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Increasing the quality of water pipe network systems by tracing the vulnerability

Pinto, J.; Afonso, L.; Varajão, J.; Bentes, I.; Varum, H.; Duarte, A.; Agarwal, J.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The main objective of this paper is to introduce an emerging theory of vulnerability of water pipe networks and, in particular, its theoretical concepts. It is based on the form of a network and follows a systems approach. The application of the theory is presented using an example of a simple water pipe network. The fundamental contribution of this theory is to enable the design of water pipes networks that are more robust. It can also be used to achieve a more efficient management of water supply systems.

S. João de Loure Bridge: vulnerability assessment and study of a common strengthening solution

Varum, H.; Fernandes, C.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper presents a structural vulnerability assessment of the steel bridge S. João de Loure. A structural model of the bridge was created and the influence of the joint’s stiffness on its structural response was evaluated using the structural analysis software SAP2000. Natural frequencies, axial forces and corresponding stress, and maximum mid-span deflection, were analyzed. A common strengthening solution with prestressing cables was studied intending to reduce the bridge’s mid-span deflection.

Vulnerability assessment of building aggregates: a macroseismic approach

Ferreira, T.; Vicente, R.; Varum, H.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The evolution of the urban layout is of great importance in the seismic behaviour of buildings in urban areas. The chronological construction process frequently results in characteristic heterogeneity of masonry wall fabric and connection quality. In addition, buildings do not constitute independent units given that they share the midwalls with adjacent buildings and the façade walls are aligned. Thus, as post-seismic observations proved, buildings do not have an independent structural behaviour, but they interact amongst themselves, mainly for horizontal actions and so the structural performance should be evaluated at the level of the aggregate and not only for each isolated building. In most cases, for masonry structures there is no need for sophisticated dynamic analyses to assess seismic vulnerability taking to account all the inherent uncertainty of such analysis. This is even more relevant when an assessment at the level of a city centre is pursued. In this paper, attention will be focused on the exposure of the simplified method based on the concept of the evaluation of building parameters that compose an aggregate, such as geometrical irregularities, building typology differences and interaction issues. This method was applied to an old city centre and results are treated and shown resourcing to a GIS application.

Impact of social vulnerability on the outcomes of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients in an interdisciplinary center

Tirapani,Luciana dos Santos; Pinheiro,Hélady Sanders; Mansur,Henrique Novais; Oliveira,Dilmerson de; Huaira,Rosália Maria Nunes Henriques; Huaira,Carlos Contreras; Grincenkov,Fabiane Rossi dos Santos; Bastos,Marcus Gomes; Fernandes,Natália Maria da Sil
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Introduction: Numerous studies examined the associations between socio-demographic, economic and individual factors and chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes and observed that the associations were complex and multifactorial. Socioeconomic factors can be evaluated by a model of social vulnerability (SV). Objective: To analyze the impact of SV on the outcomes of predialysis patients. Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from a cohort of patients with predialysis stage 3 to 5 who were treated by an interdisciplinary team (January 2002 and December 2009) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Factor, cluster and discriminant analysis were performed in sequence to identify the most important variables and develop a model of SV that allowed for classification of the patients as vulnerable or non-vulnerable. Cox regression was performed to examine the impact of SV on the outcomes of mortality and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Results: Of the 209 patients examined, 29.4% were classified as vulnerable. No significance difference was found between the vulnerable and non-vulnerable groups regarding either mortality (log rank: 0.23) or need for RRT (log rank: 0.17). In the Cox regression model, the hazard ratios (HRs) for the unadjusted and adjusted impact of SV on mortality were found to be 1.87 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-5.41) and 1.47 (CI: 0.35-6.0)...

Sexuality, vulnerability to HIV, and mental health: an ethnographic study of psychiatric institutions

Pinto,Diana de Souza; Mann,Claudio Gruber; Wainberg,Milton; Mattos,Paulo; Oliveira,Suely Broxado de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper presents data from the ethnographic based formative phase of the Interdisciplinary Project on Sexuality, Mental Health, and AIDS (PRISSMA), sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and carried out in two psychiatric institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results from ethnographic observations, focus groups, and key informant interviews with different groups of mental health care providers and day hospital and outpatient mental health clients regarding conceptions of sexuality and HIV vulnerability are described. The results suggest a diversity of notions about sexuality by both groups and point out the high HIV sexual risk in this psychiatric population. This formative phase has served as the basis for the cultural adaptation and creation of a Brazilian intervention for HIV prevention in the severely mentally ill, the feasibility of which has been successfully evaluated in the pilot phase.

