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Human mercury exposure and adverse health effects in the Amazon: a review; Exposição humana ao mercúrio e efeitos adversos à saúde na Amazônia: uma revisão

PASSOS, Carlos J. S.; MERGLER, Donna
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
This paper examines issues of human mercury (Hg) exposure and adverse health effects throughout the Amazon region. An extensive review was conducted using bibliographic indexes as well as secondary sources. There are several sources of Hg (mining, deforestation, reservoirs), and exposure takes place through inhalation or from fish consumption. There is a wide range of exposure, with mean hair-Hg levels above 15µg/g in several Amazonian communities, placing them among the highest reported levels in the world today. Dietary Hg intake has been estimated in the vicinity of 1-2µg/kg/day, considerably higher than the USEPA RfD of 0.1µg/kg/day or the World Health Organization recommendation of 0.23µg/kg/day. Neurobehavioral deficits and, in some cases, clinical signs have been reported both for adults and children in relation to Hg exposure in several Amazonian countries. There is also some evidence of cytogenetic damage, immune alterations, and cardiovascular toxicity. Since fish provide a highly nutritious food source, there is an urgent need to find realistic and feasible solutions that will reduce exposure and toxic risk, while maintaining healthy traditional dietary habits and preserving this unique biodiversity.; Este artigo examina questões sobre exposição humana ao mercúrio (Hg) e seus efeitos adversos à saúde na Amazônia...

Aspergillus nidulans as a biological system to detect the genotoxic effects of mercury fumes on eukaryotes

SOUSA, G. D.; ZUCCHI, T. D.; ZUCCHI, F. D.; MILLER, R. G.; ANJOS, R. M. A.; POLI, P.; ZUCCHI, T. M. A. D.
Fonte: FUNPEC-EDITORA Publicador: FUNPEC-EDITORA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Mercury (Hg) pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. Due to public concern prompted by the symptoms displayed by people who consumed contaminated fish in Minamata, Japan in 1956, Hg pollution has since been kept under constant surveillance. However, despite considerable accumulation of knowledge on the noxious effects of ingested or inhaled Hg, especially for humans, there is virtually nothing known about the genotoxic effects of Hg. Because increased mitotic crossing over is assumed to be the first step leading to carcinogenesis, we used a sensitive short-term test (homozygotization index) to look for DNA alterations induced by Hg fumes. In one Aspergillus nidulans diploid strain (UT448//UT184), the effects of the Hg fumes appeared scattered all over the DNA, causing 3.05 times more recombination frequencies than the mean for other strains. Another diploid (Dp II- I//UT184) was little affected by Hg. This led us to hypothesize that a genetic factor present in the UT184 master strain genome, close to the nicB8 genetic marker, is responsible for this behavior. These findings corroborate our previous findings that the homozygotization index can be used as a bioassay for rapid and efficient assessment of ecotoxicological hazards.; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); CNPq; FAPESP; UCB

A common matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 polymorphism affects plasma MMP-2 levels in subjects environmentally exposed to mercury

JACOB-FERREIRA, Anna L. B.; LACCHINI, Riccardo; GERLACH, Raquel F.; PASSOS, Carlos J. S.; BARBOSA JR., Fernando; TANUS-SANTOS, Jose E.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Mercury (Hg) exposure is associated with disease conditions, including cardiovascular problems. Although the mechanisms implicated in these complications have not been precisely defined yet, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be involved. The gene encoding MMP-2 presents genetic polymorphisms which affect the expression and activity level of this enzyme. A common polymorphism of MMP-2 gene is the C(-1306)T (rs 243865), which is known to disrupt a Sp1-type promoter site (CCACC box), thus leading to lower promoter activity associated with the T allele. This study aimed at examining how this polymorphism affects the circulating MMP-2 levels and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in 210 subjects environmentally exposed to Hg. Total blood and plasma Hg concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MMP-2 and TIMP-2 concentrations were measured in plasma samples by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively. Genotypes for the C(-1306)T polymorphism were determined by Taqman (R) Allele Discrimination assay. We found a positive association (p = 0.0057) between plasma Hg concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 (an index of net MMP-2 activity). The C(-1306)T polymorphism modified MMP-2 concentrations (p = 0.0465) and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio (p = 0.0060) in subjects exposed to Hg...

