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Blood glutathione peroxidase and selenium in abortion

Mishra, Prafulla Kumar; Chaudhuri, J.
Fonte: Springer India Publicador: Springer India
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
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This study was carried out to estimate the levels of glutathione peroxidase and selenium in blood of abortion cases. Glutathione peroxidase and selenium were determined in 52 abortion cases (22 in 1st trimester, 30 in second trimester), 45 normal pregnant cases and 25 nonpregnant control cases. The selenium concentration in whole blood and plasma in abortion cases was almost the same as in normal pregnant women but significantly low when compared with the control non-pregnant group. The glutathione levels was higher in abortion cases when compared with normal pregnant and non-pregnant control groups. Red cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities of women who had abortion were significantly lower compared with both non-pregnant control group and normal pregnancies.

‘We view that as contraceptive failure’: Containing the ‘multiplicity’ of contraception and abortion within Scottish reproductive healthcare

Beynon-Jones, Siân M.
Fonte: Pergamon Publicador: Pergamon
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 EN
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Within contemporary Scottish policy guidance, abortion is routinely configured as evidence of a resolvable problem with the healthcare provision of contraception. This article draws on 42 semi-structured interviews with Scottish health professionals conducted during 2007–2008, in order to explore how, and in what form, realities of contraception/abortion are sustained within abortion practice. In addition to providing empirical insights concerning this sociologically neglected aspect of reproductive healthcare, it demonstrates how a novel conceptual approach could be used to develop existing social scientific analyses of the provision of techniques of fertility prevention. Science and Technology Studies (STS) has highlighted the importance of studying the complex socio-material practices through which realities are enacted (or ‘performed’). Mobilising this insight, my analysis illustrates the complex socio-material work required to enact abortion as evidence of a ‘problem’ with contraception that is resolvable within the healthcare consultation. This work, I argue, renders visible the ontologically ‘multiple’ (Mol, 2002) nature of contraception/abortion, with important implications for both social science and policy approaches to these techniques of fertility prevention.

‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

Klausen, Susanne M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
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After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for...

Managing Unplanned Pregnancies in Five Countries: Perspectives on Contraception and Abortion Decisions

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Why is induced abortion common in environments when modern contraception is readily available? This study analyzes qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with women and men from low income areas in five countries -- the U.S., Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Mexico -- to better understand how couples manage their pregnancy risk. Across all settings, women and men rarely weigh the advantages and disadvantages of contraception and abortion before beginning a sexual relationship or engaging in sexual intercourse. Contraception is viewed independently of abortion, and the two are linked only when the former is invoked as a preferred means to avoiding repeat abortion. Contraceptive methods are viewed as suspect because of perceived side effects, while abortion experience, often at significant personal risk, raised the specter of social stigma and motivation for better contraceptive practice. In all settings, male partners figure importantly in pregnancy decisions and management. Although there are inherent limitations from small sample sizes, the study narratives reveal psychosocial barriers to effective contraceptive use and identify nodal points in pregnancy decision-making that can inform and structure future investigation.

Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice

Beynon-Jones, Siân M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about women’s reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the ‘rationality’ of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish ‘types’ of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of ‘stratified reproduction’ (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK.

Essays on the Economics of the Family

Rotz, Dana
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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This dissertation contains three essays analyzing how families form and how family members interact. The first chapter studies and connects recent trends in age at marriage and divorce. The second chapter looks within marriages to analyze household bargaining. The final chapter examines the effects on cohort characteristics of the changes in fertility induced by the legalization of abortion. In my first essay, I explore the extent to which the rise in age at marriage can explain the rapid decrease in divorce rates for cohorts marrying from 1980 to 2004. Three different empirical approaches all demonstrate that an increase in women’s age at marriage can explain at least 60 percent of the decline in the hazard of divorce since 1980. I further develop and simulate an integrated model of the marriage market to demonstrate that monotone decreases in gains to marriage could lead to both the initial rise in divorce and its subsequent fall. My second essays analyzes the impact of the early 1990s state waivers from welfare guidelines to understand how changes in options outside of marriage affect household expenditures. Welfare waivers decreased the public assistance available to impoverished divorced women and thereby reduced a woman’s bargaining threat point in marriage. Using expenditure data and an empirical synthetic control approach...

