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A simple model for the establishment of tick-borne pathogens of Ixodes scapularis: A global sensitivity analysis of R0

Dunn, J. M.; Davis, S.; Stacey, A.; Diuk-Wasser, M. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The basic reproduction number of a pathogen, R0, determines whether a pathogen will spread (R0 > 1), when introduced into a fully susceptible population or fade out (R0 < 1), because infected hosts do not, on average, replace themselves. In this paper we develop a simple mechanistic model for the basic reproduction number for a group of tick-borne pathogens that wholly, or almost wholly, depend on horizontal transmission to and from vertebrate hosts. This group includes the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of human babesiosis, Babesia microti, for which transmission between co-feeding ticks and vertical transmission from adult female ticks are both negligible. The model has only 19 parameters, all of which have a clear biological interpretation and can be estimated from laboratory or field data. The model takes into account the transmission efficiency from the vertebrate host as a function of the days since infection, in part because of the potential for this dynamic to interact with tick phenology, which is also included in the model. This sets the model apart from previous, similar models for R0 for tick-borne pathogens. We then define parameter ranges for the 19 parameters using estimates from the literature...

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Ch
Fonte: Ivyspring International Publisher Publicador: Ivyspring International Publisher
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/02/2014 EN
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The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447].

Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions

Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
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Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (α) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed.

Identification of the Key Weather Factors Affecting Overwintering Success of Apolygus lucorum Eggs in Dead Host Tree Branches

Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2014 EN
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Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature...

Genetic Diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus Complex (Acari: Ixodidae)

Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2014 EN
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Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies.

The Prevalence of Zoonotic Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes Scapularis Collected in the Hudson Valley, New York State

Aliota, Matthew T.; Dupuis, Alan P.; Wilczek, Michael P.; Peters, Ryan J.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Kramer, Laura D.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
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Ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick, is capable of transmitting the pathogens that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), babesiosis (Babesia microti), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and to a lesser extent Powassan encephalitis (deer tick virus [DTV]). These pathogens represent significant public health problems, but little is known about the occurrence and co-infection prevalence of these pathogens in I. scapularis. Here, we used standard PCR and pathogen-specific primers to estimate the prevalence of infection of A. phagocytophilium, B. burgdorferi, B. microti, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in questing nymph and adult I. scapularis collected from sites in Putnam and Dutchess counties in southern New York in 2011. To detect DTV infection, cell cultures were observed for the presence of cytopathic effects and positive results were confirmed via real time RT-PCR. In 466 individually sampled adult ticks, B. burgdorferi had the highest prevalence of infection (55%) followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.2%), DTV (3.4%), B. microti (3.2%), and E. chaffeensis (1.5%). Infection with two pathogens occurred in 13.3% of ticks, and 10 ticks were infected with three combinations of three pathogens. These results provide an estimate of the rate of co-infection...

Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio

Wang, Peng; Glowacki, Meaghan N.; Hoet, Armando E.; Needham, Glen R.; Smith, Kathleen A.; Gary, Richard E.; Li, Xin
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/06/2014 EN
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Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is caused by a tick-borne infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Currently, Ohio is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be non-endemic for Lyme disease. The low incidence of Lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. However, a tick surveillance program established by Ohio Department of Health indicated that the number of I. scapularis in Ohio had increased sharply in recent years, from 0 - 5 ticks per year during 1983–2008 to 15 in 2009, 40 in 2010, and 184 in 2011. During the fall deer hunting season, examination of deer heads submitted to Ohio Department of Agriculture found 29 I. scapularis from 7 counties in 2010 and 1,830 from 25 counties in 2011. As of 2012, the tick had been found in 57 of the 88 counties of Ohio. In addition, all three active stages (larva, nymph, and adult) of I. scapularis were found in Tiverton Township of Coshocton County, demonstrating the presence of established tick populations at this central Ohio location. Of 530 nymphal or adult I. scapularis analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...

Antennal Development in the Praying Mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) Highlights Multitudinous Processes in Hemimetabolous Insect Species

Carle, Thomas; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/06/2014 EN
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Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres) on which sensory organs (sensilla) are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males) in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting...

Ticks Collected from Wild and Domestic Animals and Natural Habitats in the Republic of Korea

Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Hyewon; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Seo, Hong-Yul; Chae, Joon-Seok
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island...

