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9.59J / 24.905J Psycholinguistics, Fall 2002; Psycholinguistics

Gibson, Edward Albert Fletcher
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Central topics in language processing. The structure of language. Sentence processing. Discourse processing. Morphological processing. The storage and access of words in the mental dictionary. Speech processing. The relationship between the computational resources available in working memory and the language processing mechanism. Ambiguity resolution. Discussion of computational modeling, including connectionist models. The relationship between language and thought. Issues in language acquisition including critical period phenomena, the acquisition of speech, and the acquisition of words. Experimental methodologies such as self-paced reading, eye-tracking, cross-modal priming, and neural imaging methods. From the course home page: Highlights of this Course The ability to communicate arbitrary ideas through thin air via sound waves is a complex and fascinating process. In this course we will study how language is represented, processed and acquired, with a concentration on how language is comprehended in real time. Language is structured at many levels: sounds are structured into morphemes; morphemes are structured into words; words are structured into sentences; and sentences are structured into discourses. In this course, we will concentrate mostly on information processing above the word level. We will also discuss sound and word-level information processing...

21H.411 History of Western Thought, 500-1300, Spring 2003; History of Western Thought, 500-1300

McCants, Anne E. C. (Anne Elizabeth Conger), 1962-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Examines the development of the western intellectual tradition from the fall of the Roman Empire through the High Middle Ages. Basic premise is that the triumph of Christianity in Europe was not the inevitable outcome it appears from hindsight. Attention is therefore focused not only on the development of Christian thought and practice, but on its challengers as well. Particular emphasis devoted to Nordic paganism, the rise of Islam, Byzantine orthodoxy, indigenous heretical movements, and the ambiguous position of Jews in European society.

Novos rumos do saber contemporâneo: problematizando o pensamento científico através do diálogo entre duas vertentes epistemológicas – Gaston Bachelard e Edgar Morin

Oliveira, Caroline Terra de; Rodrigues, Victor Hugo Guimarães
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar o diálogo entre dois epistemólogos, Gaston Bachelard e Edgar Morin, enfatizando a crítica construída em relação ao pensamento científico clássico, principalmente, sobre a concepção determinista e a mecânica do mundo formulada por Descartes. Neste sentido, destaca-se a contribuição dos autores no que tange à reflexão sobre a ciência e construção do conhecimento e o imperativo desafio de nos orientarmos por um pensamento complexo que contextualize e interligue os problemas vivenciados atualmente.; The aim of this article is to emphasize the dialogue between two epistemologists, Gaston Bachelard and Edgar Morin, emphasizing the constructed critics in relation to the classic scientific thought, primarily, about the deterministic conception and the mechanics of the world formulated by Descartes. So, it is distinguished the contribution of the authors in what it refers to the reflexion about the science and construction of the knowledge and the imperative challenge of guiding us by a complex thought that contextualize and establishes a connection with the problems lived in the present time.

Gaston Bachelard e Edgar Morin: di??logos sobre a complexidade

Rodrigues, Victor Hugo Guimar??es; Oliveira, Caroline Terra de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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O interesse deste artigo ?? problematizar o di??logo entre dois epistem??logos, Gaston Bachelard e Edgar Morin, enfatizando a cr??tica constru??da em rela????o ao pensamento cient??fico cl??ssico, principalmente, sobre a concep????o determinista e mec??nica do mundo formulado por Descartes. Neste sentido, destaca-se a contribui????o dos autores no que tange ?? reflex??o sobre a ci??ncia e constru????o do conhecimento e o imperativo desafio de nos orientarmos por um pensamento complexo que contextualize e interligue os problemas vivenciados atualmente.; The interest of this article is to emphasize the dialogue between two epistem??logos, Gaston Bachelard e Edgar Morin, emphasizing the critical constructed n relation to the classic scientific thought, primarily, about the mechanics of the world formulated for Descartes. So, is distinguished the contribution of the authors in what it refers the reflection about the science and construction of the knowledge and the imperative challenge of in guiding them for a complex thought that establishs connection with the problems lived in presente time.

