from perfect and imperfect flower buds of Japanese apricot, respectively. There were 689 significant differentially-expressed genes between the two libraries. GO annotation revealed that highly ranked genes were those implicated in small molecule metabolism, cellular component organisation or biogenesis at the cellular level and fatty acid metabolism. According to the results, we assumed that late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA), Dicer-like 3 (DCL3) Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase 2 (XTH2), Pectin lyase-like superfamily protein (PPME1), Lipid transfer protein 3 (LTP3), Fatty acid biosynthesis 1 (FAB1) and Fatty acid desaturase 5 (FAD5) might have relationships with the pistil abortion in Japanese apricot. The expression patterns of 36 differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time (RT)-PCR. This is the first report of the Illumina RNA-seq technique being used for the analysis of differentially-expressed gene profiles related to pistil abortion that both computationally and experimentally provides valuable information for the further functional characterisation of genes associated with pistil development in woody plants.
Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcome of an HIV-positive woman’s pregnancy – induced abortion or birth – to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes. The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine) during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneous abortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD) values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P< 0.0001) for spontaneous abortion, 1.272 (95% CI: 1.098 to 1.474, P = 0.0014) for major malformations, 1.192 (95% CI: 0.39 to 3.644, P= 0.7578) for cardiovascular malformations, and 1.36 (95% CI: 0.61 to 3.04, P= 0.4498) for minor malformations. The results demonstrated that SSRIs increase the risk of spontaneous abortion and major malformations during pregnancy while they don’t increase the risk of cardiovascular malformations and minor malformations. Our previous meta-analysis only showed an increase in the risk of spontaneous abortion following the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. This might be due to increase in the number of studies included or addition of two new SSRIs (citalopram and escitalopram). The message to researchers is to try considering SSRIs individually during pregnancy to reduce heterogeneity...
Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario.
Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably...
The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α) play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated) had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated). Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.
The paper proposes a socioeconomic framework of supply, demand, and regulation to explain the development of sex-selective abortion in several parts of the world. The framework is then applied to three countries of southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) where sex-selective abortion has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors argue that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained simply by patriarchal social systems, sex discrimination, or son preference. The emphasis is put on the long-term acceptability of abortion in the region, on acceptability of sex-screening by both the medical establishment and by the population, on newly imported techniques of sex-screening, and on the changing demand for children associated with the major economic and social changes that followed the dismantlement of the Soviet Union.
Background: Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing.
This study draws on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with young adults in a metropolitan area of the Philippines to examine perceptions and practices of illegal abortion. Study participants indicated that unintended pregnancies are common and may be resolved through eventual acceptance or through self-induced injury or ingestion of substances to terminate the pregnancy. Despite the illegality of abortion and the restricted status of misoprostol, substantial knowledge and use of the drug exists. Discussions mirrored broader controversies associated with abortion in this setting. Abortion was generally thought to invoke gaba (bad karma), yet some noted its acceptability under certain circumstances. This study elucidates the complexities of pregnancy decisionmaking in this restrictive environment and the need for comprehensive and confidential reproductive health services for Filipino young adults.
Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Solano-González, Maritsa; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Hu, Howard; Smith, Donald; Wright, Robert O.
Fonte: BioMed CentralPublicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Background: Blood lead has been associated with an elevated risk of miscarriage. The plasmatic fraction of lead represents the toxicologically active fraction of lead. Women with a tendency to have a higher plasma/whole blood Pb ratio could tend towards an elevated risk of miscarriage due to a higher plasma Pb for a given whole blood Pb and would consequently have a history of spontaneous abortion. Methods: We studied 207 pregnant Mexico City residents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, originally recruited for two cohorts between 1997 and 2004. Criteria for inclusion in this study were having had at least one previous pregnancy, and having valid plasma and blood Pb measurements. Pb was measured in whole blood and plasma by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using ultra-clean techniques. History of miscarriage in previous pregnancies was obtained by interview. The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion was defined as the proportion of previous pregnancies that resulted in miscarriage. Data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression models featuring the incidence rate of spontaneous abortion as the outcome and continuous or categorized plasma/blood Pb ratios as predictor variables. All models were adjusted for age and schooling. Additionally...