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Orbital blow-out fractures: correlation of preoperative computed tomography and postoperative ocular motility.

Harris, G J; Garcia, G H; Logani, S C; Murphy, M L; Sheth, B P; Seth, A K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although the management of orbital blow-out fractures was controversial for many years, refined imaging with computed tomography (CT) helped to narrow the poles of the debate. Many orbital surgeons currently recommend repair if fracture size portends late enophthalmos, or if diplopia has not substantially resolved within 2 weeks of the injury. While volumetric considerations have been generally well-served by this approach, ocular motility outcomes have been less than ideal. In one series, almost 50% of patients had residual diplopia 6 months after surgery. A fine network of fibrous septa that functionally unites the periosteum of the orbital floor, the inferior fibrofatty tissues, and the sheaths of the inferior rectus and oblique muscles was demonstrated by Koornneef. Entrapment between bone fragments of any of the components of this anatomic unit can limit ocular motility. Based on the pathogenesis of blow-out fractures, in which the fibrofatty-muscular complex is driven to varying degrees between bone fragments, some measure of soft tissue damage might be anticipated. Subsequent intrinsic fibrosis and contraction can tether globe movement, despite complete reduction of herniated orbital tissue from the fracture site. We postulated that the extent of this soft tissue damage might be estimated from preoperative imaging studies. METHODS: Study criteria included: retrievable coronal CT scans; fractures of the orbital floor without rim involvement...

The role of needle exchange programs in HIV prevention.

Vlahov, D; Junge, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 EN
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Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne pathogens. In the United States, IDUs account for nearly one-third of the cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), either directly or indirectly (heterosexual and perinatal cases of AIDS where the source of infection was an IDU). IDU also account for a substantial proportion of cases of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infections. The primary mode of transmission of HIV among IDUs is parenteral, through direct needle sharing or multiperson use of syringes. Despite high levels of knowledge about risk, multiperson use of needles and syringes is due primarily to fear of arrest and incarceration for violation of drug paraphernalia laws and ordinances that prohibit manufacture, sale, distribution, or possession of equipment and materials intended to be used with narcotics. It is estimated that in 1997 there were approximately 110 needle exchange programs (NEPs) in North America. In part, because of the ban on the use of Federal funds for the operation of needle exchange, it has been difficult to evaluate the efficacy of these programs. This chapter presents data from the studies that have evaluated the role of NEPs in HIV prevention. Evidence for the efficacy of NEPs comes from three source: (1) studies originally focused on the effectiveness of NEPs in non-HIV blood-borne infections...

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a California State Prison, 1991.

Koo, D T; Baron, R C; Rutherford, G W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: An investigation was conducted to determine whether ongoing transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was occurring in a California state prison. METHOD: Prison pharmacy records were used to identify cases of active tuberculosis (TB). RESULTS: Ten of the 18 cases of active TB treated at the facility during 1991 were diagnosed at the prison that same year (an incidence of 184 per 100,000). Three inmates were infectious for a total of 7 months while imprisoned. The prevalence of TB skin test-positivity among inmates was 30%, and the incidence of new infection attributable to incarceration was 5.9 per 100 inmates per year. CONCLUSIONS: Transmission of M. tuberculosis may be occurring in the California prison system.

Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS.

Self-reported health and prior health behaviors of newly admitted correctional inmates.

Conklin, T J; Lincoln, T; Tuthill, R W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: This study obtained comprehensive health information from newly admitted correctional inmates. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 1198 inmates on day 3 of their incarceration. RESULTS: Interviewers found a high prevalence of chronic medical and mental health issues, limited access to health care, high rates of infections and sexually transmitted diseases, substantial substance abuse, other unhealthy behaviors and violence, and a strong desire for help with health-related problems. CONCLUSIONS: The data document the need to apply the public health approach to correctional health care, including detection and early treatment of disease, education and prevention to facilitate health and behavior change, and continuity of care into the community.

Women in jail: is substance abuse treatment enough?