Análise dos resultados sorológico, anatomopatológico e parasitológico de material abortivo para infecções com risco de transmissão vertical com ênfase na toxoplasmose; Analysis of the results serological, pathological and parasitological of material abortive for infections with a risk of vertical transmission with emphasis on toxoplasmosis

BARBARESCO, Aline Almeida
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Treponema pallidum, can reach the fetus via the placenta or transamniótica may cause different damage. The severity of the infection or even abortion, depend on the virulence of the strain of microorganism, the immune response of the mother and the period. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of serological, pathological and parasitological material for abortive infections with risk of vertical transmission, with emphasis on toxoplasmosis. They were invited to participate in the study, women who miscarried and complete or incomplete, attended at two public hospitals in Goiânia, Goiás, between the period June 2008 to June 2009. Were interviewed through a questionnaire and collected blood samples and abortive material. There were immunologic tests for toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, rubella, cytomegalovirus and syphilis and pathology in cytogenetic. 55% of women were aged 20 to 30 years of age. The majority (68%) had gestational ages ranging from 7-14th weeks. 54.3% of women had completed high school or incomplete. Regarding the number of abortions, most women (69%) had only one abortion and minority (2.9%) were already in the fourth or fifth abortion. For the analysis of serology...

Influence of induced abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies.

van der Slikke, J W; Treffers, P E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/1978 EN
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We studied the effect of previous induced and spontaneous abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies in 12 obstetric departments in the Netherlands. Only primiparae were studied. Of 504 women who had had a previous induced abortion, 18 (3.6%) delivered before 32 weeks' gestational age. Forty of 1313 women with a history of spontaneous abortion (3.0%) and 259 of 12 678 women with no history of abortion (2.1%) also delivered before 32 weeks. The differences between the three groups were not significant. In the Netherlands there are no significant indications that spontaneous midtrimester abortions or premature deliveries are caused by a previous induced abortion.

CMA abortion survey.

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1983 EN
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Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code...

Living Through Some Giant Change: The Establishment of Abortion Services

Schoen, Johanna
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women’s health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices.

Occupational paternal exposure to benzene and risk of spontaneous abortion.

Strücker, I; Mandereau, L; Aubert-Berleur, M P; Déplan, F; Paris, A; Richard, A; Hémon, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1994 EN
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OBJECTIVE--The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion among the wives of male workers occupationally exposed to benzene. METHODS--The wives of 823 men working in two chemical plants at the time of the study were asked to complete a questionnaire describing their pregnancies. The analysis of the 1739 pregnancies that ended in a spontaneous abortion or a birth is presented. The firms' payroll records provided all workers' employment history, including dates. Benzene exposure, graded at two levels (< 5, > or = 5 ppm), was determined for every job, so that benzene exposure for each worker's entire professional life (at these companies) could be assessed. This information was linked to the dates of the pregnancies reported in the questionnaires to enable the exposure status of each pregnancy to be defined (1270 non-exposed and 274 exposed). The frequency of spontaneous abortion, defined as the number of spontaneous abortions divided by the total of spontaneous abortions and births was evaluated. RESULTS--When adjusted for tobacco consumption, mother's age and pregnancy order, the odds ratio of the association between paternal exposure to approximately 5 ppm of benzene and the risk of spontaneous abortion was close to and statistically not different from unity (OR = 1.1; 95% CI (0.7-1.8). CONCLUSION--In this study paternal exposure to benzene did not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

Knowledge of pregnancy symptoms among abortion patients: is race a predictor?

Bluestein, D.; Rutledge, C. M.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1994 EN
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This cross-sectional study characterizes first-trimester abortion patients who perceived inadequate knowledge of pregnancy symptoms and identifies net predictors of inadequate symptom knowledge. Data were collected at an abortion facility in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Study subjects were women surveyed on the day of their abortions, prior to termination procedures. Self-reported knowledge of pregnancy symptoms was the study's dependent variable. Of 342 women, 120 (35%) perceived inadequate symptom knowledge. These women more often were young, black, single, and poorly educated. Only black race was a net predictor of inadequate symptom knowledge when study variables were entered into a multiple logistic regression. Black race was the only net predictor of inadequate symptom knowledge among first-trimester abortion patients. This racial difference was not explained by socioeconomic or access factors. Future research should consider an alternative hypothesis, the possibility that more effective communications with black abortion patients are needed. Additionally, health-care providers should not presume that first-trimester abortion patients are familiar with pregnancy symptoms and should not stereotype patients who perceive knowledge limitations with regard to socioeconomic status.