Child health care in Brazil: aspects of program vulnerability and human rights

Figueiredo,Glória Lúcia Alves; Mello,Débora Falleiros de
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This study aimed to examine the epidemiological approach in Brazilian child health programs, towards the reflection on current guidelines from the perspective of program vulnerability and human rights. A descriptive study was carried out, based on the analysis of official documents elaborated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The expansion and reorganization of family health practices and integrated care for prevailing childhood diseases are aimed at promoting health and quality of life to children and families. Health professionals, imbued with observation and intervention, can be considered agents to respect, protect and implement human rights.

The caregiving process in the vulnerability perspective

Waldow,Vera Regina; Borges,Rosália Figueiró
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This theoretical article deals with the process of caregiving in the vulnerability perspective, whose condition leads to the need for care. The text analyzes this process, which is characterized by the encounter between the caregiver and the care receiver. The hospitalized patient is an extremely vulnerable being, experiencing something unique. The caregiver plays a very important role in reducing this situation and preserving his or her autonomy and dignity.

The use of the "vulnerability" concept in the nursing area

Nichiata,Lucia Yasuko Izumi; Bertolozzi,Maria Rita; Takahashi,Renata Ferreira; Fracolli,Lislaine Aparecida
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The objective of this article was to briefly retrieve the meaning of the vulnerability concept, which has been used in the healthcare area; also, to discuss how it has been used in the Nursing area. Amidst several different focuses and objects, studies have been attempting to overcome the classical reasoning of risk in epidemiology, advancing towards the discussion of the social determinants for the production of health problems.

Vulnerability of women living with HIV/aids

Duarte,Marli Teresinha Cassamassimo; Parada,Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Souza,Lenice do Rosário de
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
OBJECTIVE: outline the profile of women living with the human immunodeficiency virus/aids in interior cities in São Paulo State, in the attempt to identify characteristics related to individual, social and programmatic vulnerability and to analyze the conditions in which they discovered their serological status. METHOD: between October 2008 and December 2010, a cross-sectional study was undertaken with 184 women attended at a specialized service. The data were collected through an interview and gynecological test, including the collection of samples for the etiological diagnosis of sexually transmissible conditions. RESULTS: the women were predominantly white, between 30 and 49 years of age, lived with a partner, had a low education level, multiple sexual partners across the lifetime and unsafe sexual practices. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases corresponded to 87.0%. CONCLUSION: the study suggests the need to offer gynecological care in specialized services and the accomplishment of multiprofessional actions to reinforce the female autonomy in protective decision making.

Método AVI (Aquifer Vulnerability Index) para a classificação da vulnerabilidade das águas subterrâneas na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro

Santos,Marinaldo Gomes dos; Pereira,Sueli Yoshinaga
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - ABES Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - ABES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
O presente artigo apresenta estudos para a classificação da vulnerabilidade àcontaminação das águas subterrãneas na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro. O método AVI (Aquifer Vulnerability Index) foi aplicado, utilizando-se o ferramental do Sistema de Informação Geográfica. O método AVI aplica o conceito de resistência hidráulica, dada pela somatória das taxas de espessura da zona não saturada pelas condutividades hidráulicas do meio. Os mapas resultantes mostraram que a região possui sensibilidade àcontaminação das águas subterrâneas, com classificações que variam de "Alta" a "Extremamente alta" (0-10 dias a 10-100 dias, respectivamente). Essa sensibilidade elevada ocorre pela existência de formações de elevada permeabilidade (areias) e níveis de água rasos, típicas ocorrências do delta do rio Paraíba do Sul. O índice vulnerabilidade Alta ocorre: (1) nas margens direita e esquerda do rio Paraíba do Sul, (2) oeste da área (região de confluência do rio Muriaé com o rio Paraíba do Sul), e (3) parte leste da área urbana de Campos dos Goytacazes. Os terrenos com índice de vulnerabilidade Extremamente alta estão localizados: (1) na porção norte (área do Aquífero Barreiras), (2) na área urbana de Campos dos Goytacazes e dos distritos de Saturnino Braga e Mucurepe...