O ensino da história e o pensamento reflexivo-crítico da professora no 3º ano do Ensino Fundamental

Medeiros, Maria de Fátima Gomes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This collaborative research is a qualitative approach, from historical and cultural perspective, made about a teacher of third grade of basic education in the area of history, in the municipality of Caicó / RN. It has as objective to investigate, in a collaborative action, if the design process of teaching and learning the discipline of history based on the relationship before / after allows the development of critical reflective thinking of the teacher in school practices. The theoretical and methodological approaches are supported in the postulates of Vygotsky (1998), Rubinstein (1973) and Linblinskaia (1979), among others, whose understanding has led us to reflect if the teacher develops the reflective critical-thinking in history discipline classes. The complexity of the study led us to an analysis exercise, using different methodological procedures, such as: bibliographic review of the literature, considering also the literature of the history area, interviews, observation in the classroom, video recordings and reflective sessions, enabling clarify the construction and reconstruction of thought that the teacher had been developing during the process of teaching and learning. The test results point to a dichotomy between theory and practice...

Dançando com gatos e passáros: O movimento ecossistêmico da ludopoiese na educação infantil

Pinheiro, Evanir de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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This study shows the movement of educators ludopoiese ecosystem of the Center for Early Childhood Education Marise Paiva-CEIMAP. We used the metaphorof dance as an opportunity to stimulate scientific creativity. Ecosystem Thought, complex thinking, the theory of autopoiesis and Flow Theory, constituted the main theoretical steps to understand the phenomenon of ludopoiese, from the look of your totalidadem with the following objectives: 1 - Identify and interpret the process of self ludopoiética CEIMAP of Early Childhood Educators in the actions of the play, care for and educate in school life; 2 - Analyze Ecosystem Thought from ludopoiéticos how these processes affect and / or possible changes and transformations in practice humanescenteseducational CEIMAP. The theoretical metodógicos steps to address the proposed objectives are grounded in existential action research part of the appreciation of the complexity of the real, considering the human being a whole dynamic. In this sense the game of sand, recreational experiences, the systematic studies and video training were explored with a view to the transdisciplinary relevance of everyday phenomena. New knowledge acquired in accordance with the directions given indicating the movement of the ecosystem studied ludopoiese educators...

Pensamentos dispersos, hegemonias concentradoras: discursos jornalísticos e movimentos de territorialização no cerrado; Dispersed thoughts, concentrators hegemonies: journalistic discourses and movements of territorialization in the cerrado

Borges, Rosana Maria Ribeiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (IESA); Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais - IESA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (IESA); Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais - IESA (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This Thesis aims to analyze the relationship of journalistic discourses with the movements of territorialization in the Cerrado. One of the main assumptions is the understanding that ownership and capture of the territories includes their meanings. Then, in the contemporary world, the territorialization relates also to what is reported by the vehicles of journalism and communication, which select, edit and broadcast news. These institutions are not loose in the world: are part of the networks that make up part of the dispute, and most of them follows the logic of power and capital. In the condition of a territory in a dispute material and symbolic, the Cerrado is wrapped by problematic that transposing the degeneration of the biome and ways of life when interconnect up to what it is meaning. This fact implies on the perception that the processes of territorialization in Cerrado permeate there senses, thare are made and disseminated through discourses and images nothing neutral, that integrate many networks, such as economic, ideological, political, power, media, journalism and communication. This fact implies on the perception that the processes of territorialization in Cerrado permeates the meaning, that are made and disseminated through discourses and images nothing neutral...

Las visiones y los mundos: depredación, transformación y equilibrio en discursos de la Amazonía occidental

Favaron Peyón, Pedro M.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ES
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Ce travail se veut d’un rapprochement aux pratiques et savoirs des peuples amazoniens à partir de discours produits par ces nations. Nous y interpréterons des chants sacrés, des narrations ancestrales et des textes académiques de penseurs autochtones. Ce travail indique que les pratiques amazoniennes s’inscrivent dans un contexte de significations qui considèrent que tout être vivant possède des pensées et un esprit; qu’il existe des êtres spirituels qui défendent ces êtres vivants contre les abus possibles. Les êtres humains doivent transcender leur état de conscience, se déplacer vers les mondes invisibles et initier la communication avec ces esprits, pour ainsi maintenir l’équilibre existentiel. Selon les pensées de l’Amazonie, les communautés humaines ne peuvent pas se concevoir comme autosuffisantes; elles doivent plutôt maintenir de constantes relations avec les multiples êtres qui peuplent leur environnement visible et les mondes invisibles. Les trois concepts clés qui permettent de rendre compte des pratiques des peuples amazoniens sont la déprédation, la transformation et l’équilibre. Par déprédation, nous entendons les pratiques amazoniennes qui impliquent une destruction des autres êtres afin de sustenter la vie de la communauté. Selon les pensées de l’Amazonie...

