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Individual and social vulnerabilities upon acquiring tuberculosis: a literature systematic review

Lacerda, Sheylla Nadjane Batista; Temoteo, Rayrla Cristina de Abreu; Figueiredo, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de; Luna, Fernanda Darliane Tavares de; Sousa, Milena Alves Nunes de; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.85%
Abstract Tuberculosis is a contagious infectious disease mainly caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that still meets the priority criteria - high magnitude, transcendence and vulnerability - due to the threat it poses to public health. When taking into consideration the vulnerability conditions that favor the onset of the disease, this article aimed to investigate the implications originated from individual and social vulnerability conditions in which tuberculosis patients are inserted. Databases like MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO were searched in Portuguese, Spanish and English using the descriptors tuberculosis and vulnerability, and 183 articles were found. After the selection criterion was applied, there were 22 publications left to be discussed. Some of the aspects that characterize the vulnerability to tuberculosis are: low-income and low-education families, age, poor living conditions, chemical dependency, pre-existing conditions/aggravations like diabetes mellitus and malnutrition, indigenous communities, variables related to health professionals, intense border crossings and migration, difficulty in accessing information and health services and lack of knowledge on tuberculosis. Much as such aspects are present and favor the onset of the disease...

Vulnerabilidade, capacitações e meios de vida dos pecuaristas de corte da Campanha Meridional e Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul

Matte, Alessandra
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.86%
Este estudo visa compreender quais são os fatores de vulnerabilidade que impactam sobre as capacitações e os meios de vida das populações rurais. Nesse sentido, o estudo versou sobre o tema da vulnerabilidade desde uma perspectiva multidimensional, procurando dar ênfase na compreensão dos múltiplos fatores que provocam situações de vulnerabilidade na pecuária de corte, fragilizando os meios de vida dos pecuaristas e limitando o exercício das capacitações, verificando, com isso, como os pecuaristas de corte têm enfrentado ou se adaptado às situações causadas pelos múltiplos fatores de vulnerabilidade que estão expostos. De tal forma, o objetivo do trabalho consiste em compreender como a vulnerabilidade age sobre as capacitações e meios de vida dos pecuaristas de corte da Campanha Meridional e Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul, e como esses criam estratégias de enfrentamento ou adaptação aos efeitos das situações de vulnerabilidade que estão expostos. Assim, três hipóteses orientarão a pesquisa. A primeira afirma que o meio de vida da pecuária de corte é formado por um portfólio de ativos, composto por fatores internos e externos ao estabelecimento. A segunda sustenta que a vulnerabilidade está relacionada tanto a fatores externos como a fatores internos aos estabelecimentos de pecuária de corte...

Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

Shi, Weifang; Zeng, Weihua
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.84%
Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.84%
Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group...

Vulnerabilidade ambiental da zona costeira de Pititinga, Rio do Fogo, Rio Grande do Norte

Lima, Eduardo Queiroz de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geodinâmica e Geofísica; Geodinâmica; Geofísica Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geodinâmica e Geofísica; Geodinâmica; Geofísica
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This work presents a study on the environmental vulnerability of the coastal region of Pititinga, Rio do Fogo/RN. The coastal erosion of Pititinga beach was analyzed and considerated as one more process that produces environmental vulnerability in the area of study, taking into account its human and natural environment and establishing the relation between them, to understand the arrangement that produced its spatial configuration. The natural environment was expressed by thematics maps with geology, geomorphology, vegetation and soil themes, while the human environment was expressed by the use and occupation of the soil map. The coastal erosion was put in an erosion vulnerability map. The methodological procedure to generate the thematics maps, vulnerability maps and of the erosion coastal involved the bibliographic research, field visits with check-list form fill, collect and analysis of sediment sample, photo-interpretation techniques, integration of the information in a database, data store and spatial analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ambient. The natural vulnerability map shows a predominancy of environments with low (29,6%) or medium (42,4%) vulnerability, pointed the frontal and mobile dune as the areas with the highest vulnerability. The environmental vulnerability map...

Towards Guidelines for Regional Assessment of Vulnerability against Service Disruption of Critical Infrastructures

BOUCHON SARA MARIE; GHEORGHE Adrian; BIRCHMEIER Jurg
Fonte: JRC ISPRA Publicador: JRC ISPRA
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
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This paper presents results of an ongoing work carried out to define guidelines for the regional assessment of vulnerability against the potential disruption of the services provided by critical infrastructures, i.e. those infrastructures of which services are so vital that their unavailability or destruction would have a debilitating impact on society. The goal is to develop a comprehensive methodology towards living assessment of vulnerability at regional level, as a contribution to maintain or improve internal security. Vulnerability assessment has to be seen as a major step of a continuous and living decision-making process that provides regional authorities with decision-support materials (e.g. maps) to enhance communication with other stakeholders and to prioritize actions, within the context of better governance at regional level. The final paper will present a critical analysis on existing regional vulnerability assessment methods and common practices in Europe and highlight their accuracy for different fields of application and their limits against the need of regional authorities. This analysis shows a lack of accurate criteria or indicators to express the dynamic, in time and space, of the vulnerability of a regional territory...

Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: An indicator based analysis to be used in early warning systems

NAUMANN GUSTAVO; BARBOSA FERREIRA Paulo; GARROTE Luis; IGLESIAS Ana; VOGT Juergen
Fonte: COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH Publicador: COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
ENG
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Drought vulnerability is a complex concept that includes both biophysical and socio-economic drivers of drought impact that determine capacity to cope with drought. In order to develop an efficient drought early warning system and to be prepared to mitigate upcoming drought events it is important to understand the drought vulnerability of the affected regions. We propose a composite Drought Vulnerability Indicator (DVI) that reflects different aspects of drought vulnerability evaluated at Pan-African level in four components: the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the infrastructure and technology. The selection of variables and weights reflects the assumption that a society with institutional capacity and coordination, as well as with mechanisms for public participation is less vulnerable to drought; furthermore we consider that agriculture is only one of the many sectors affected by drought. The quality and accuracy of a composite indicator depends on the theoretical framework, on the data collection and quality, and on how the different components are aggregated. This kind of approach can lead to some degree of scepticism; to overcome this problem a sensitivity analysis was done in order to measure the degree of uncertainty associated with the construction of the composite indicator. Although the proposed drought vulnerability indicator relies on a number of theoretical assumptions and some degree of subjectivity...

Développement d'un indice de vulnérabilité à l'érosion éolienne à partir d'images satellitales, dans le Bassin arachidier du Sénégal : cas de la région de Thiès.

Cissokho, Robert
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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26.88%
L’érosion éolienne est un problème environnemental parmi les plus sévères dans les régions arides, semi-arides et les régions sèches sub-humides de la planète. L’érosion des sols accélérée par le vent provoque des dommages à la fois localement et régionalement. Sur le plan local, elle cause la baisse des nutriments par la mobilisation des particules les plus fines et de la matière organique. Cette mobilisation est une des causes de perte de fertilité des sols avec comme conséquence, une chute de la productivité agricole et une réduction de la profondeur de la partie arable. Sur le plan régional, les tempêtes de poussières soulevées par le vent ont un impact non négligeable sur la santé des populations, et la déposition des particules affecte les équipements hydrauliques tels que les canaux à ciel ouvert ainsi que les infrastructures notamment de transport. Dans les régions où les sols sont fréquemment soumis à l’érosion éolienne, les besoins pour des études qui visent à caractériser spatialement les sols selon leur degré de vulnérabilité sont grands. On n’a qu’à penser aux autorités administratives qui doivent décider des mesures à prendre pour préserver et conserver les potentialités agropédologiques des sols...

Évaluation de la vulnérabilité des fermes productrices de maïs-grain du Québec aux variabilités et changements climatiques : les cas de Montérégie-Ouest et du Lac-Saint-Jean-Est

Délusca, Kénel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.9%
Réalisées aux échelles internationales et nationales, les études de vulnérabilité aux changements et à la variabilité climatiques sont peu pertinentes dans un processus de prise de décisions à des échelles géographiques plus petites qui représentent les lieux d’implantation des stratégies de réponses envisagées. Les études de vulnérabilité aux changements et à la variabilité climatiques à des échelles géographiques relativement petites dans le secteur agricole sont généralement rares, voire inexistantes au Canada, notamment au Québec. Dans le souci de combler ce vide et de favoriser un processus décisionnel plus éclairé à l’échelle de la ferme, cette étude cherchait principalement à dresser un portrait de l’évolution de la vulnérabilité des fermes productrices de maïs-grain des régions de Montérégie-Ouest et du Lac-St-Jean-Est aux changements et à la variabilité climatiques dans un contexte de multiples sources de pression. Une méthodologie générale constituée d'une évaluation de la vulnérabilité globale à partir d’une combinaison de profils de vulnérabilité aux conditions climatiques et socio-économiques a été adoptée. Pour la période de référence (1985-2005), les profils de vulnérabilité ont été dressés à l’aide d’analyses des coefficients de variation des séries temporelles de rendements et de superficies en maïs-grain. Au moyen de méthodes ethnographiques associées à une technique d’analyse multicritère...