Abortion Decisions as Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Research Involving Pregnant Women and Fetuses

Strong, Carson
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely-held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to term should be treated equally as research subjects. Some hold that this principle implies that a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion should not be an inclusion or exclusion criterion. This paper identifies types of research in which investigators might want to have inclusion or exclusion criteria based on decisions about abortion. It examines the arguments for and against having the woman's decision about abortion as such criteria. It is argued that there are types of research in which such criteria are ethically permissible.

Attitudes of Obstetric and Gynecologic Residents Toward Abortion

Mascovich, Paul R.; Behrstock, Barry; Minor, David; Colman, Arthur
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1973 EN
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As a follow-up to Wolf's study of attitudes of obstetrical housestaff toward therapeutic abortion,5 the attitudes of 48 obstetrical residents in the San Francisco Bay area were evaluated by questionnaire and structured interview. Specific issues studied were: (1) Willingness to perform therapeutic abortion, (2) impact of therapeutic abortion on Resident Training Program, (3) attitudes toward different operational procedures, and (4) preferred physician-patient relationship with therapeutic abortion patients. Findings suggest that although there is recognition and acceptance by most residents of the social need for therapeutic abortion, considerable ambivalence persists.

Aborto por Aspergillus fumigatus e Aspergillus niger em bovinos no sul do Brasil; Abortus by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger in cattle in southern Brazil

Corbellini, Luis G.; Pescador, Caroline Argenta; Frantz, Fernanda Junges; Lima, Marcelo; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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As infecções micóticas apresentam distribuição mundial e podem causar placentite e aborto em diversas espécies de animais. Entre setembro 2001 e novembro 2002, foram processados no Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 147 fetos bovinos abortados com o objetivo de avaliar as principais causas de aborto infeccioso bovino no sul do Brasil. Destes, 34 estavam acompanhados da placenta. Aborto micótico foi diagnosticado em cinco casos (3,4%) mediante cultivo puro de quatro amostras de Aspergillus fumigatus e uma de A. niger associado a lesões histológicas características de fungo. Os exames virológico, bacteriológico e imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp foram negativos nestes casos. A idade dos fetos variava entre 5 e 8 meses de idade. Lesões macroscópicas foram observadas em quatro casos e eram caracterizadas por áreas circulares multifocais branco-acinzentadas na pele, principalmente na região da cabeça e dorso, em dois fetos, lesões nodulares no fígado em um caso e espessamento dos cotilédones em duas placentas enviadas juntamente com os fetos. Lesões histológicas foram observadas principalmente no fígado, pulmão e placenta, caracterizadas por hepatite necrótica multifocal...

O status jurídico do nascituro e a impossibilidade da legalização do aborto

Teles, Thiago Porto de Sales
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
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Em diversos países, surgem numerosas pressões que tendem a levar os poderes políticos a uma autorização legal da prática abortiva. Todavia, tais aspirações afrontam o princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana, fundamento do Estado Democrático de Direito. No primeiro capítulo, será analisada a importância dos direitos humanos e a segurança jurídica que concedem à ordem legal das nações, especialmente o direito fundamental do ser humano à vida, valor-fonte de todos os demais bens jurídicos. O segundo capítulo abordará o aborto entre os crimes contra a vida e suas espécies previstas na legislação penal. Consequentemente, questionar-se-á a existência de hipóteses de aborto “legal” no Brasil. Finalmente, no terceiro e último capítulo, o status jurídico do nascituro e sua tutela civil serão examinadas à luz da Convenção Americana de Direitos Humanos (Pacto de São José da Costa Rica). Além disso, em razão da verdade sobre o direito à vida e sobre os princípios morais que dele decorrem, os principais argumentos utilizados para que se autorize o aborto serão igualmente confrontados.; In many countries strong pressures emerge intending to lead political powers to the legalization of abortion practices. Nonetheless...