Alemagno, S A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the self-reported needs of women in jail who indicated a need for drug abuse services. METHODS: A total of 165 interviews were conducted of women held in a large, urban county jail in Ohio in May 1999. RESULTS: Drug-abusing women were more likely to report a need for housing, mental health counseling, education, job training, medical care, family support, and parenting assistance when released from jail. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of drug abuse treatment referrals to women in jail may not break the continual cycle of drug use and incarceration if other needs cannot be addressed.

Rearrest Rates After Incarceration for DWI: A Comparative Study in a Southwestern US County

Kunitz, Stephen J.; Woodall, W. Gill; Zhao, Hongwei; Wheeler, Denise R.; Lillis, Robert; Rogers, Everett
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2002 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2002
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objectives. This study was undertaken to assess a 28-day detention and treatment program’s effect, in a multiethnic county with high rates of alcohol-related arrests and crashes, on first-time offenders sentenced for driving while impaired (DWI).

Violence and Health: The United States in a Global Perspective

Mercy, James A.; Krug, Etienne G.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Zwi, Anthony B.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2003 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2003
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 EN
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Violence is a public health problem that can be understood and changed. Research over the past 2 decades has demonstrated that violence can be prevented and that, in some cases, prevention programs are more cost-effective than other policy options such as incarceration.

INCARCERATION AS A PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS

Young, April M. W.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%

Fatal hemorrhage associated with incarceration of small intestine by the epiploic foramen in three horses

Livesey, Michael A.; Little, Christopher B.; Boyd, Christie
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%

DISPROPORTIONATE RATES OF INCARCERATION CONTRIBUTE TO HEALTH DISPARITIES

Gaiter, Juarlyn L.; Potter, Roberto H.; O’Leary, Ann
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%

Outbreak in Alberta of community-acquired (USA300) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people with a history of drug use, homelessness or incarceration

Gilbert, Mark; MacDonald, Judy; Gregson, Dan; Siushansian, Jennifer; Zhang, Kunyan; Elsayed, Sameer; Laupland, Kevin; Louie, Tom; Hope, Karen; Mulvey, Michael; Gillespie, John; Nielsen, Diane; Wheeler, Virginia; Louie, Marie; Honish, Agnes; Keays, Gloria;
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%

Hepatitis B vaccination practices in state and federal prisons.

Charuvastra, A.; Stein, J.; Schwartzapfel, B.; Spaulding, A.; Horowitz, E.; Macalino, G.; Rich, J. D.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
OBJECTIVE: Incarcerated populations are a group at high risk for hepatitis B. About 30% of people experiencing acute hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) have a history of incarceration. Offering routine HBV vaccinations to incarcerated individuals could have a significant effect on public health. The objective of this study is to identify current vaccine practices and the perceived feasibility of routine vaccinations for hepatitis B within correctional settings. METHOD: The authors surveyed the medical directors of state correctional facilities in all 50 states and the federal prison system regarding current HBV vaccine practices. Surveys were faxed or mailed between July 1 and September 1, 2000. RESULTS: Thirty-five states and the federal system responded (response rate = 70.6%). These systems account for 77% of all inmates in federal or state prisons and jails. Two states give hepatitis B vaccine routinely, nine states offer no hepatitis B vaccine, and 26 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons offer hepatitis vaccine to some inmates. Most states do not spend enough money to vaccinate even those prisoners at highest risk. Under the Vaccine for Children program, 19,520 youths could receive vaccine immediately. According to the respondents...

Who are "the homeless"? Reconsidering the stability and composition of the homeless population.

Phelan, J C; Link, B G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the extent to which the use of point-prevalence samples biases conclusions drawn about homeless people. METHODS: Three data sets and published research were used to examine the degree to which conditions leading to point-prevalence bias (turnover in the homeless population, variability in the persistence of homelessness, and associations between personal characteristics and persistence) characterize the homeless population. Results were compared from point-prevalence studies concerning persistence of homelessness and characteristics of homeless people with those from a study of formerly homeless people. RESULTS: Conditions leading to point-prevalence bias strongly characterize the homeless population. Moreover, profiles of homeless people differed dramatically between point-prevalence studies and the study of formerly homeless people. In the former, average duration of homelessness was longer, and samples included higher proportions of men, minorities, non-high school graduates, and people with histories of psychiatric hospitalization, incarceration, and detoxification. CONCLUSIONS: Reliance on point-prevalence samples, when such samples are generalized beyond the currently homeless population, leads to overestimations of the persistence of homelessness...