Mapping Community Determinants of Heat Vulnerability

Reid, Colleen E.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Brines, Shannon J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Brown, Daniel G.; Schwartz, Joel David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: The evidence that heat waves can result in both increased deaths and illness is substantial, and concern over this issue is rising because of climate change. Adverse health impacts from heat waves can be avoided, and epidemiologic studies have identified specific population and community characteristics that mark vulnerability to heat waves. Objectives: We situated vulnerability to heat in geographic space and identified potential areas for intervention and further research. Methods: We mapped and analyzed 10 vulnerability factors for heat-related morbidity/mortality in the United States: six demographic characteristics and two household air conditioning variables from the U.S. Census Bureau, vegetation cover from satellite images, and diabetes prevalence from a national survey. We performed a factor analysis of these 10 variables and assigned values of increasing vulnerability for the four resulting factors to each of 39,794 census tracts. We added the four factor scores to obtain a cumulative heat vulnerability index value. Results: Four factors explained > 75% of the total variance in the original 10 vulnerability variables: a) social/environmental vulnerability (combined education/poverty/race/green space), b) social isolation...

Perfis de Vulnerabilidade Feminina ao HIV/aids em Belo Horizonte e Recife: comparando brancas e negras; Profiles of Female Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Belo Horizonte and Recife: a comparison of white and black/mixed women

Miranda-Ribeiro, Paula; Simão, Andréa Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira; Lacerda, Marisa Alves; Torres, Maria Eponina de Abreu e
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 POR
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36.45%
OBJETIVO: Delinear e comparar os perfis das mulheres brancas e negras entre 18 e 59 anos, residentes em Belo Horizonte e Recife, enfocando características sociodemográficas e de conhecimento, além de atitudes em relação ao HIV/aids. MÉTODOS: Os dados são oriundos da pesquisa amostral SRSR - Saúde Reprodutiva, Sexualidade e Raça/Cor, conduzida pelo Cedeplar/UFMG em 2002 e única desta natureza com representatividade municipal. O método utilizado foi o Grade of Membership (GoM), a partir do qual foram gerados quatro perfis extremos para cada município. RESULTADOS: Tanto em Belo Horizonte quanto em Recife, as mulheres com maior probabilidade de serem brancas são também aquelas com maior probabilidade de ter escolaridade mais elevada, possuir plano de saúde, ter tido parceiro estável no ano anterior à pesquisa e ter poder na relação sexual. Quanto às negras, apenas em Belo Horizonte elas têm maior probabilidade de serem de baixa escolaridade, não possuírem plano de saúde, além de se sentirem desempoderadas diante do parceiro sexual. CONCLUSÕES: A comparação dos perfis de brancas e negras em Belo Horizonte e Recife revela diferenças na vulnerabilidade dessas mulheres ao HIV/aids. As diferenças entre os dois grupos são mais evidentes em Belo Horizonte.; OBJECTIVE: To delineate and compare profiles of white and "Black" (either Black or mixed) women...

Relações Amorosas, Comportamento Sexual e Vulnerabilidade de Adolescentes Afrodescendentes e Brancos em Relação ao HIV/aids; Romantic Relationships, Sexual Behavior and Vulnerability of African-Descending and White Adolescents Towards HIV/AIDS

Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Giacomozzi, Andréia Isabel; Wachelke, João Fernando Rech; Aguiar, Adriana de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a vulnerabilidade de adolescentes brancos e afrodescendentes em relação ao HIV/aids. Para isso, investigaram-se as características socioeconômicas dos participantes e seus relacionamentos amorosos e sexuais, comportamentos de risco e prevenção, conhecimento sobre HIV/aids e atitudes frente ao uso de preservativo. O estudo foi realizado em regiões periféricas das cidades de Florianópolis, Itajaí e Balneário Camboriú e consistiu em duas etapas. A primeira foi qualitativa, na qual se utilizou entrevistas não diretivas com 36 estudantes de Ensino Médio, divididos igualitariamente por sexo e raça/cor. A segunda consistiu em um levantamento de dados com 715 adolescentes sobre relações afetivas e sexuais, condutas de risco e de proteção, conhecimento sobre HIV/aids e atitudes frente ao uso de preservativo. Observou-se que o nível sociocultural desfavorável associou-se aos afrodescendentes, enquanto o nível médio associou-se aos brancos. O conhecimento sobre aids e as atitudes frente ao uso do preservativo correlacionaram-se significativamente. Os afrodescendentes iniciam-se sexualmente mais cedo e têm mais relações amorosas esporádicas ("ficar"), porém os adolescentes brancos mantêm mais relações sexuais. Além disso...