Legado y contribución del pensamiento carare a la construcción de paz en Colombia

Amaya Panche, Johanna
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: masterThesis; Trabajo de Grado Maestría Formato: application/pdf
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Este trabajo de grado tiene por objeto analizar el legado y contribución del pensamiento Carare a la construcción de paz en Colombia. Se contrastan los conceptos de paz, justicia y perdón de las comunidades de la ATCC y de la Comunidad de paz Carare con los conceptos de justicia transicional en Colombia. Para este fin se establecen los fundamentos del pensamiento Carare originario en relación con los casos de la ATCC y de la Comunidad de paz Carare con la normatividad colombiana vigente: la Ley de Justicia y Paz y la Ley de víctimas y restitución de tierras, para así establecer las lecciones de estas experiencias de paz para la construcción de paz en Colombia. Se implementa la metodología de teoría fundamentada con el fin de construir los conceptos a partir de la información recopilada en el trabajo de campo, con el fin de re-conocer la voz de los campesinos, indígenas y mestizos entrevistados como sabedores y constructores de paz, sin imponer marcos teóricos previos, con el fin de dar a conocer el pensamiento de paz de los colombianos y latinoamericanos que conceptualizan, viven y enseñan la paz.; The degree work is to analyze the legacy and contribution of Carare thought to building peace in Colombia. Contrasts the concepts of peace...

Think Like An Owner: Identifying the Characteristics that Are Important for Ownership-like Thought in the Hospitality Industry

Elworth, Jeffery D.; Beck, Jeffery A.; Cichy, Ronald F.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Companies want recruits who “think like an owner”; that is, managers who demonstrate entrepreneurial aptitude and skills, think on their feet, and possess good problem-solving abilities. This exploratory study sought to identify the characteristics important for ownership-like thought in the hospitality industry. A questionnaire based on a review of entrepreneurship literature drew responses from 182 hotel and restaurant industry operators, executives, and owners. Results suggested six factors or characteristics that lead to ownership-like thought or behavior.

“Often we are deceived, and we suffer glaucoma”. Rethinking Legal Humanism in the History of the Western Rights Tradition

LONGFIELD KARR, Susan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This working paper argues for renewed attention by scholars of early modern political and legal thought as to how and why humanist jurists invoked the authority of rights—natural and customary—to legitimize or to critique the expansion of authority underway within Europe in the early sixteenth century. It suggests that attention to legal humanists’ discussions of natural law, ius, and ius gentium can offer new insights into one of the most complex problems addressed within the literature: the transformation of natural rights into human rights within the history of early modern political and legal thought. As such this working paper consists primarily of a review of the historiography, wherein legal humanism is either characterized as an incongruity, is dismissed, or is omitted altogether from the history of modern rights theories. After exploring the dominant literature, this essay then provides a broad comparative overview of why it is worth revisiting legal humanism for historians and human rights scholars alike.

Passions and the German Enlightenment: The political thought of J.H.G. von Justi

NOKKALA, Ere Pertti
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This thesis is the first comprehensive interpretation of J.H.G. von Justi’s political and international thought. It demonstrates that the intellectual world of Justi was much more diverse and open than has previously been admitted. The same is true of the tradition of cameralism which has been largely misunderstood. Cameralism was not an obstacle for the reception of natural law theories that emphasised the passionate and self-interested side of the human nature. On the contrary, it was Justi who built his sciences of state on the foundation of natural law. So far those scholars who have admitted the importance of the natural law to Justi - with the exception of Horst Dreitzel - have fallen back on the idea that the natural law Justi adopted was that of Christian Wolff, an interpretation which is in itself another sign of the belief that German enlightenment was a unitary movement. However, it was the natural law of Schmauss and not of Wolff on which Justi built his theory of the state and similarly, of international relations. The German enlightenment was not a singular movement solely in the hands of rationalist metaphysicians. One of the guiding lines of this thesis is that Justi’s entire thought was constructed to oppose this tradition.; Defense date: 14/10/2010; Examining Board: Prof. Martin van Gelderen (European University Institute) supervisor Prof. Hans Erich Bödeker (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) external supervisor Prof. Pasi Ihalainen (University of Jyväskylä) Prof. Sebastian Conrad (European University Institute)

