Página 16 dos resultados de 6664 itens digitais encontrados em 0.013 segundos

STANDARDIZATION FOR SUBGROUP ANALYSIS IN RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

Varadhan, Ravi; Wang, Sue-Jane
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) emphasize the average or overall effect of a treatment (ATE) on the primary endpoint. Even though the ATE provides the best summary of treatment efficacy, it is of critical importance to know whether the treatment is similarly efficacious in important, predefined subgroups. This is why the RCTs, in addition to the ATE, also present the results of subgroup analysis for preestablished subgroups. Typically, these are marginal subgroup analysis in the sense that treatment effects are estimated in mutually exclusive subgroups defined by only one baseline characteristic at a time (e.g., men versus women, young versus old). Forest plot is a popular graphical approach for displaying the results of subgroup analysis. These plots were originally used in meta-analysis for displaying the treatment effects from independent studies. Treatment effect estimates of different marginal subgroups are, however, not independent. Correlation between the subgrouping variables should be addressed for proper interpretation of forest plots, especially in large effectiveness trials where one of the goals is to address concerns about the generalizability of findings to various populations. Failure to account for the correlation between the subgrouping variables can result in misleading (confounded) interpretations of subgroup effects. Here we present an approach called standardization...

ADReCS: an ontology database for aiding standardization and hierarchical classification of adverse drug reaction terms

Cai, Mei-Chun; Xu, Quan; Pan, Yan-Jing; Pan, Wen; Ji, Nan; Li, Yin-Bo; Jin, Hai-Jing; Liu, Ke; Ji, Zhi-Liang
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are noxious and unexpected effects during normal drug therapy. They have caused significant clinical burden and been responsible for a large portion of new drug development failure. Molecular understanding and in silico evaluation of drug (or candidate) safety in laboratory is thus so desired, and unfortunately has been largely hindered by misuse of ADR terms. The growing impact of bioinformatics and systems biology in toxicological research also requires a specialized ADR term system that works beyond a simple glossary. Adverse Drug Reaction Classification System (ADReCS; http://bioinf.xmu.edu.cn/ADReCS) is a comprehensive ADR ontology database that provides not only ADR standardization but also hierarchical classification of ADR terms. The ADR terms were pre-assigned with unique digital IDs and at the same time were well organized into a four-level ADR hierarchy tree for building an ADR–ADR relation. Currently, the database covers 6544 standard ADR terms and 34 796 synonyms. It also incorporates information of 1355 single active ingredient drugs and 134 022 drug–ADR pairs. In summary, ADReCS offers an opportunity for direct computation on ADR terms and also provides clues to mining common features underlying ADRs.

Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh I.S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues.

Preliminary pharmacognostic and phytochemical standardization of Dhataki [Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz.] leaves

Birajdar, Vanmala V.; Mhase, Archana G.; Gurav, Arun M.; Murthy, Soma N.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%

Photoneutrons from a beryllium reflector: a potential source of problems with Zr–Au flux monitors in k0 standardization based neutron activation analysis

Koster-Ammerlaan, M. J. J.; Bode, P.; Winkelman, A. J. M.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The assumption that the shape of the epithermal neutron spectrum can be described, in any research reactor, by the 1/E1+α function is a fundamental starting point of the k0 standardization. This assumption may be questioned from a reactor physics viewpoint. The type of moderator, the existence of neutron reflectors, the additional production of (γ, n) neutrons and resonance capture by construction materials may be different for each reactor, with consequences for the shape of the neutron spectrum. This dependency may explain that various practitioners reported contradicting experiences with the use of Zr–Au flux monitors for the determination of the α-parameter. An objective view on the influence of the design of the reactor and irradiation facility on the shape of the neutron spectrum can be obtained by modeling. This has been applied in the Reactor Institute Delft for reactor configurations in which the irradiation facilities face the fuel elements with the presence of beryllium reflector elements. The Monte Carlo calculations indicate a distortion of the 1/E1+α relationship at the higher energy edge of the epithermal neutron spectrum. This distortion is attributed to the formation and thermalisation of both photoneutrons and (n...