Re-assentamento, saúde e insegurança em Itaparica: um modelo de vulnerabilidade em projetos de desenvolvimento; Resettlement, health and insecurity in Itaparica: a model of vulnerability in development projects

Scott, Parry
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
From the point of view of an ambiguous State which generates insecurity, a framework for the understanding of the relation between processes of illness, suffering and health administration and phases of large development projects is presented. In these processes the presence of the State overshadows that of the other actors. The intensification and retraction of this presence brings to light a series of factors related to the generation of insecurity. For the case of the sub-médio São Francisco River Basin between Bahia and Pernambuco, the organization of agriculture of the resettled farmers guides this discussion. Three categories of insecurity generation are characterized: structural insecurity, related to State omission in dealing with poor; administrated insecurity, related to its intervention and super-inclusion, and local collective insecurity, related to daily local formation of power relations. The four resettlement project phases of preparation and communication, implantation, development and emancipation are examined in light of ethnographic data on resettled farmers, the Syndical Pole, the governmental administrator of the project (CHESF) and other agents, for the period from the seventies up to present day. The study reveals how changes in the vulnerability of the population are associated with changes in the specific set of interrelations of insecurity generation frameworks throughout the resettlement process. On the basis of these vulnerabilities and the shifting power relations...

VISIÓN DE ENFERMERAS ACERCA DE LA VULNERABILIDAD DE LOS ADOLESCENTES EN UN DISTRITO SANITARIO; THE VIEWS OF NURSES ON THE VULNERABILITY OF THE ADOLESCENTS IN A HEALTH DISTRICT; OS OLHARES DE ENFERMEIRAS SOBRE A VULNERABILIDADE DOS ADOLESCENTES EM UM DISTRITO SANITÁRIO

Mafra, Melissa dos Reis Pinto; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ; Chaves, Marta Nolasco; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ; Larocca, Liliana Muller; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2015 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Pesquisa exploratória de caráter qualitativo, fundamentada na Teoria da Intervenção Práxica da Enfermagem em Saúde Coletiva. Com objetivo de identificar as vulnerabilidades dos adolescentes segundo o olhar de enfermeiras de um Distrito Sanitário. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com dezesseis enfermeiras no período de fevereiro a março de 2014, sendo analisados por meio de análise de conteúdo, com apoio do softwarewebQDA. Foram evidenciadas quatro categorias e dezesseis subcategorias, destacandose o reconhecimento de vulnerabilidades nos adolescentes. Na construção social, naturaliza-se que meninos e meninas têm vulnerabilidades diferentes no território. Portanto, para intervenções, é necessária a capacitação dos profissionais e apoio da gestão para que, em ações intersetoriais, sejam atendidas suas necessidades. Concluise que são necessários estudos que discutam à luz de gênero o processo de determinação da vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para instrumentalizar projetos de intervenção que levem à superação de tais vulnerabilidades.; This exploratory research with a qualitative character, grounded in the Theory of Nursing Praxis Intervention in Collective Health, aims to identify the adolescents’ vulnerabilities according to the view of nurses of a Health District. The data were collected using semistructured interviews held with 16 nurses in February – March 2014...

Agency as vulnerability: accounting for children going to the streets of Accra; Agência como vulnerabilidade: explicando a ida das crianças para as ruas de Acra 1

Mizen, Phil; University of Warwick; Ofosu-Kusi, Yaw; University of Education/Winneba
Fonte: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines Publicador: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/11/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper considers the agency of the children who have moved to the streets of Accra, Ghana. A largely unexamined concept, agency is commonly used in childhood studies to stress children’s capacity to choose. In the literature on street and working children, and a cognate area of children’s independent migration studies, children’s agency is made meaningful by reference to rational choice theories or to the normative force of childhood. It is our argument that both approaches leave unanswered important questions and to answer these we draw upon the arguments of social realism and the emphasis they place on human vulnerability as a source of agency; O artigo considera a agência das crianças que passaram a viver nas ruas de Acra, Gana. O conceito de agência, pouco examinado, tem sido utilizado nos estudos da infância para enfatizar a capacidade de escolha das crianças. A literatura sobre crianças de rua e trabalhadoras, e da área cognata de estudos sobre migração independente de crianças, tem tratado de questões de agência das crianças significadas pelas referências às teorias de escolha racional ou à força normativa da infância. Ambas as abordagens não respondem a importantes questões. Para superar estas omissões nos baseamos em argumentos sócio-realistas e...