A functional matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 polymorphism modifies plasma MMP-9 levels in subjects environmentally exposed to mercury

JACOB-FERREIRA, Anna L. B.; PASSOS, Carlos J. S.; GERLACH, Raquel F.; BARBOSA JR., Fernando; TANUS-SANTOS, Jose E.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Mercury (Hg) exposure causes health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Although precise mechanisms have not been precisely defined yet, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be involved. The gene encoding MMP-9 presents genetic polymorphisms which affect the expression and activity level of this enzyme. Two polymorphisms in the promoter region [C(-1562)T and (CA)(n)] are functionally relevant, and are implicated in several diseases. This study aimed at examining how these polymorphisms affect the circulating MMP-9 levels and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in 266 subjects environmentally exposed to Hg. Blood and plasma Hg concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations were measured in plasma samples by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively. Genotypes for the C(-1562)T and the microsatellite (CA)(n) polymorphisms were determined. We found a positive association (P<0.05) between plasma Hg concentrations and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (an index of net MMP-9 activity). When the subjects were divided into tertiles with basis on their plasma Hg concentrations, we found that the (CA)(n) polymorphism modified MMP-9 concentrations and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in subjects with the lowest Hg concentrations (first tertile)...

Mercury Exposure Increases Circulating Net Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 Activities

JACOB-FERREIRA, Anna L. B.; PASSOS, Carlos J. S.; JORDAO, Alceu A.; FILLION, Myriam; MERGLER, Donna; LEMIRE, Melanie; GERLACH, Raquel F.; BARBOSA JR., Fernando; TANUS-SANTOS, Jose E.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Mercury (Hg) exposure causes health problems that may result from increased oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels. We investigated whether there is an association between the circulating levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, their endogenous inhibitors (the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; TIMPs) and the circulating Hg levels in 159 subjects environmentally exposed to Hg. Blood and plasma Hg were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). MMP and TIMP concentrations were measured in plasma samples by gelatin zymography and ELISA respectively. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) were measured in plasma to assess oxidative stress. Selenium (Se) levels were determined by ICP-MS because it is an antioxidant. The relations between bioindicators of Hg and the metalloproteinases levels were examined using multivariate regression models. While we found no relation between blood or plasma Hg and MMP-9, plasma Hg levels were negatively associated with TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, and thereby with increasing MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios, thus indicating a positive association between plasma Hg and circulating net MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities. These findings provide a new insight into the possible biological mechanisms of Hg toxicity...

Color-space distortions following long-term occupational exposure to mercury vapor

FEITOSA-SANTANA, Claudia; BIMLER, David L.; PARAMEI, Galina V.; OIWA, Nestor N.; BARBONI, Mirella T. S.; COSTA, Marcelo F.; SILVEIRA, Luiz C. L.; VENTURA, Dora F.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Color vision was examined in subjects with long-term occupational exposure to mercury (Hg) vapor. The color vision impairment was assessed by employing a quantitative measure of distortion of individual and group perceptual color spaces. Hg subjects (n = 18; 42.1 +/- 6.5 years old; exposure time = 10.4 +/- 5.0 years; time away from the exposure source = 6.8 +/- 4.6 years) and controls (n = 18; 46.1 +/- 8.4 years old) were examined using two arrangement tests, D-15 and D-15d, in the traditional way, and also in a triadic procedure. From each subject`s `odd-one-out` choices, matrices of inter-cap subjective dissimilarities were derived and processed by non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). D-15d results differed significantly between the Hg-group and the control group (p < 0.05), with the impairment predominantly along the tritan axis. 2D perceptual color spaces, individual and group, were reconstructed, with the dimensions interpreted as the red-green (RG) and the blue-yellow (BY) systems. When color configurations from the Hg-group were compared to those of the controls, they presented more fluctuations along both chromatic dimensions, indicating a statistically significant difference along the BY axis. In conclusion, the present findings confirm that color vision impairments persist in subjects that have received long-term occupational exposure to Hg-vapor although...

Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication

FEITOSA-SANTANA, Claudia; BARBONI, Mirella T. S.; OIWA, Nestor N.; PARAMEI, Galina V.; SIMOES, Ana Luisa A. C.; COSTA, Marcelo F. Da; SILVEIRA, Luiz Carlos L.; VENTURA, Dora F.
Fonte: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS Publicador: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
This longitudinal study addresses the reversibility of color vision losses in subjects who had been occupationally exposed to mercury vapor. Color discrimination was assessed in 20 Hg-exposed patients (mean age = 42.4 +/- 6.5 years; 6 females and 14 males) with exposure to Hg vapor during 10.5 +/- 5.3 years and away from the work place (relative to 2002) for 6.8 +/- 4.2 years. During the Hg exposure or up to one year after ceasing it, mean urinary Hg concentration was 47 +/- 35.4 mu g/g creatinine. There was no information on Hg urinary concentration at the time of the first tests, in 2002 (Ventura et al., 2005), but at the time of the follow-up tests, in 2005, this value was 1.4 +/- 1.4 mu g/g creatinine for patients compared with 0.5 +/- 0.5 mu g/g creatinine for controls (different group from the one in Ventura et al. (2005)). Color vision was monocularly assessed using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). Hg-exposed patients had significantly worse color discrimination (p < 0.02) than controls, as evaluated by the size of MacAdam`s color discrimination ellipses and color discrimination thresholds along protan, deutan, and tritan confusion axes. There were no significant differences between the results of the study in Ventura et al. (2005) and in the present follow-up measurements...

UV-Ozone Generation from Modified High Intensity Discharge Mercury Vapor Lamps for Treatment of Indium Tin Oxide Films

Santos, Emerson Roberto; Burini, Elvo Calixto; Hui, Wang Shu
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC; PHILADELPHIA Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC; PHILADELPHIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In a homemade UV-Ozone generator, different ignition tubes extracted from HID mercury vapor lamps were investigated, namely: 80, 125, 250 and 400 watts. The performance of the generator in function of the type of the ignition lamp was monitored by the measurements of the ozone concentration and the temperature increment. The results have shown that the 400 W set up presented the highest ozone production, which was used in the treatment of indium tin oxide (ITO) films. Polymer light emitting diodes were assembled using ITO films, treated for 10, 20 and 30 min, as an anode. The overall results indicate improvement of the threshold voltage (reduction) and electroluminescence of these devices.; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Grupo de Eletronica Molecular; Instituto Astronomico e Geofisico of the University of Sao Paulo

Comportamento geoquímico do mercúrio (Hg) em solos de manguezais do estado de São Paulo; Geochemical behavior of mercury (Hg) in mangroves soils from São Paulo State

Oliveira, Mara Lucia Jacinto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/02/2006 PT
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Os ecossistemas costeiros do litoral do Estado de São Paulo apresentam-se ambientalmente degradados, em conseqüência da concentração populacional e instalação de pólos industriais e petroquímicos. O lançamento de rejeitos urbanos, industriais e portuários nos corpos d’água resulta no aporte indiscriminado de poluentes nos ambientes estuarinos. O metal pesado mercúrio (Hg) constitui um dos poluentes de maior risco para o equilíbrio ecológico e saúde humana, justificado pela elevada toxicidade e potencial de bioacumulação e biomagnificação através da cadeia alimentar. O presente trabalho teve por objetivos: (a) determinar o conteúdo de Hg total em solos de manguezais da Baixada Santista (rio Cascalho, Mariana, Crumahú, Irirí e Canal da Cosipa) e Ilha do Cardoso; (b) verificar a influência do preparo de amostras na determinação de Hg em solos estuarinos; (c) analisar parâmetros químicos relacionados à geoquímica do Hg; (d) avaliar a distribuição do conteúdo total de Hg nas frações mais relevantes em solos de manguezais por meio de extração seqüencial. Foi determinado um enriquecimento de Hg nas camadas superficiais dos solos da Baixada Santista e Ilha do Cardoso, porém não foi verificado um padrão uniforme de distribuição das concentrações de Hg total nos perfis amostrados. O manguezal do rio Cascalho e Canal da COSIPA apresentaram elevados teores de Hg (5...