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Sequenced Directly from Questing and Blood-Feeding Ticks Reveals Quasispecies Variance

Asghar, Naveed; Lindblom, Pontus; Melik, Wessam; Lindqvist, Richard; Haglund, Mats; Forsberg, Pia; Överby, Anna K.; Andreassen, Åshild; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Johansson, Magnus
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/07/2014 EN
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The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing novel sequences within the natural foci. In this study, two TBEV strains: the Norwegian Mandal 2009 (questing nymphs pool) and the Swedish Saringe 2009 (blood-fed nymph) were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized. Interestingly, the sequence of Mandal 2009 revealed the shorter form of the TBEV genome, similar to the highly virulent Hypr strain, within the 3′ non-coding region (3′NCR). A different genomic structure was found in the 3′NCR of Saringe 2009, as in-depth analysis demonstrated TBEV variants with different lengths within the poly(A) tract. This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus switches between invertebrate and vertebrate environments. This prompted us to further sequence and analyze the 3′NCRs of additional Scandinavian TBEV strains and control strains, Hypr and Neudoerfl. Toro 2003 and Habo 2011 contained mainly a short (A)3C(A)6 poly(A) tract. A similar pattern was observed for the human TBEV isolates 1993/783 and 1991/4944; however, one clone of 1991/4944 contained an (A)3C(A)11 poly(A) sequence...

Status of the enigmatic Oriental genus Rhithrogeniella Ulmer, 1939 (Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae)

Sartori, Michel
Fonte: Pensoft Publishers Publicador: Pensoft Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/07/2014 EN
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Based on historic collections and new material from Sumatra and Java, the species Rhithrogeniella ornata Ulmer, 1939, type species of the genus Rhithrogeniella, is reinvestigated. The nymph is described for the first time and is closely related to the continental Southeast Asian species Rhithrogeniella tonkinensis Soldán and Braasch, 1986. Rhithrogeniella belongs to the subfamily Ecdyonurinae, and is related to the genera Nixe Flowers, 1980 and/or Paracinygmula Bajkova, 1975 based on characters of the nymphal stage. Species described from Taiwan in the genus Nixe are transferred to the genus Rhithrogeniella: Rh. littoralis (Kang and Yang, 1994) comb. n., Rh. mitifica (Kang and Yang, 1994) comb. n. and Rh. obscura (Kang and Yang, 1994) comb. n.

Morphology and identification of the final instar nymphs of three cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) in Guanzhong Plain, China based on comparative morphometrics

Hou, Zehai; Li, Qinglong; Wei, Cong
Fonte: Pensoft Publishers Publicador: Pensoft Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/07/2014 EN
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The present investigation provides comparative morphometrics of the final instar nymphs of three dominant cicada species, i.e., Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius), Meimuna mongolica (Distant) and Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius), in Guanzhong Plain, China. Particularly, characters on the antennae, legs, and apex of abdomen of both males and females of these three species were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the numbers of hind tibial spines of the final instar nymphs of 21 representatives of Cicadoidea were compared. The results provide useful characteristics for nymph identification of related species and for further taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea.

Characterizing heat shock protein 90 gene of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) and its expression in response to different temperature and pesticide stresses

Sun, Yang; Sheng, Yang; Bai, Lixin; Zhang, Yongjun; Xiao, Yingfang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Shen, Youmi
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA of heat shock protein (HSP) gene of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) [AlHSP90, KC109781] and investigated its expression in response to temperature and pesticide stresses. The open reading frame (ORF) of AlHSP90 is 2,169 bp in length, encoding a 722 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 82.99 kDa. Transcriptional and translational expression profiles of AlHSP90 under extreme temperature or pesticide stresses were examined by fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Results showed that the expression profiles of AlHSP90 protein were in high agreement with those of AlHSP90 RNA and indicated that AlHSP90 was not only an important gene for A. lucorum adults in response to extremely high temperature, but also involved in the resistance or tolerance to cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and emamectin benzoate, especially for female adults to emamectin benzoate and for male adults to cyhalothrin. Transcriptional results of AlHSP90 also confirmed that AlHSP90 was an important gene involved in the resistance or tolerance to both temperature and pesticide stresses. In addition, our study also revealed that ∼24 °C may be the suitable temperature range for A. lucorum survival...

Transcriptome profiling of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci reveals stage-specific gene expression signatures for thiamethoxam resistance

Yang, N; Xie, W; Jones, CM; Bass, C; Jiao, X; Yang, X; Liu, B; Li, R; Zhang, Y
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Bemisia tabaci has developed high levels of resistance to many insecticides including the neonicotinoids and there is strong evidence that for some compounds resistance is stage-specific. To investigate the molecular basis of B. tabaci resistance to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam we used a custom whitefly microarray to compare gene expression in the egg, nymph and adult stages of a thiamethoxam-resistant strain (TH-R) with a susceptible strain (TH-S). Gene ontology and bioinformatic analyses revealed that in all life stages many of the differentially expressed transcripts encoded enzymes involved in metabolic processes and/or metabolism of xenobiotics. Several of these are candidate resistance genes and include the cytochrome P450 CYP6CM1, which has been shown to confer resistance to several neonicotinoids previously, a P450 belonging to the Cytochrome P450s 4 family and a glutathione S-transferase (GST) belonging to the sigma class. Finally several ATP-binding cassette transporters of the ABCG subfamily were highly over-expressed in the adult stage of the TH-R strain and may play a role in resistance by active efflux. Here, we evaluated both common and stage-specific gene expression signatures and identified several candidate resistance genes that may underlie B. tabaci resistance to thiamethoxam.

Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/12/2014 EN
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The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species...

Comparison of Potato and Asian Citrus Psyllid Adult and Nymph Transcriptomes Identified Vector Transcripts with Potential Involvement in Circulative, Propagative Liberibacter Transmission

Fisher, Tonja W.; Vyas, Meenal; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Cicero, Joseph M.; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A.; Crow, John A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.; Brown, Judith K.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2014 EN
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The potato psyllid (PoP) Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) and Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso) and Ca. L. asiaticus (CLas), respectively. CLso causes Zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, CLas causes citrus greening disease. The reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in alternative approaches, including RNA interference to abate expression of genes essential for psyllid-mediated Ca. Liberibacter transmission. To identify genes with significantly altered expression at different life stages and conditions of CLso/CLas infection, cDNA libraries were constructed for CLso-infected and -uninfected PoP adults and nymphal instars. Illumina sequencing produced 199,081,451 reads that were assembled into 82,224 unique transcripts. PoP and the analogous transcripts from ACP adult and nymphs reported elsewhere were annotated, organized into functional gene groups using the Gene Ontology classification system, and analyzed for differential in silico expression. Expression profiles revealed vector life stage differences and differential gene expression associated with Liberibacter infection of the psyllid host...

Ultrastructural Exploration on the Histopathological Change in Phenacoccus fraxinus Infected with Lecanicillium lecanii

Gao, Ying; Xie, Ying Ping; Xiong, Qi; Liu, Wei Min; Xue, Jiao Liang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/01/2015 EN
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The histopathological changes of the second instar nymph of the mealybug Phenacoccus fraxinus infected with Lecanicillium lecanii strain 3.4505 were investigated using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that L. lecanii 3.4505 could infect P. fraxinus in a short period. At 24 h post-inoculation, the conidia of L. lecanii 3.4505 adhered to the indented gloves or intersegmental folds of the insect body surface. Subsequently, the germinated conidia produced germ-tubes, appressoria and extended hyphae, which tightly adhered to the cuticle. Penetration of cuticle could be achieved either by peg form appressoria or directly by hyphae. Also, the conidia and hyphae could secrete massive mucilages causing visible damage to the host cuticle. After 48 h, the body wall, tissues and organs, including cuticle, trachea, fat body, muscle, Malpighian tubules and nerve ganglion, were destroyed by ramification of hyphae as a result of infection. The endoplasmic reticulum hypertrophied and formed obvious fingerprint agglomerates, and the mitochondria swelled and deformed in the haemocytes. Finally, the mycelium fully occupied the entire haemocoel. The entire bodies were wrapped in a white mycelium, with the mycelium extending radically outward.

Attenuation of Choroidal Neovascularization by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

Chan, Nymph; He, Shikun; Spee, Christine K.; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Hinton, David R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2015 EN
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Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a blinding complication of age-related macular degeneration that manifests as the growth of immature choroidal blood vessels through Bruch’s membrane, where they can leak fluid or hemorrhage under the retina. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) can down-regulate the pro-angiogenic hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and up-regulate the anti-angiogenic and neuro-protective pigment epithelium derived factor in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Most strikingly, TSA markedly down-regulates the expression of VEGF receptor-2 in human vascular endothelial cells and, thus, can knock down pro-angiogenic cell signaling. Additionally, TSA suppresses CNV-associated wound healing response and RPE epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. In the laser-induced model of CNV using C57Bl/6 mice, systemic administration of TSA significantly reduces fluorescein leakage and the size of CNV lesions at post—laser days 7 and 14 as well as the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, and smooth muscle actin in CNV lesions at post-laser day 7. This report suggests that TSA, and possibly HDACi’s in general...

Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias, José B.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flávia Q.; Zanuncio, José C.; Fernandes, Francisco S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2015 EN
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Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested...

Identification of a self-regulatory pheromone system that controls nymph aggregation behavior of rice spittlebug Callitettix versicolor

Chen, Xu; Liang, Ai-Ping
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/05/2015 EN
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