Food for Thought ... on Validation / Vor- und Nachdenkliches... zur Validierung

HARTUNG THOMAS
Fonte: SPEKTRUM AKADEMISCHER VERLAG Publicador: SPEKTRUM AKADEMISCHER VERLAG
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
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Publishing a scientific journal in the internet era is an enormous challenge: Articles are commonly retrieved by browsing databases, with the consequence that fewer and fewer people hold the journal in their hands and actually screen the contents of an issue. Many miss what makes a scientific journal different from a repository of articles - the active forum of exchange of a specific section of the scientific community. With my new series of "Food for Thought" articles ALTEX aims to enhance this form of communication by providing a very personal view on topics in the field of alternative methods that might need some more thought. As a first topic I have chosen the core of ECVAM’s business, validation itself. I want to share and discuss a couple of thoughts, identified problems and emerging solutions, but not give final answers. Comments and feedback are more than welcome as is active participation in driving the field toward solutions for these open problems.; JRC.I.2-Validation of biomedical testing methods

Islam y pol??tica en Marruecos: una aproximaci??n a la lectura hist??rica de Muhammad ???bid al-??abri

Mac??as Amoretti, Juan A.
Fonte: Granada: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Granada: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ES
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El presente art??culo constituye una breve aproximaci??n a la concepci??n ???hist??rica??? del pensamiento del fil??sofo marroqu?? Muhammad ???bid al-??abri (1936), a trav??s de su particular lectura de las relaciones entre lo ???religioso??? y lo ???pol??tico??? en el pensamiento pol??tico ??rabe y marroqu??.; Deals briefly with the ???historical??? conception of Thought by the Moroccan Scholar Muhammad ???bid al-yabri (1936), trough the analysis of his particular view of the relations between ???religious??? and ???political??? aspects in Arab and Moroccan Political Thought.

Teor??a y pr??ctica en la historia de las ideas. Implicaciones para la antropolog??a aplicada

Gim??nez Romero, Carlos
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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Este texto es el primero de una serie de trabajos del autor orientados a la fundamentaci??n de la antropolog??a pr??ctica. Se parte de que la fundamentaci??n conceptual de la ciencia social aplicada en general y, en particular, de la antropolog??a aplicada, implicada y con orientaci??n p??blica, requiere de una posici??n razonada con respecto a la relaci??n entre teor??a y pr??ctica. En el texto se revisan las aportaciones de Arist??teles, Vico, Kant y Marx a partir de cuatro obras claves, toda ellas aut??nticos hitos en lo que se refiere a los nexos entre pensamiento y acci??n. En el ensayo se argumenta que es preciso superar la concepci??n hegem??nica de relaci??n unidireccional -de la teor??a a la pr??ctica- que reduce dicha conexi??n relaci??n a la mera cuesti??n de la aplicaci??n. A partir de los autores mencionados, y como hilos conductores de sucesivos ensayos sobre otros autores y obras claves, se plantea la triple necesidad de: a) reconocer la pluralidad de saberes, b) precisar la noci??n de teor??a y pr??ctica, c) otorgar primeridad a la pr??ctica y d) considerar el conjunto de v??nculos existentes entre pensamiento y acci??n. Las conexiones entre pr??ctica y teor??a se sistematizan en cuatro procesos y momentos: (I) la generaci??n de toda teor??a en contextos pr??cticos...

Presentation

Acero Fern??ndez, Juan Jos??; Rodr??guez Consuegra, Francisco
Fonte: Universidad del Pa??s Vasco Publicador: Universidad del Pa??s Vasco
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Since the two of us have been very interested in the language-thought relationship for a long time, we decided we should start working together somehow, and we proposed the idea of a special issue to Theoria. Our specific interest in this classic problem is try-ing to avoid a purely philosophical approach (i. e., the attempt to identify and solve some of the numerous problems by only using conceptual analysis). In addition to conceptual analysis, which is always needed in dealing with notions so difficult and elusive as language and thought, we wanted to look for approaches that were charac-terized by the explicit effort to take into special consideration some form of empirical evidence. With this goal in mind, we invited philosophers who have been working on the problem with an eye on empirical results, and scientists whose publications showed not only relevant results for the problem, but also philosophical interest. The stature of the authors who accepted to participate in the project is so remarkable that we must start by expressing our gratitude to all of them here.