"Avaliação do conteúdo de Mercúrio, Metilmercúrio e outros elementos de interesse em peixes e em amostras de cabelos e dietas de pré-escolares da Região Amazônica" ; ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTENT OF MERCURY, METHYLMERCURY AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF INTEREST IN FISH, HAIR AND DIETS OF PRE-SCHOLL CHILDREN OF THE AMAZON REGION

Farias, Luciana Aparecida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Vários estudos mostram que algumas regiões da Amazônia sofrem impacto por mercúrio (Hg), decorrente de processos naturais e antrópicos. O Parque Nacional do Jaú - PNJ, é o único Parque do Brasil que protege toda a bacia de um rio de água escura (Rio Jaú), terras inundáveis e reservas tropicais, condições que favorecem a metilação do Hg na biota aquática, portanto, expondo a população ribeirinha à contaminação e tornando a região passível de impactação natural por Hg. Estudos preliminares de dietas de préescolares de comunidades do PNJ, têm demonstrado concentrações preocupantes de Hg. O presente estudo avaliou as concentrações de Hg total, de micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se e Zn) e de macronutrientes (proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas, energia e carbohidratos) em dietas de pré-escolares da região do PNJ e outras comunidades próximas. Avaliou-se também os níveis de Hg total e MeHg em amostras de cabelos dessas crianças e também, cabelos de crianças residentes em vários bairros da cidade de Manaus e pescados mais consumidos por essa população. A partir desses resultados, foi possível fazer uma avaliação nutricional das dietas e à exposição ao Hg e MeHg de crianças do PNJ e comunidades próximas...

Efeito da sazonalidade na exposição ao mercúrio e nos marcadores do estresse oxidativo e de inflamação em populações ribeirinhas da Amazônia; Effect of seasonality on mercury exposure, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in riparian populations from the Amazon

Valentini, Juliana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
O mercúrio (Hg), na forma química de metilmercúrio (MeHg) é considerado um dos contaminantes ambientais mais nocivos à saúde humana e ao ambiente, podendo provocar efeitos adversos diversos. A exposição ocorre principalmente pelo consumo de peixes contaminados e é freqüente em populações ribeirinhas da Amazônia Brasileira, incluindo o médio Tapajós. Um dos principais efeitos tóxicos associados à exposição ao MeHg é o estresse oxidativo. Também tem sido relatada a indução do processo inflamatório. Entretanto, a dieta pode modificar consideravelmente os efeitos tóxicos decorrentes da exposição ao MeHg. Além disso, na Região Amazônica a sazonalidade é importante na oferta de alimentos, podendo assim, influenciar nos efeitos da exposição ao Hg, pela diferente oferta de micronutrientes que minimizariam os efeitos após a exposição. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo o de avaliar, em diferentes estações do ano e comunidades ribeirinhas amazônicas, características sociais e demográficas, a exposição ao MeHg, o status de metais essenciais (Cu, Mn, Se e Zn), carotenóides (?-caroteno e licopeno) e vitaminas (A e E) no organismo; bem como os biomarcadores do estresse oxidativo GSH...

Mercury speciation in urban landfill leachate by cold vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry using ion exchange and amalgamation

Dressler, Valderi L.; Pozebon, Dirce; Flores, Éder L.M.; Paniz, José Neri Gottfried; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Foi desenvolvido um sistema em linha para a especiação de Hg orgânico (Hgorg) e Hg inorgânico (Hginorg) em chorume. Clorocomplexos produzidos a partir do Hginorg são separados em uma coluna trocadora de ânions. O Hg retido na coluna é eluído com NaBH4 na presença de HCl. O Hg0 produzido é medido por espectrometria de absorção atômica com geração de vapor frio (CV AAS). O Hgorg, que não fica retido na coluna, é misturado com NaBH4 produzindo espécies voláteis de Hg, as quais são amalgamadas numa rede de Au/Pt. O Hg é removido desta coluna por aquecimento a 600 °C e medido por CV AAS. Para a especiação de Hginorg e Hgorg em chorume, as amostras são centrifugadas, filtradas e tratadas com HCl. Os limites de detecção (3 s) são 9 e 12 ng L-1 de Hg para Hginorg e Hgorg, respectivamente. A freqüência de análise é 22 h-1; This work deals with on line speciation of organic Hg (Hgorg) and inorganic Hg (Hginorg) in urban landfill leachate. Chlorocomplexes of Hginorg are produced in HCl medium and retained on an anion exchange column. The retained Hg is eluted with NaBH4 in presence of HCl. Hg0 is produced and then measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). Hgorg does not interact with the resin and is mixed with NaBH4 at the exit of the column producing volatile species of Hg that are then amalgamated by a gauze of Au/Pt. Mercury is removed from the gauze by heating to 600 °C and subsequently measured by CV AAS. For Hginorg and Hgorg speciation in urban landfill leachate...