Triclosan causes spontaneous abortion accompanied by decline of estrogen sulfotransferase activity in humans and mice

Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Feng, Xuejiao; Chang, Fei; Chen, Minjian; Xia, Yankai; Chen, Ling
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 15/12/2015 EN
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Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, is identified in serum and urine of humans. Here, we show that the level of urinary TCS in 28.3% patients who had spontaneous abortion in mid-gestation were increased by 11.3-fold (high-TCS) compared with normal pregnancies. Oral administration of TCS (10 mg/kg/day) in mice (TCS mice) caused an equivalent urinary TCS level as those in the high-TCS abortion patients. The TCS-exposure from gestation day (GD) 5.5 caused dose-dependently fetal death during GD12.5–16.5 with decline of live fetal weight. GD15.5 TCS mice appeared placental thrombus and tissue necrosis with enhancement of platelet aggregation. The levels of placenta and plasma estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) mRNA and protein in TCS mice or high-TCS abortion patients were not altered, but their EST activities were significantly reduced compared to controls. Although the levels of serum estrogen (E2) in TCS mice and high-TCS abortion patients had no difference from controls, their ratio of sulfo-conjugated E2 and unconjugated E2 was reduced. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 prevented the enhanced platelet aggregation and placental thrombosis and attenuated the fetal death in TCS mice. The findings indicate that TCS-exposure might cause spontaneous abortion probably through inhibition of EST activity to produce placental thrombosis.

Pedidos para interrupção de gestação de anencéfalos: jurisprudência no estado de São Paulo; Legal requests for anencephalic pregnancies termination: jurisprudence of the state of São Paulo

Motta, Marcia Vieira da; Piacsek, Mônica Vieira da Motta; Mollica, Eliane Vieira da Motta; Haddad, Ricardo Nusrala
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ART.; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2013 POR
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Em 2012, foi aprovada a legalização do término de gestações de fetos anencéfalos no Brasil pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF). Contudo, os tribunais brasileiros já vinham se posicionando neste sentido por vários anos, com destaque a atuação dos tribunais paulistas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi buscar o posicionamento e as justificativas que serviram de apoio às decisões referentes à interrupção das gestações de anencéfalos e observar na literatura dados referentes aos aspectos médico-legais envolvidos nas decisões. Em São Paulo, foram encontrados 30 acórdãos relacionados ao tema interrupção de gestação de anencéfalos, 9 favoráveis, 6 contrários ao aborto e 15 que não tratavam diretamente o tema. Quando autorizado, o aborto foi realizado tendo como fundamentação jurídica: a) analogia com o aborto terapêutico ou com o sentimental; b) o direito à vida, à saúde, à intimidade, à dignidade e autonomia da gestante; c) a inexigibilidade de conduta diversa da gestante; e d) a equiparação do feto anencéfalo ao morto cerebral. Já os negados, consideraram a primazia do direito à vida do nascituro e a ilegalidade da conduta. Do ponto de vista legal, além dos artigos referentes ao aborto encontrados no Código Penal...

El aborto eugenésico podría explicar la menor mortalidad infantil existente en Cuba comparada con la de Chile

Donoso S,Enrique; Carvajal C,Jorge A
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 ES
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Background: Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. Aim: To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. Material and Methods: We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. Results: In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Conclusions: Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

The use of narrative hermeneutical approach in the counselling of abortion patients within an African context

Baloyi,Elijah M.
Fonte: HTS Theological Studies Publicador: HTS Theological Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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Our country has celebrated democracy for more than a decade now, the democracy in which everyone enjoys all the basic human rights, including the right to an abortion. Public and private hospitals and some traditional healers are engaged in this act where some give pre-abortion and post-abortion counselling to their patients whilst others do not. It becomes a serious question of course to ask whether those patients who did not receive counselling, cope with life after the experienced trauma. By the looks of things it seems very clear that the people who commit abortion have a special need for help in order to cope with life thereafter. Another question now is whether the little counselling that they receive in the hospital before and after an abortion is satisfactory to their individual needs. That is why the author's focus is on the method or approach which the author thinks will better help the patients who find themselves in such a traumatic situation. The concentration is on the narrative-hermeneutical approach as one of the applicable approaches from the author's point of view.