The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0–6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness.

Inter-Scanner Differences in In Vivo QCT Measurements of the Density and Strength of the Proximal Femur Remain After Correction with Anthropomorphic Standardization Phantoms

Carpenter, R. Dana; Saeed, Isra; Bonaretti, Serena; Schreck, Carole; Keyak, Joyce H.; Streeper, Timothy; Harris, Tamara B.; Lang, Thomas F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
In multicenter studies and longitudinal studies that use two or more different quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging systems, anthropomorphic standardization phantoms (ASPs) are used to correct inter-scanner differences and allow pooling of data. In this study, in vivo imaging of 20 women on two imaging systems was used to evaluate inter-scanner differences in hip integral BMD (iBMD), trabecular BMD (tBMD), cortical BMD (cBMD), femoral neck yield moment (Mt) and yield force (Fy), and finite-element derived strength of the femur under stance (FEstance) and fall (FEfall) loading. Six different ASPs were used to derive inter-scanner correction equations. Significant (p < 0.05) inter-scanner differences were detected in all measurements except My and FEfall, and no ASP-based correction was able to reduce inter-scanner variability to corresponding levels of intra-scanner precision. Inter-scanner variability was considerably higher than intra-scanner precision, even in cases where the mean inter-scanner difference was statistically insignificant. A significant (p < 0.01) effect of body size on inter-scanner differences in BMD was detected, demonstrating a need to address the effects of body size on QCT measurements. The results of this study show that significant inter-scanner differences in QCT-based measurements of BMD and bone strength can remain even when using an ASP.

Activity Standardization of Technical Preparations of Douglas-fir Tussock Moth Baculovirus

Martignoni, Mauro E.; Iwai, Paul J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Polyhedron counts are the most commonly used “measure” of the potency of technical nucleopolyhedrosis virus preparations. The actual potency of such preparations, however, can be determined only by bioassay. If the bioassay is standardized, it provides a frame of reference for comparisons among microbial products and among results of field applications. We describe an activity standardization procedure based on the stability of the response of an inbred strain of Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough). The response of strain CL-1 is the reference standard currently accepted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and by the U.S. Forest Service for activity titrations of industrial preparations of Douglas-fir tussock moth Baculovirus. Tests covering a 2yr span and 3 generations of GL-I larvae show that the procedure is highly reproducible.

Standardization of Whole Slide Image Morphologic Assessment With Definition of a New Application: Digital Slide Dynamic Morphometry

Puppa, Giacomo; Sheahan, Kieran; Zlobec, Inti; Pecori, Sara; Langner, Cord; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Ueno, Hideki; Senore, Carlo; Herlin, Paulette; Risio, Mauro; Vieth, Michael; Lugli, Alessandro; Wang, LaiMun; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiko; Chasle, Ja
Fonte: Medknow Publicador: Medknow
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Background: In histopathology, the quantitative assessment of various morphologic features is based on methods originally conceived on specific areas observed through the microscope used. Failure to reproduce the same reference field of view using a different microscope will change the score assessed. Visualization of a digital slide on a screen through a dedicated viewer allows selection of the magnification. However, the field of view is rectangular, unlike the circular field of optical microscopy. In addition, the size of the selected area is not evident, and must be calculated. Materials and Methods: A digital slide morphometric system was conceived to reproduce the various methods published for assessing tumor budding in colorectal cancer. Eighteen international experts in colorectal cancer were invited to participate in a web-based study by assessing tumor budding with five different methods in 100 digital slides. Results: The specific areas to be tested by each method were marked by colored circles. The areas were grouped in a target-like pattern and then saved as an .xml file. When a digital slide was opened, the .xml file was imported in order to perform the measurements. Since the morphometric tool is composed of layers that can be freely moved on top of the digital slide...