Mortality among homeless shelter residents in New York City.

Barrow, S M; Herman, D B; Córdova, P; Struening, E L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the rates and predictors of mortality among sheltered homeless men and women in New York City. METHODS: Identifying data on a representative sample of shelter residents surveyed in 1987 were matched against national mortality records for 1987 through 1994. Standardized mortality ratios were computed to compare death rates among homeless people with those of the general US and New York City populations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine predictors of mortality within the homeless sample. RESULTS: Age-adjusted death rates of homeless men and women were 4 times those of the general US population and 2 to 3 times those of the general population of New York City. Among homeless men, prior use of injectable drugs, incarceration, and chronic homelessness increased the likelihood of death. CONCLUSIONS: For homeless shelter users, chronic homelessness itself compounds the high risk of death associated with disease/disability and intravenous drug use. Interventions must address not only the health conditions of the homeless but also the societal conditions that perpetuate homelessness.

Estimates of economic costs of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness, 1985 and 1988.

Rice, D P; Kelman, S; Miller, L S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
The high prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness imposes a substantial financial burden on those affected and on society. The authors present estimates of the economic costs from these causes for 1985 and 1988, based on current and reliable data available from national surveys and the use of new costing methodology. The total losses to the economy related to alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness for 1988 are estimated at $273.3 billion. The estimate includes $85.8 billion for alcohol abuse, $58.3 billion for drug abuse, and $129.3 billion for mental illness. The total estimated costs for 1985, $218.1 billion, include $51.4 billion for direct treatment and support costs; $80.8 billion for morbidity costs, the value of reduced or lost productivity; $35.8 billion for mortality costs, the value of foregone future productivity for the 140,593 premature deaths associated with these disorders, based on a 6 percent discount rate and including an imputed value for housekeeping services; and $47.5 billion in other related costs, including the costs of crime, motor vehicle crashes, fire destruction, and the value of productivity losses for victims of crime, incarceration, crime careers, and caregiver services. The cost of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with drug abuse is estimated at $1 billion...

Prisoners as medical patients.

Krupp, L B; Gelberg, E A; Wormser, G P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1987 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Nonpsychiatric and nonobstetrical principal diagnoses of 527 prison inmates discharged in 1981 from one referral hospital were reviewed. Male prisoners had the following discharge diagnoses more frequently than an age-matched and sex-matched sample of the general population: lymphadenopathy, viral hepatitis, foreign body insertion into the gastrointestinal tract, dental caries, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Some differences may be due to lifestyles preceding incarceration, others may result from conditions of the prison environment.

UNDESCENDED TESTICLE COMPLICATING ACUTE APPENDICITIS*

Herzig, Maximilian L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1924 EN
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1. Symptoms referable to compression of the spermatic cord and incarceration of right testicle, obscure the underlying pathologic changes occurring in the vermiform appendix.

Impact of California’s Proposition 36 on the Drug Treatment System: Treatment Capacity and Displacement

Hser, Yih-Ing; Teruya, Cheryl; Brown, Alison H.; Huang, David; Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2007 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2007
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
Objectives. California’s Proposition 36 offers nonviolent drug offenders community-based treatment as an alternative to incarceration or probation without treatment. We examined how treatment capacity changed to accommodate Proposition 36 clients and whether displacement of other clients was an unintended consequence.

Lumbar hernia: a rare cause of large bowel obstruction

Hide, I; Pike, E; Uberoi, R
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We describe a 70-year-old woman presenting with large bowel obstruction secondary to incarceration of the mid descending colon within a lumbar hernia. This was diagnosed on barium enema and successfully treated surgically.


Keywords: hernia; intestinal obstruction; colon