Truth matters: normativity in thought and knowledge

Pinedo Garc??a, Manuel de
Fonte: Universidad del Pa??s Vasco Publicador: Universidad del Pa??s Vasco
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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A proposal to account for the objectivity of thought and language in terms of identity between facts, meanings and contents is offered. Furthermore, their normativity is related to their world involving character. Both proposals are jointly quietist: they avoid philosophical theorizing that explains thought in terms of world or viceversa.

El pensamiento político y económico de José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia: 1814-1840; José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia's political and economic thought: 1814-1840 

Nuñez, Ronald Leon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2015 PT
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O presente trabalho busca analisar e interpretar o pensamento político e econômico do Dr. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia [1766-1840], reconhecido intelectual, dirigente da independência paraguaia e Ditador Supremo daquele país entre 1814 e 1840. A partir da correspondência pessoal, ordens e decretos escritos pelo ditador paraguaio, propõe-se compreender distintas facetas de seu pensamento e, em certa medida, compará-las com determinadas ações de seu governo. Este estudo está contextualizado por uma descrição geral das características econômicas, políticas e sociais do Paraguai, desde a Colônia até o começo do processo da independência sul-americana e a posterior ascensão política do doutor Francia, determinada, por sua vez, pelas vicissitudes da crise regional que levou à conformação de Estados nacionais na Bacia do Prata.; The purpose of this research is to analyze and interpret the political and economical thought of Dr. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia [1766-1840], a recognized intellectual, leader of the Paraguayan independence and countrys Supreme Dictator between 1814 and 1840. From personal correspondence, orders and decrees written by the Paraguayan dictator, the research aims at understanding different aspects of his thought and...

A exploração de padrões num contexto de tarefas de investigação com alunos do 8º ano de escolaridade

Barbosa, Elsa Maria de Figueiredo Isabelinho Domingues
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
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Aprender Matemática, tem hoje um significado diferente. A Matemática deve preparar os alunos para um estudo contínuo e para a resolução de uma variedade de problemas na escola, em casa e em situações profissionais. A passagem da Aritmética para a Álgebra é uma das grandes dificuldades dos alunos e os professores devem diversificar estratégias permitindo, aos seus alunos, desenvolver o pensamento algébrico. Pretende-se compreender o significado da utilização, na sala de aula, de padrões num contexto de tarefas de investigação de forma a melhorar o desenvolvimento do pensamento algébrico. Foram criadas quatro questões de investigação que abordam temas como: (1) a imagem da Matemática; (2) conexões matemáticas; (3) o entendimento da Álgebra; e (4) a comunicação matemática. O estudo foi realizado numa turma de oitavo ano de escolaridade. Optou-se por uma abordagem de investigação qualitativa e interpretativa. Trata-se de um estudo de dois casos qualitativo e analítico. O investigador assume os papéis de investigador- instrumento e observador-participante. Foram recolhidos dados através de questionários, entrevistas, observação direta de aulas e relatórios escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a exploração de padrões num contexto de tarefas de investigação pode contribuir para o entendimento da Álgebra...

El pensamiento complejo de Edgar Morin. Cr??ticas, incomprensiones y revisiones necesarias

Solana Ruiz, Jos?? Luis
Fonte: Pedro G??mez Publicador: Pedro G??mez
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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El antrop??logo Carlos Reynoso, de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, ha lanzado en varias de sus publicaciones un conjunto de cr??ticas al paradigma de la complejidad de Edgar Morin. Se analizan y valoran aqu?? las que realiza en su libro Complejidad y caos, en particular las que tienen que ver con dos n??cleos fundamentales del pensamiento de Morin: su propuesta de un pensamiento complejo y su concepci??n sobre la complejidad. En relaci??n a ello, se caracterizan los sistemas adaptativos complejos y se exponen algunas ideas de Murray Gell-Mann sobre la complejidad.; The anthropologist Carlos Reynoso, of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in several of his publications, has presented a set of critiques of Edgar Morin's complexity paradigm. Here, the criticisms of the book Complejidad y caos (Complexity and Chaos) are analysed and evaluated, especially those related to two fundamental cores of Morin's thought: his proposal of complex thought and his conception of complexity. In relation to this, the complex adaptive systems are characterized and some of Murray Gell-Mann's ideas on the complexity are examined.