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Materninade em contexto prisional

Gonçalves, Inês Silva Pereira de Almeida
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicocriminologia apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; A maternidade em contexto prisional é uma área que preocupa cada vez mais investigadores e onde existem poucos estudos disponíveis, que permitam perceber o efeito do contexto do encarceramento nas práticas educativas utilizadas pela mãe. A presente proposta visa efectuar um estudo comparativo de mães-reclusas, mães ex-reclusas e mães que nunca passaram pela experiência da reclusão, com o objectivo de avaliar a influência do contexto prisional. Pretende-se assim estudar as práticas educativas parentais utilizadas no comportamento interactivo das mães com os seus filhos, tendo em conta os factores pessoais que podem interferir nesta relação e a adequação das externalizações realizadas pelas crianças. Utilizarse- á o método de observação directa não-participante e grelhas de observação em que serão registados os comportamentos observados na díade durante a respectiva interacção, em situação de jogo livre. Espera-se que com base nas hipóteses formuladas, os resultados do estudo validem o contexto teórico e permitam um adequado mapeamento das práticas educativas parentais com os estilos parentais associados. Os resultados obtidos poderiam ser utilizados na melhoria e adequação das condições...

Demora desde o aparecimento dos primeiros sintomas até ao diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em Portugal : análise de sobrevivência

Silva, Marília Bettencourt
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
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RESUMO - O presente estudo tem como objetivo contribuir para a Saúde Pública no controlo da tuberculose pulmonar (TBP), estudando a demora desde o aparecimento dos primeiros sintomas até ao diagnóstico da doença. As consequências da demora no diagnóstico podem ser fatais para os doentes e intensificar a proliferação do bacilo, influenciando a incidência da doença. Este estudo analisou os casos notificados com TBP pelo SVIG-TB, em Portugal Continental, no período de 2000 a 2009, com demora no diagnóstico de 1 a 365 dias. Foram utilizadas técnicas de estatística clássica para caracterização da base de dados e de análise de sobrevivência para caracterizar a demora até ao diagnóstico e modelar o risco de diagnóstico. As variáveis incluídas no estudo foram: género, idade, grupo etário, distrito de residência, área crítica de incidência da tuberculose, presença ou ausência da infeção pelo VIH, caso novo e reincidência, número de tratamentos anteriores, presença ou ausência de fatores de risco (álcool, tabaco, outras drogas, reclusão e sem-abrigo) e número de fatores de risco. Verificou-se que nos 35 711 casos notificados a mediana da demora até ao diagnóstico foi de 55 dias. Todas as variáveis referidas anteriormente demostraram estar correlacionadas com a demora...

Correlation between HIV and HCV in Brazilian prisoners: evidence for parenteral transmission inside prison

Burattini,MN; Massad,E; Rozman,M; Azevedo,RS; Carvalho,HB
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2000 EN
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OBJECTIVE: It is an accepted fact that confinement conditions increase the risk of some infections related to sexual and/or injecting drugs practices. Mathematical techniques were applied to estimate time-dependent incidence densities of HIV infection among inmates. METHODS: A total of 631 prisoners from a Brazilian prison with 4,900 inmates at that time were interviewed and their blood drawn. Risky behavior for HIV infection was analyzed, and serological tests for HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis were performed, intended as surrogates for parenteral and sexual HIV transmission, respectively. Mathematical techniques were used to estimate the incidence density ratio, as related to the time of imprisonment. RESULTS: Prevalence were: HIV -- 16%; HCV -- 34%; and syphilis -- 18%. The main risk behaviors related to HIV infection were HCV prevalence (OR=10.49) and the acknowledged use of injecting drugs (OR=3.36). Incidence density ratio derivation showed that the risk of acquiring HIV infection increases with the time of imprisonment, peaking around three years after incarceration. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between HIV and HCV seroprevalence and the results of the mathematical analysis suggest that HIV transmission in this population is predominantly due to parenteral exposure by injecting drug...