Selenite and Selenate Effects on Mercury (Hg2+) Uptake and Distribution in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., Assessed by Chronic Bioassay

Carvalho, G. G. A.; de Franca, J. G.; Dias, D. C.; Lombardi, J. V.; de Paiva, M. J. R.; Carvalho, S.; Sarries, G. A.; Ferreira, J. R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 300-304
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 00/14460-3; Aquatic organisms are considered excellent biomarkers of mercury (Hg) occurrence in the environment. Selenium (Se) acts in antagonism to this metal, stimulating its elimination, and reducing its toxicity. In this paper, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were chronically acclimated in sub-lethal Hg2+, Hg2+ + Se4+ and Hg2+ + Se6+ concentrations. Distribution and bioaccumulation of both elements were evaluated in fish tissues. The kidney was the main target of the Hg and Se uptake, and the presence of Hg induced the Se hepatic elimination. The Hg bioaccumulation in the gill, spleen and heart were higher in the presence of Se6+ than in the presence of Se4+.

Mercury in Amazonian fish from Madeira River basin, Rondonia state, Brazil

Gali, PAS; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; da Silveira, E. G.; Bastos, W. R.; Brebbia, C. A.; Popov, V; Fayzieva, D.
Fonte: Wit Press Publicador: Wit Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 253-262
ENG
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This investigation was carried out at the Madeira River basin, located in the state of Rondonia, Brazilian Amazon. Fish from Madeira, Jaciparana, and Jamari rivers between 7 and 11 degrees parallels south and between 62 and 65 degrees meridians west in Rondonia state, Brazil, were sampled and chemically analyzed for mercury in order to evaluate if the inputs of this metal into the food-chain is occurring in levels reaching values above those recommended by the World Health Organization. This is because such an element is very dangerous when ingested by humans and its presence was extensively identified some years ago in the area, since it was utilized as an amalgam in processes for recovering alluvial gold.

Preference ratios for mercury and other chemical elements in the Madeira River, Brazil

Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; da Silveira, E. G.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 911-923
ENG
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Samples of water, suspended solids, and bottom sediments from the Madeira River, Rondonia state, Brazil, were physically and chemically analyzed to investigate the actual Hg mobilization in the aquatic environment and compare it with that of other heavy metals and elements in the area. Two dimensionless Hg preference ratios were defined, expressing (1) the ratio of Hg and other elements in the liquid phase divided by the ratio of Hg and other elements in bottom sediments (P(l.phase)) and (2) the ratio of Hg and other elements in the particulate matter divided by the ratio of Hg and other elements in bottom sediments (P(s.solids)). These preference ratios are useful for comparing Hg transport in three different phases (liquid, particulate matter, and bottom sediments). They also were applicable to any analyzed elementin the area studied, because they generated an almost constant value when the maximum calculated was divided by the minimum (P(l.phase) = 2931; P(s.solids) = 84) and because of their sensitivity to the dominance of sorption processes by Fe oxides and hydroxides. Mercury could be transported preferentially to other analyzed elements in the particulate phase only if its concentration reached values at least 10(4)-fold higher than those expected or quantified in the area. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury

Ishikawa, Nilton Massuo; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares; Lombardi, Julio Vicente; Ferreira, Cláudia Maris
Fonte: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Publicador: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 619-626
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos...

Cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of ceftazidime with reactive accumulation at a poly-L-lysine modified hanging mercury drop electrode

Ferreira, V. S.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Fogg, A. G.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 159-166
ENG
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Ceftazidime is hydrolysed only slowly at pH 10 at room temperature. This is indicated by a small cathodic stripping voltammetric peak obtained at pH 10 at a hanging mercury drop electrode at about -0.6 V which corresponds to the reduction of the hydrolysis product. This peak is enhanced more than tenfold by the addition of poly-L-lysine (PLL) to the electrolyte solution. The optimum accumulation potential is between 0 and -0.1 V: the size of the peak decreases steadily, however, as the accumulation potential is moved to more negative potentials and is about one-sixth the size for accumulation at -0.4 V. Existing knowledge of the organic chemistry of cephalosporins indicates that the accumulation must involve an aminolysis reaction of the unprotonated PLL with the beta-lactam ring of the ceftazidime. The limit of detection (3 sigma) in standard solutions was calculated to be 1 x 10(-10) mol l(-1). The detection limit in buffer solution containing 1% of urine was calculated to be 5 x 10(-9) mol l(-1), i.e. 5 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) in the urine. (C) 1999 Elsevier B.V. B.V. AU rights reserved.

Simultaneous determination of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry using a glassy carbon-mercury-film electrode

de Oliveira, M. F.; Saczk, A. A.; Okumura, L. L.; Fernandes, A. P.; de Moraes, M.; Stradiotto, N. R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 135-140
ENG
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A new, versatile, and simple method for quantitative analysis of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry is described. These metals can be quantified by direct dissolution of fuel ethanol in water and subsequent voltammetric measurement after the accumulation step. A maximum limit of 20% (v/v) ethanol in water solution was obtained for voltammetric measurements without loss of sensitivity for metal species. Chemical and operational optimum conditions were analyzed in this study; the values obtained were pH 2.9, a 4.7-mum thickness mercury film, a 1,000-rpm rotation frequency of the working electrode, and a 600-s pre-concentration time. Voltammetric measurements were obtained using linear scan (LSV), differential pulse (DPV), and square wave (SWV) modes and detection limits were in the range 10(-9)-10(-8) mol L-1 for these metal species. The proposed method was compared with a traditional analytical technique, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), for quantification of these metal species in commercial fuel ethanol samples.

Contribution to the study of the reaction of mercury with platinum and a platinum-iridium alloy

Fertonani, F. L.; Benedetti, A. V.; Ionashiro, M.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 151-161
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Thermogravimetry (TG) and other analysis techniques have been used to study the reaction of mercury with Pt and a PtIr alloy. The results suggested that, when heated, the electrodeposited Hg film reacts with Pt or with PtIr to form products of different stabilities, indicated by at least three weight loss steps. In the first step, between room temperature and 170°C, only the bulk Hg is removed. From this temperature to about 280°C the mass loss can be attributed to the desorption of a monolayer of mecury. The last step, from 280 to ≈600°C, can be ascribed to the removal of Hg from a solid solution with Pt and PtIr alloy. © 1995.

Interaction of mercury(II) with humic substances from the Rio Negro (Amazonas State, Brazil) by means of an ion exchange procedure

Rocha, Julio C.; De Sene, Jeosadaque J.; Burba, Peter; Klockow, Dieter
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 79-84
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
The aquatic humic substances (HS) investigated in this study with respect to their binding capability towards mercury(II) were isolated from the river Rio Negro, Amazonas State - Brazil, by means of the adsorbent XAD 8. Labile/inert fractions of inorganic Hg(II) complexes formed with these HS were characterized using an ion-exchange batch and column technique, respectively, based on Chelite S. This collector exhibits high Hg(II) distribution coefficients, Kd, up to the order of 104 decreasing, however, in the case of small Hg(II)/HS ratios (< 0.1 μg Hg(II) / mg HS). The influence of different complexation parameters (ratio of Hg(II)/HS, pH, contact time, complexing time) relevant for Hg(II) binding in aquatic environments was assessed. The Hg(II) lability in dissolved HS is mainly influenced by the mass ratio of Hg(II)/HS and the ageing of Hg(II)-HS species formed. This is particularly obvious in the case of low Hg(II) loading of HS where slow transformation processes of freshly formed Hg(II)-HS species significantly decrease their lability, leading to incomplete recoveries (< 20%) of the total Hg(II) bound to HS.