A Vulnerability Approach to the Definition of the Middle Class

Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Measurement of the middle class has recently come to the center of policy debate in middle-income countries as they search for the potential engines of growth and good governance. This debate assumes, first, that there is a meaningful definition of class, and second, that thresholds that define relatively homogeneous groups in terms of pre-determined sociological characteristics can be found empirically. This paper aims at proposing a view of the middle class based on vulnerability to poverty. Following this approach the paper exploits panel data to determine the amount of comparable income -- associated with a low probability of falling into poverty -- which could define the lower bound of the middle class. The paper looks at absolute thresholds, challenging the view that people above the poverty line are actually part of the middle class. The estimated lower threshold is used in cross-section surveys to quantify the size and the evolution of middle classes in Chile, Mexico, and Peru over the past two decades. The first relevant feature relates to the fact that the proposed thresholds lie around the 60th percentile of the distribution. The evidence also shows that the middle class has increased significantly in all three countries...

Social Protection in Pakistan : Managing Household Risks and Vulnerability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The report is the result of an inter-institutional collaborative effort between the Government of Pakistan, civil society, and international donors. This report finds that while Pakistan implements a wide array of social protection programs, the effectiveness of these programs could be significantly improved. The report finds that social protection programs in Pakistan face important constraints in terms of coverage, targeting, and implementation, and inability to respond to vulnerability, which will need to be overcome in order that they can more effectively protect the poor. The report suggests a two-pronged approach for social protection reform: (i) improving the ability of safety net programs to reach the poor, promote exit from poverty, and respond to natural disasters; coupled with (ii) a longer term approach for strengthening social security. Considering social protection as a system rather than a collection of different programs would allow the government to curtail fragmentation, improve the quality of social protection spending...

Living on the Edge : Vulnerability to Poverty and Public Transfers in Mexico

de la Fuente, Alejandro; Ortiz-Juárez, Eduardo; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper reports that the vulnerable in Mexico—people who left poverty but have not yet gained a place in the middle class—make up 30-40 percent of the population, thanks to a combination of highly unsettled, low-paid employment, living in communities with poor services, and over-exposure to often short-lived and somewhat unpredictable uninsured risks. It seems necessary to distinguish between long-term and short-term sources of vulnerability to poverty, and from a policy perspective, keeping this distinction between quasi-permanent factors and shocks remains relevant as very different measures address each problem. Policy options may include (1) expanding coverage of existing programs to encompass the highly vulnerable in a permanent way or to build mechanisms into existing safety nets so that they can expand support when needed, or (2) pushing for a more radical redesign of existing programs to address simultaneously the differentiated causes (structural and transient) to the threat of future poverty.

Manipulating perceptions of spider characteristics and predicted spider fear: Evidence for the cognitive vulnerability model of the etiology of fear

Armfield, J.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The present study reports on an attempt to experimentally manipulate perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness related to an imaginal encounter with a spider in order to determine whether there is an effect on self-rated predicted spider fear. Experimental manipulations involved differing information in relation to both the spider and the imaginal task. The control, predictability and dangerousness manipulations all had significant main effects on task-related spider fear (TRSF). Measures of the perception of the spiders as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous were also significantly associated with TRSF and accounted for 42% of the variance in predicted fear beyond that accounted for by the experimental manipulations. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for better understanding the etiology and maintenance of fear. The overall findings are consistent with the cognitive vulnerability model, with cognitive perceptions of an object or situation seen as causal determinants of the fear associated with the stimulus.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/801/description#description; Jason M. Armfield; Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Assessing vulnerability and framing adaptive options of two Mediterranean wine growing regions facing climate change: Roussillon (France) and McLaren Vale (Australia)

Lereboullet, A.L.; Bardsley, D.; Beltrando, G.
Fonte: EchoGeo Publicador: EchoGeo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
An increase in temperatures and a decrease in precipitations could be prejudicial to maintaining a premium wine production in regions with a Mediterranean climate. The present article offers to assess recent and future exposure to such changes in two Mediterranean wine producing regions: Roussillon (France) and McLaren Vale (Australia); as well as to frame elements increasing their vulnerability to such changes, and reversely elements that could help increase their adaptive capacity. A study of temperature and rainfall data observed (1956-2010) in Perpignan and Adelaide and simulated (2001-2060) by ARPEGE-RETIC-V4 and CSIRO Mk3.5 was completed by sixty-one interviews with key stakeholders of the wine industry in both regions. Results show that producers had to face an increase in temperature and a decrease in rainfall in the last decade, and this tendency, according to climate models, is likely to continue through to 2060, with a fair level of uncertainty. This has negative impacts on grape maturation, and traditional vineyard management may not be sufficient to deal with it in the long term. Implementing new strategies of adaptation to uncertainty in climate, as well as in economy, depends on: a sufficient financial capital, a sustainable management of water resources...