Epidemiology of the viral hepatitis B and C in female prisoners of Metropolitan Regional Prison Complex in the State of Goiás, Central Brazil

Barros,Láiza Alencar Santos; Pessoni,Grécia Carolina; Teles,Sheila Araújo; Souza,Sandra Maria Brunini de; Matos,Marcos André de; Martins,Regina Maria Bringel; Del-Rios,Nativa Helena Alves; Matos,Márcia Alves Dias de; Carneiro,Megmar Aparecida dos San
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
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INTRODUCTION: Little information regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian female prisoners exists. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections and identified viral genotypes among female prisoners in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: Women incarcerated in the largest prison in the State of Goiás were invited to participate in the study. All female prisoners were interviewed and tested for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody against HCV (anti-HCV) by ELISA. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and HCV RNA and genotyped, respectively. RESULTS: Participants (n=148; 98.6%) completed the study with an overall HBV prevalence of 18.9%. Age >30 years, a low education level, sex with a sexually transmitted diseases carrier, and a male sexual partner serving in the same penitentiary were associated with HBV infections. Only 24% of the women were anti-HBs positive suggesting previous HBV vaccination. Nine female prisoners (6.1%) were anti-HCV positive. Age >40 years...

Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus markers among malaria-exposed gold miners in Brazilian Amazon

Souto,Francisco José Dutra; Fontes,Cor Jésus Fernandes; Gaspar,Ana Maria Coimbra
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2001 EN
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Hepatitis B and C virus markers were assessed during a survey on malaria in gold mine camps in southern Brazilian Amazon in order to identify risk factors associated to these viral diseases. The study comprised 520 subjects, most of them were gold miners. Missing subjects totaled 49 (8.6%). Among these 520, 82.9% had HBV markers and 7.1% were HBsAg positive. Previous hospitalization, surgery, sexually transmitted diseases and incarceration were quite common among surveyed people, but there is no association between total HBV markers and these factors. On other hand, HBsAg was independently associated to history of sexually transmitted diseases and history of surgery after adjustment. The most frequent HBsAg subtypes identified, adw2 (59%), predominates in populations of Northeast Brazil. The most surveyed people were immigrants coming from that area suggesting that immigrants carried HBV themselves to the study area. Immunoblot (RIBA) confirmed-anti-HCV were found in 2.1%. The only variable associated to anti-HCV in multivariate analysis was illicit intravenous drug. Lack of HCV infection in subjects with such a high HBV markers prevalence reinforces the opinion that HCV is transmitted by restricted routes when compared to HBV. Furthermore...

Hérnia lombar encarcerada complicada com obstrução intestinal e perfuração de ceco

Puttini,Sinthia Maria Benigno; Vianna,André Luiz; Reys,Luiz Guilherme
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2003 PT
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Lumbar hernia is defined as an abdominal passage through the posterior abdominal wall. Approximately 250 to 300 cases have been described in the literature, being quite infrequent. Untreated lumbar hernia may result in severe complications. The authors report a case of a 60 year old male patient presenting a large bowel obstruction and perfuration secundary to incarceration of descending colon within a lumbar hernia. This was diagnosed by clinical history and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated surgically.

Hérnia intercostal transdiafragmática após fratura espontânea de costelas secundária à crise de tosse

Henriques,Alexandre Cruz; Malena,Carina Rosa; Freitas,Andréa Cristina Oliveira; Waisberg,Jaques; Pires,Adilson Casemiro
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2010 PT
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One case of transdiafragmatic intercostal hernia after intense coughing fit followed by rib fractures in patient with history of pneumonia is presented. He had a severe coughing fit, developed a right toracoabdominal hematoma and then a tumor that was gradually enlarging. Image exams confirmed the diagnosis. Treatment consisted of surgical repair with the use of a polypropylene prosthetic mesh. It is a rare type of hernia. Only four cases were found in literature. The sooner the disease is diagnosed and treated the better the prognoses will be since it will prevent hernia from strangulation and incarceration.

The contribution of two Brazilian multi-center studies to the assessment of HIV and HCV infection and prevention strategies among injecting drug users: the AjUDE-Brasil I and II Projects

Caiaffa,Waleska Teixeira; Bastos,Francisco I.; Freitas,Lívia Leite de; Mingoti,Sueli Aparecida; Proietti,Fernando Augusto; Carneiro-Proietti,Anna Bárbara; Gandolfi,Denise; Doneda,Denise
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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This study assessed 1,144 Brazilian injecting drug users (IDUs) recruited on the street through outreach syringe exchange programs by two multi-center cross-sectional studies: 287 IDUs were recruited during the AjUDE-Brasil I Project and 857 during the AjUDE-Brasil II Project. IDU characteristics related to drug use and sexual behavior, and legal and health conditions for the two studies were compared, using decision tree and logistic regression for each individual study, with HIV infection as the outcome. Fifty-two percent of IDUs were HIV-infected in AjUDE I versus 36.5% in AjUDE II. In both studies, HIV infection was independently associated with: mean background HIV prevalence for each site (OR = 2.17; 10.66), HCV seropositive status (OR = 19.79; 15.48), and men who reported ever having sex with other men (OR = 2.10; 2.09). Incarceration (OR = 1.41) and 8 or more years of injecting drug (OR = 2.13) were also associated with HIV in AjUDE II. The high HIV infection rates and high prevalence of both parenteral and sexual risk behaviors in the context of syringe-exchange programs are of great concern and demand thorough surveillance and renewed prevention strategies.