Adherence of hip and knee arthroplasty studies to RSA standardization guidelines: A systematic review

Madanat, Rami; Mäkinen, Tatu J; Aro, Hannu T; Bragdon, Charles; Malchau, Henrik
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Background and purpose Guidelines for standardization of radiostereometry (RSA) of implants were published in 2005 to facilitate comparison of outcomes between various research groups. In this systematic review, we determined how well studies have adhered to these guidelines. Methods: We carried out a literature search to identify all articles published between January 2000 and December 2011 that used RSA in the evaluation of hip or knee prosthesis migration. 2 investigators independently evaluated each of the studies for adherence to the 13 individual guideline items. Since some of the 13 points included more than 1 criterion, studies were assessed on whether each point was fully met, partially met, or not met. Results: 153 studies that met our inclusion criteria were identified. 61 of these were published before the guidelines were introduced (2000–2005) and 92 after the guidelines were introduced (2006–2011). The methodological quality of RSA studies clearly improved from 2000 to 2011. None of the studies fully met all 13 guidelines. Nearly half (43) of the studies published after the guidelines demonstrated a high methodological quality and adhered at least partially to 10 of the 13 guidelines, whereas less than one-fifth (11) of the studies published before the guidelines had the same methodological quality. Commonly unaddressed guideline items were related to imaging methodology...

Standardization of the NEO-PI-3 in the Greek general population

Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Moysidou, Stefania; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Mobayed,
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Background: The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was to validate the Greek translation of the NEO-PI-3 in the general Greek population. Material and methods The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population of whom 59.4% were females and 40.6% males aged 40.80 ± 11.48. The NEO-PI-3 was translated into Greek and back-translated into English, and the accuracy of the translation was confirmed and established. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), the calculation of Cronbach’s alpha, and the calculation of Pearson product–moment correlations. Sociodemographics groups were compared by ANOVA. Results: Most facets had Cronbach’s alpha above 0.60. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable loading of the facets on their own hypothesized factors and very good estimations of Cronbach’s alphas for the hypothesized factors, so it was partially supportive of the five-factor structure of the NEO-PI-3.The factors extracted with Procrustes rotation analysis can be considered reasonably homologous to the factors of the American normative sample. Correlations between dimensions were as expected and similar to those reported in the literature. Discussion The literature suggests that overall...

Competitive strategy under standardization in the personal computer industry and its influences on new entrants

Kai, Hidetaka
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 99 leaves; 5565468 bytes; 5565229 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
by Hidetaka Kai.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 1992.; Title as it appears in the M.I.T. Graduate List, June 1992: Strategies under standardization in the personal computer industry and its influences on new entrants.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 96-99).

Applying engineering principles to the design and construction of transcriptional devices

Shetty, Reshma P
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The aim of this thesis is to consider how fundamental engineering principles might best be applied to the design and construction of engineered biological systems. I begin by applying these principles to a key application area of synthetic biology: metabolic engineering. Abstraction is used to compile a desired system function, reprogramming bacterial odor, to devices with human-defined function, then to biological parts, and finally to genetic sequences. Standardization is used to make the process of engineering a multi-component system easier. I then focus on devices that implement digital information processing through transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli. For simplicity, I limit the discussion to a particular type of device, a trancriptional inverter, although much of the work applies to other devices as well. First, I discuss basic issues in transcriptional inverter design. Identification of key metrics for evaluating the quality of a static device behavior allows informed device design that optimizes digital performance. Second, I address the issue of ensuring that transcriptional devices work in combination by presenting a framework for developing standards for functional composition. The framework relies on additional measures of device performance...