Vulnerability to climate change of marine and coastal fisheries in México

MARTÍNEZ ARROYO,A.; MANZANILLA NAIM,S.; ZAVALA HIDALGO,J.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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36.45%
The vulnerability of fisheries to climate change in México is explored on the basis of an overview of the possible impacts of physical variables of ecosystems and habitats which sustain these fisheries, taking in consideration the socioeconomic and ecological problems which hinder their sustainability. Marine environments were analyzed in view of their importance in sustaining the populations of the main commercial species during some stage of their life cycle, and which are susceptible to be affected by climatic variables. We addressed coral reefs, sea grasses, coastal lagoons, wetlands, sea currents, frontal systems and upwelling, based on the climatic scenarios generated by three general circulation models -ECHAM5/MPI, HADGEM1 and GFDL CM 2.0- as well as the scenarios of emissions A1B, A2 and B2 for the years 2030 and 2050. Impact of climate change in ecosystems and its effects on fisheries were examined, specifically with 16 of the main fisheries which constitute more than 70% of the volume and commercial value of national fisheries. The impacts, around which we have to structure adaptation and mitigation strategies, are: increase in sea surface temperature, sea level rise, and the change of precipitation patterns which will affect the volume of river flow.

Vulnerability of water resources to climate change scenarios. Impacts on the irrigation districts in the Guayalejo-Tamesí river basin, Tamaulipas, México

SANCHEZ-TORRES ESQUEDA,G.; OSPINA-NOREÑA,J. E.; GAY-GARCÍA,C.; CONDE,C.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper presents an assessment of the impacts of climate change induced water availability variations on the irrigation districts in the Guayalejo-Tamesí River Basin in Tamaulipas, México. A model was developed using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) to describe the vulnerability of the water resources in the case study river basin, taking into account the effects that climate change can have on water availability in the municipal, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The parameter to assess the extent to which the area is vulnerable to climate change was the Precipitation/Temperature relationship, or Lang Index. The latest version of the climate change program MAGICC/ScenGen was used, considering the MPIECH-5, GFDL2.0, and UKHADCM3 models for the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The results indicate that climate change scenarios have the most negative impact on water availability in the agricultural sector. In addition, an analysis of the results suggests that water concessions, irrigation districts and hydraulic infrastructure in the river basin need to be reconsidered and updated to assure water availability to all its users.

Climate change and urban road transport - a South African case study of vulnerability due to sea level rise

Friedrich,E; Timol,S
Fonte: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Publicador: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
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36.45%
The focus of this investigation was the impact of predicted sea level rise on the road transportation network of the eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. The main objective was to identify the areas within the municipality which are most vulnerable to sea level rise and to develop adaptive responses and interventions in order to maintain road functionality. For the identification of the most vulnerable areas a multi-criteria analysis supported by geographical information system modelling was used. Three areas were identified, namely, the Isipingo, Bayhead and the Umgeni mouth areas. Adaptive road responses have been researched by employing a network analysis of each of the areas identified. Parameters modelled were traffic volume changes, travel time and volume to capacity ratio - for the main roads in the areas identified. The adaptive responses required for each area were found to be different, varying from the addition of a lane to changes in signal settings. Overall this study presents a model of how vulnerability and the development of adaptive strategies to sea level rise could be addressed by municipalities.

High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Jamaica is associated with social vulnerability and other sexually transmitted infections

Figueroa,JP; Weir,SS; Jones-Cooper,C; Byfield,L; Hobbs,MM; McKnight,I; Cummings,S
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. METHODS: With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. Men who have sex with men were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. RESULTS: One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2, 47.9) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhoea 3.5% and trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had an STI (48% vs 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21, 5.04, p = 0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21, 4.71...

Sexuality, vulnerability to HIV, and mental health: an ethnographic study of psychiatric institutions

Pinto,Diana de Souza; Mann,Claudio Gruber; Wainberg,Milton; Mattos,Paulo; Oliveira,Suely Broxado de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
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This paper presents data from the ethnographic based formative phase of the Interdisciplinary Project on Sexuality, Mental Health, and AIDS (PRISSMA), sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and carried out in two psychiatric institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results from ethnographic observations, focus groups, and key informant interviews with different groups of mental health care providers and day hospital and outpatient mental health clients regarding conceptions of sexuality and HIV vulnerability are described. The results suggest a diversity of notions about sexuality by both groups and point out the high HIV sexual risk in this psychiatric population. This formative phase has served as the basis for the cultural adaptation and creation of a Brazilian intervention for HIV prevention in the severely mentally ill, the feasibility of which has been successfully evaluated in the pilot phase.