AIDS incidence and mortality in injecting drug users: the AjUDE-Brasil II Project

Cardoso,Mauro Nogueira; Caiaffa,Waleska Teixeira; Mingoti,Sueli Aparecida
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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This paper presents AIDS incidence and mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs) reached by the AjUDE-Brasil II Project. From a cross-sectional survey, 478 IDUs were interviewed in three Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre, São José do Rio Preto, and Itajaí. The cohort was followed up in the Brazilian surveillance database for AIDS and mortality during 2000 and 2001. AIDS incidence was 1.1 cases per 100 person-years, and the mortality rate was 2.8 deaths per 100 person-years. AIDS cases only occurred in IDUs who reported ever having shared injecting equipment. Female gender (RR = 5.30), homelessness (RR = 6.16), and report of previous sexual relations with same-sex partners (RR = 6.21) were associated with AIDS. Deaths occurred only among males. Homelessness (RR = 3.00), lack of income (RR = 2.65), HIV seropositive status (RR = 4.52), and no history of incarceration (RR = 3.71) were also associated with death. These findings support evidence that gender and socioeconomic conditions are both determinants of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian IDUs.

Intestinal obstruction induced by a giant incarcerated Spigelian hernia: case report and review of the literature

Ribeiro,Edson Augusto; Cruz Junior,Ruy Jorge; Moreira,Samuel Martins
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2005 EN
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CONTEXT: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon spontaneous lateral ventral hernia with an incarceration ratio of around 20%. However, complications such as intestinal obstruction are extremely rare. We report on a case of giant incarcerated Spigelian hernia with a clinical condition of complete intestinal obstruction that was treated using prosthetic polypropylene mesh. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a firm 10 x 10 cm tender mass in the lower left quadrant, without surrounding cellulite or tenderness. Plain abdominal radiographs displayed the formation of levels, thus indicating the existence of intestinal obstruction. An abdominal computed tomography scan clearly showed a fluid and air-filled mass in the soft tissue area of the lower left-side abdominal wall. Spigelian incarcerated hernia was diagnosed and the patient underwent emergency surgical repair by means of local incision. The large defect in the abdominal wall was closed up as successive anatomical layers, and a prosthetic polypropylene mesh was set into the lateral aspect of the rectus sheath. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day.

Chronic penile strangulation

Lopes,Roberto I; Lopes,Silvia I; Lopes,Roberto N
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2003 EN
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Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

Risk of prevalent HIV infection associated with incarceration among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand: case-control study

Buavirat, Aumphornpun; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; van Griensven, G J P; Mandel, J S; Evans, J; Chuaratanaphong, J; Chiamwongpat, S; Sacks, R; Moss, A
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/02/2003 EN
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Congenital defect of the pericardium

Bruning, E. G. H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1962 EN
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The morbid anatomy and histopathology is described as found at necropsy on a 7-year-old coloured girl who suffered from partial defect of the pericardium with prolapse and partial incarceration of the cardiac apex. Because of the absence of any history of illness during life the defect is considered to have been congenital, and because of the lack of any other significant necropsy findings, it is considered to have been the cause of death.

Glaucoma laser suture lysis.

Macken, P; Buys, Y; Trope, G E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1996 EN
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AIM: Suture lysis is commonly performed after trabeculectomy to improve bleb function. It is often thought to be an innocuous procedure. This is the first large study to determine the safety of the procedure and compare results with a control group. METHODS: Two hundred successive trabeculectomies performed between January 1992 and October 1993 were analysed. RESULTS: Ninety nine eyes underwent trabeculectomy and suture lysis; 101 eyes underwent trabeculectomy and did not require postoperative suture lysis. The following complications were noted with suture lysis: flat chambers (13.1%), external aqueous leaks (9%), malignant glaucoma (2%), iris incarceration (2%), and large blebs (2%). All resolved with appropriate management. There was no significant difference in the final postoperative mean pressures between the lysis and the non-lysis groups. CONCLUSION: Suture lysis is not an innocuous procedure. However if managed appropriately, complications do not affect the intraocular pressure outcome.