Community-based flood vulnerability and adaptation assessment: a case study from Bangladesh

Younus, M.; Harvey, N.
Fonte: Imperial College Press Publicador: Imperial College Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007, 2012:11) warned that the mega deltas in South Asia (e.g. the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna River Basin) will be at great risk due to increased flooding, and the region's poverty would reduce the capacity of the inhabitants to adapt to change. This paper provides a "bottom up" impact approach which focuses on a methodological contribution for assessment of vulnerability and adaptation (V & A) in a riverine flood-prone area, "Islampur" in Bangladesh, where various impact assessment guidelines have been taken into consideration. In this study the evaluation of V & A assessments at community level has been accomplished mainly by a weighted matrix index value derived from two participatory rapid appraisals (PRAs). Based on the distribution pattern of various weighted value indices of V & A issues, the required adaptation techniques can be adopted for immediate policy-making, and appropriate actions should be undertaken through establishing community-based adaptation committees (CBAC).; Md Aboul Fazal Younus and Nick Harvey

Managing Risks in Rural Senegal : A Multi-Sectoral Review of Efforts to Reduce Vulnerability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The main objective of the study is to provide the Government of Senegal the analyses and information to implement policies towards reducing the rural poor's vulnerability. While during the latest years, economic growth reduced poverty in the country, this has been less noticeable among the rural population, who actually account for 6 million people over a total population of 10 million. The rural economy remains essentially agrarian, with a 65 percent of its population living in poverty. Natural risks are intimately linked to the agrarian nature of the rural economy, and to its "Sahelian" environment. Drought cycles reduce agricultural production, thus such impact varies according to the agricultural season, the agro-ecological zone, the type of crops, and the presence - or not - of irrigation systems. In addition, insects, and the disease these carry, affect plants and animals, adding to the natural risks. Economic risks occur, as elsewhere, due to changes in the agricultural production and trade systems...

What Explains Stock Markets’ Vulnerability to the 2007–2008 Crisis?

Didier, Tatiana; Love, Inessa; Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper examines the determinants of stock markets' vulnerability to the 2007-2008 crisis. Given that the United States (US) was the crisis epicenter, the authors analyze the factors driving the co-movement between US returns and stock returns in 83 countries. The analysis distinguishes between the period before and after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. The findings indicate that the main channel of transmission was financial. There is also evidence of a "wake-up call" or "demonstration effect" in the first stage of the crisis, because countries with vulnerable banking and corporate sectors exhibited higher co-movement with the US market. However, despite a collapse in trade across countries, the analysis does not find support for this channel of transmission.

Reducing the Vulnerability of Armenia's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaption Options

Ahouissoussi, Nicolas; Neumann, James E.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Boehlert, Brent; Sharrow, Steven
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Within any economy, agriculture is the sector that is most sensitive to climate change. In Armenia, however, the risks are even more pronounced because the majority of the rural population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods. This publication outlines the policy options available to Armenia, based on a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of climate change on agricultural systems. It provides a solid foundation for taking strategic and, in many cases, immediate action to implement climate-smart agriculture in the country. Specifically, this report provides a menu of options for climate change adaptation in the agricultural and water resources sectors, along with specific recommended actions that are tailored to distinct agricultural regions within Armenia. These recommendations reflect the results of three inter-related activities, conducted jointly by the expert team and local partners: (1) quantitative economic modeling of baseline conditions and the effects of certain adaptation options; (2) qualitative analysis conducted by the expert team of agronomists...

Differences between female and male adolescents regarding individual vulnerability to HIV

Dutra dos Anjos, Renata Holanda; de Souza Silva, Jose Augusto; do Val, Luciane Ferreira; Alarcon Rincon, Laura; Izumi Nichiata, Lucia Yasuko
Fonte: UNIV SAO PAOLO; CERQUERA CESAR Publicador: UNIV SAO PAOLO; CERQUERA CESAR
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze male and female adolescents' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, based on their knowledge, values and practices. This is an exploratory-descriptive study, performed using a quantitative approach. The students answered a questionnaire from which relevant questions were selected for the analysis. The participants were 207 adolescents, 43.5% male and 56.5% female. Most adolescents report having initiated sexual activities. It was observed that the participants have knowledge deficits regarding HIV transmission and safe sexual practices. Although they report knowing about condom use as a method of protection against HIV, they do not always use them. It was observed that there are values connected to the representations of gender, but it is noticed there is an evolution regarding the autonomy and power of the girls' negotiation regarding condom use.