ESI(+/-)-MS fingerprinting of andiroba oil : standardization, quality control and origin certification

Cabral, Elaine Cristina; Cruz, Georgiana Feitosa da; Sanvido, Gustavo Braga; Gonçalves, Lenise de Vasconcellos Fonseca; Leal, Rodrigo Vivarelli Poggi; Silva, Fernanda Motta Ribeiro da; Silva, Regina Celia Fassheber da; Silva, Julio Cesar Teixeira da; Cun
Fonte: Inmetro - Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Publicador: Inmetro - Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia
Tipo: Trabalho apresentado em evento / Paper
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
1 p.; Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) is a tree found all through Tropical America(1). The Andiroba oil is extracted from the seeds and is characterized by a low percentage of limonoids which are responsible for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities(2), and high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids(2). These acids are of interest to the cosmetics industry and recently for biodiesel production. Industrial use of the oil would require therefore proper characterization and standardization. In Brasil, the extractive exploitation of Andiroba oil has been intensified in the state of Pará. The present study aims to characterize the main constituents of the oil and the effects of geographical origin, to establish a standard profile for its composition that would assist to certify origin and quality.

Mestres e aprendiz: perambulando por ilhas de resistência

Bezerra, Juliano César Petrovich
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Monoculture of mind This idea, presented by Vandana Shiva, reflects the phase that we have experienced in the world: a notion of civilization that, since many decades, characterized by a technocratic big trend, has been shown as dominant and hegemonic. Based on a thinking and acting, felling and whishing standardization, this wave ends implying in what can be called of humanity‟s crisis at civilizational process. Destruction of simpler and more harmonious lifestyles with nature, human relations increasingly distant, values embrittlement, as respect, goodness and love, are some consequences of that behavioral homogenization. In the other hand, appears an archipelago of cultural and cognitive resistance against this devastating wave. Edgar Morin and Ceiça Almeida refer to this archipelago as a South Thought , what is not just a geographic question. Report, therefore, to some places, peoples, island that keep ancient costumes and knowledge, orally transmitted, for instance, from elders to younger, or vice versa, in an almost constant flow. Particular ways of experiencing the world around themselves, the men, animals, plants, rocks, or even not alive beings, masters or enchanted, spiritual guides. Next to a logic of sensitive...

Padronização de testes e interferência da vacinação contra leptospirose no diagnóstico em brucelose bovina

Naves, João Helder Frederico de Faria
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
A dissertação foi dividida em dois estudos. O primeiro teve como objetivo padronizar dois ensaios imunoenzimáticos indiretos (iELISA) para o diagnóstico da brucelose bovina. Foram utilizadas 92 amostras de soro sanguíneo, sendo 46 positivos e 46 negativos para brucelose. O iELISA/B1119-3 apresentou uma sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 95,6%. Entretanto, no iELISA/LPS a sensibilidade foi de 97,8% e especificidade de 91,3%. Quando comparados os testes 2ME com iELISA/B1119-3 e iELISA/LPS observou-se uma concordância de 97,83%, 94,57% respectivamente. Os dois testes iELISA foram eficientes no diagnóstico da brucelose bovina. O segundo estudo objetivou-se verificar se bovinos recém vacinados contra leptospirose podem reagir nos testes de diagnóstico de brucelose. Sessenta vacas foram divididas em cinco grupos, cada um com 12 animais. Quatro grupos receberam diferentes vacinas de leptospirose e, um grupo controle, recebeu apenas soro fisiológico. Amostras de soro sanguíneo foram colhidas nos dias zero, sete, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 96 e 126. As amostras foram submetidas aos testes de brucelose e leptospirose. Vinte vacas foram reagentes no Antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT), pelo menos uma vez, no qual dois animais reagiram por três vezes...