Long-Term Molecular Analysis of Tuberculosis Strains in Alabama, a State Characterized by a Largely Indigenous, Low-Risk Population†

Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Dunlap, Nancy E.; Lok, Kerry H.; Benjamin, William H.; Keenan, Nancy B.; Kimerling, Michael E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 EN
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With a tuberculosis case detection rate of 5.9 per 100,000 population in 2001, Alabama ranked twelfth highest in the United States. However, cases among foreign-born and human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals remain low in Alabama. To understand the endemic statewide disease pattern, tuberculosis strains were studied for clustering in a long-term population-based study from January 1994 to May 2000. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for 1,834 strains. Spoligotyping was used as a secondary typing method for the 37% of isolates displaying a restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern with <6 IS6110 copies. A total of 721 (41%) patients provided isolates that composed 114 clusters, each containing isolates from 2 to 136 patients, suggesting that recent transmission accounted for 35% of tuberculosis cases. Demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of patients with clustered versus nonclustered isolates stratified by low-copy-number strains (<6 IS6110 copies) versus high-copy-number strains (≥6 IS6110 copies) were evaluated. Younger age, black race, a history of alcohol abuse, and homelessness were predictors of clustering of low-copy-number, strains and younger age, urban residency...

Women and madness: the incarceration of women in nineteenth-century France

Stevenson, Christine
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1991 EN
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Aphakic retinal detachment.

Le Mesurier, R; Vickers, S; Booth-Mason, S; Chignell, A H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1985 EN
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A study of 132 cases of aphakic retinal detachment (ARD) following mainly intracapsular cataract surgery has been made. Forty-nine cases (37%) were found to have vitreous incarcerated into the cataract section out of a total of 54 (41%) cases who had suffered a vitreous complication during cataract surgery. A study of the characteristics of ARD reveals that those cases having had a vitreous complication in the management of their cataracts are more likely to develop detachment within three months than those not suffering from such a complication. The occurrence of these early post-extraction retinal detachments is not influenced by the presence of underlying axial myopia. When we compared ARD in patients whose cataract extractions had been complicated by vitreous incarceration with those ARDs following uncomplicated cataract surgery, we found that the characteristics of the detachments were very similar. Thus distribution of underlying myopia, extent of detachment, length of time of detachment, and multiplicity and type of retinal holes were generally similar. However, ARD following complicated cataract surgery is more likely to suffer from periretinal fibrosis. The findings confirmed the risk of ARD following complicated intracapsular cataract surgery and support the tendency to perform the extracapsular operation.

Experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rabbit. I. Method of production and natural history.

Cleary, P E; Ryan, S J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1979 EN
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A technique has been developed which produces an experimental posterior penetrating eye injury that reproducibly results in traction retinal detachment in rabbit eyes. The standard injury is an incision through the pars plana with vitreous prolapse and incarceration; the wound is then carefully closed with microsurgical techniques. It appears that blood in the vitreous is an essential factor in the development of vitreous traction and of traction retinal detachment. The model, which has been successfully transferred to Rhesus monkey eyes, is considered useful for further histological, electromicroscopical, electrophysiological, and ultrasound studies of posterior penetrating injuries of the eye. Our immediate goal is to assess in a controlled experiment whether pars plana vitrectomy can interrupt the sequence of events leading to traction retinal detachment after a posterior penetrating injury.

Would female inmates accept Papanicolaou smear screening if it was offered to them during their incarceration?

Martin, R E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2000 EN
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Management of groin hernias in patients with ascites.

Hurst, R D; Butler, B N; Soybel, D I; Wright, H K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1992 EN
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The records of 18 cirrhotic patients with ascites and groin hernias (20 inguinal and one femoral) were retrospectively reviewed. Eleven patients underwent repair of their groin hernias (total of 13 repairs). Ten herniorrhaphies were performed electively, two were performed urgently because of recent difficult reduction, and one was performed emergently for incarceration without strangulation. No major and four minor postoperative complications occurred. There were no perioperative deaths or ascites leaks. Of the 13 hernias in 11 patients undergoing repair, 12 (92%) were available for follow-up. In this group, the 12 groin hernia repairs were followed for a mean of 25 months. One recurrence (8%) occurred 11 months after repair. In this same group of patients, five umbilical hernias were repaired, with three recurrences (60%). From this retrospective study, it appears that serious complications from groin hernias in cirrhotics are not common, and elective repair can usually await control of ascites. Additionally, for appropriately selected patients with ascites, elective inguinal hernia repair can be performed safely, with an acceptable rate of recurrence.