Atividade virucida de um extrato etan??lico de pr??polis verde in vitro e in vivo; Virucidal activity of ethanol extract of green propolis in vitro

NUNES, Cristina Freitas
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Veterin??ria; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Veterin??ria; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Veterin??ria; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Veterin??ria; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Currently, the drug industry looks for new drugs based on natural products, for the production of drugs more efficient, for which the microorganisms did not show resistance to both humans and animals. A natural product that has been the subject of intense pharmacological and chemical studies by scientists for the control of diseases is propolis, a resinous substance produced by honeybees from exudates collected from different parts of the plant, which has been used for centuries in popular medicine due to its therapeutic properties. Chemical studies revealed the complex chemical composition, identifying in some cases more than 300 components including various bioactive phenolic compounds responsible for the virucidal action. This work initially describes the standardization of an ethanol extract of green propolis (EEPV), where the chemicals were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), phytochemical characterization by thin layer chromatography (TLC), soluble solids, content of phenolics and flavonoids and antioxidant activity by 2.2 diphenil picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The EEPV was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their capacity lentogenic virucidal against a strain of the virus of Newcastle disease (NDV) at two different temperatures (22 and 37 ?? C)...

The reception of Eugen Wüster’s work and the development of terminology

Campo, Ángela
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
L’objectif principal de cette thèse est d’explorer et d’analyser la réception de l’œuvre d’Eugen Wüster afin d’expliquer comment ses travaux ont influencé le développement disciplinaire de la terminologie. Du point de vue historique, les travaux de Wüster, en particulier la Théorie générale de la terminologie, ont stimulé la recherche en terminologie. Malgré des opinions divergentes, on s’entend pour reconnaître que les travaux de Wüster constituent la pierre angulaire de la terminologie moderne. Notre recherche vise spécifiquement à explorer la réception de l’œuvre wüsterienne en étudiant les écrits relatifs à cette œuvre dans la littérature universitaire en anglais, en espagnol et en français entre 1979 et 2009, en Europe et en Amérique. Réalisée dans le cadre du débat sur la réception de l’œuvre de Wüster, cette étude se concentre exclusivement sur l’analyse des critiques et des commentaires de son œuvre. Pour ce faire, nous avons tenu compte de la production intellectuelle de Wüster, de sa réception positive ou négative, des nouvelles approches théoriques en terminologie ainsi que des études portant sur l’état de la question en terminologie entre 1979 et 2009. Au moyen d’une recherche qualitative de type exploratoire...

Information and Communications Technology in Land Administration Projects

Stanley, Victoria; Cook, Edward; Tarhanen, Mika; Adlington, Gavin; Bell, Keith
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
Application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to land related projects is now a widespread phenomenon, through both donor-supported interventions and autonomous development. Since the mid-1990s the World Bank has been increasingly involved in ICT land project implementations. The advantages have proven substantial in reducing the time required to complete transactions, improving access to information by the public, as well as other government agencies, reducing the costs of data acquisition, and contributing to standardization of system design. The successful application of ICT to land projects has increased since the 1990s, as lessons from the first tier of programs became clear and were subsequently applied. This note summarizes the demonstrated advantages of ICT application, as well as the key lessons learned. Data acquisition is more feasible and costs less by applying ICT than often-used technology that is quite sophisticated. The use of high, but robust, technology for data acquisition (satellite imagery...

Utilizing Community-Based Registers to Monitor Improved Access to Sanitation and Hygiene in Tanzania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
In Tanzania, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has been supporting the Government of Tanzania in 10 districts to increase access to improved sanitation. This initiative to improve rural sanitation at large scale combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behavior change communication, and sanitation marketing approaches, and supports both local and national governments to develop capacity to create sustainable change. In recent years, there has been limited progress in establishing a standardized, systematic monitoring system to track sanitation and hygiene conditions in Tanzania. Manually generated reports are used to capture data on an ad hoc basis. Two challenges exist. First, even though it is commonly used in fieldwork, manual data collection is always subject to error. For example, a check is made in the wrong box or numbers are added inaccurately. A certain level of error is acceptable and is built into the interpretation of data, but it is important to establish the exact level of error in order to know how representative and accurate the information is. Second...