Página 15 dos resultados de 25165 itens digitais encontrados em 0.022 segundos

Adolescentes e tabagismo: o que pensam sobre a família, a escola, os pares, e si mesmos; Adolescents and smoking: what do they think about family, school, peers and themselves

Tirado Ochoa, Lourdes Rosario
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, transversal com comparações entre grupos, desenvolvido em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa buscou-se identificar: padrão de consumo de tabaco, características da família, escola e pares. Na segunda etapa, com apoio de conceitos da teoria da identidade social, buscou-se identificar as representações que adolescentes têm de pessoas fumantes e não fumantes e suas identificações com as qualificações atribuídas a esses dois conjuntos de indivíduos. Foram participantes 494 adolescentes, com idades entre 15 e 18 anos, estudantes de ensino médio de duas escolas da cidade de Hermosillo, Sonora, México (62,5% do sexo feminino). Na primeira etapa foram empregados os seguintes instrumentos para coleta de dados: Questionário Mundial sobre Tabagismo em Jovens ", Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), e Questionário de Tolerância de Fageström (QTF).Na segunda etapa, 26 adolescentes foram entrevistados individualmente com apoio de um roteiro previamene elaborado. Os principais resultados da primeira etapa mostram que 45,7% (n=226) experimentaram cigarros uma vez na vida; 88,7% não são fumantes atualmente e 11,3% são fumantes. A idade de início do tabagismo compreende o período de 13 a 15 anos; 89...

Estudo de coorte retrospectivo: impacto do tabagismo nos eventos cardiovasculares (infarto agudo do miocárdio; edema agudo de pulmão, arritmia com instabilidade hemodinâmica e morte cardíaca) no perioperatório de operações não cardíacas; A retrospective cohort: Impact the influence of smoking in cardiovascular events (acute myocardial infarction; acute lung edema, hemodynamic instability arrhythmia and cardiac death) of perioperative in noncardiac surgeries

Sakuma, Luciane Midory
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/03/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
I NTRODUÇÃO: Apesar da importância do tabagismo no processo de doença cardiovascular da sociedade moderna, os estudos de avaliação de risco cardíaco pré-operatório não têm demonstrado a associação entre o hábito de fumar (como variável independente) e os eventos cardíacos pós-operatórios. Nestas pesquisas, as variáveis independentes continuam sendo infarto do miocárdio prévio, insuficiência renal crônica, diabetes, angina, idade, dentre outras. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel do tabagismo nas complicações cardíacas pós-operatórias de operações não cardíacas. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva de um Hospital Geral, onde foram incluídos 1072 pacientes. Estes foram estratificados em Tabagistas Atuais (n=265), Ex- Tabagistas (n=335) e Não Tabagistas (n=472). Os três grupos foram analisados para os desfechos cardiovasculares combinados no pós-operatório (infarto, edema pulmonar, arritmia com instabilidade hemodinâmica, angina instável; morte cardíaca) e mortalidade em 30 dias. Foram usados o teste quiquadrado e Regressão logística, considerando-se p<0,05 como significante. RESULTADOS: Os desfechos cardiovasculares combinados no pós-operatório e a mortalidade em 30 dias foram 71 (6,6%) e 34 (3...

Effects of hot and cold smoking processes on organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa fillet

Franco, Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza; Viegas, Elisabete Maria Macedo; Kronka, Sérgio Nascimento; Vidotti, Rose Meire; Assano, Marcelo; Gasparino, Eliane
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 695-700
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Foi avaliado o efeito do processo de defumação a quente (45-90ºC/5 horas) e a frio (27-45ºC/10 horas) nas propriedades organolépticas, no rendimento e na composição dos filés de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus). Não houve diferença significativa no rendimento de filés defumados e não-defumados. As perdas no processo de defumação foram significativamente maiores para defumação a quente (19,37%) em comparação à defumação a frio (17,08%). O processo de defumação reduziu a umidade (in natura = 72,91%; defumado a quente = 58,51%; e defumado a frio = 59,68%) e aumentou os teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas. Houve diferença significativa somente nos teores de proteína no defumado a quente (28,07%) e defumado a frio (27,14%). O processo a frio resultou em melhor aparência e cor de filé, enquanto o processo a quente melhorou o sabor, o teor de sal e a aparência geral. O aroma e a textura não diferiram significativamente entre os processos. O processo de defumação a quente melhora as propriedades organolépticas e os níveis de proteína do filé de matrinxã.; The effects of hot (45-90ºC/5 hours) and cold (27-45ºC/10 hours) smoking processes on the organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa (Brycon cephalus) fillets are evaluated. No significant differences were observed for fillet yield in both non-smoked and smoked fillets. Smoking process losses were significantly higher for hot smoked (19.37%) when compared to cold smoked (17.08%). Smoking process reduced moisture (in natura = 72.91%...

Consumo e tempo de uso do fumo e sua atuação como fator modificador da progressão da doença periodontal; Consumption and time of using cigarette smoking and its effect as a modifying factor for the extent of periodontal disease

Adriana de Fatima Vasconcelos Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2001 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
O fumo é considerado fator de risco para a doença periodontal. Os fumantes apresentam maior profundidade de sondagem, recessão gengival, perda de inserção clínica, perda óssea e perda dentária, quando comparados com os não fumantes.O propósito desse estudo foi analisar a influência do consumo de cigarros no desenvolvimento da doença em 40 indivíduos de 25 a 70 anos, bem como a quantidade de cigarros consumidos por dia em fumantes leves « 1 O cigarros) e fumantes pesados ( > 10 cigarros) e tempo de duração do hábito de fumar em curta duração « 10 anos) e longa duração (> 10 anos), necessários para observar valores significantes do índice de placa, índice gengival, recessão gengival, profundidade de sondagem e perda de inserção clínica. Os resultados demonstraram que os valores dos parâmetros clínicos adotados foram similares, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante ( p < O, 01) na comparação entre sextantes anteriores e posteriores, bem como os fumantes leves apresentaram valores maiores para o IP, IG, R e PS e os fumantes de longa duração obtiveram valores maiores para todos os critérios. Isto nos permite concluir que o fumo é um fator modificador da progressão da doença periodontal; Smoking is considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. Smokers have shown higher probing depth...

Fumo em ratas grávidas : envolvimento do fator induzível por hipóxia (HIF-1alpha), do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular (VEGF) e da eritropoietina (EPO) sobre a ontogênese renal e a função renal da prole de ratos machos; Smoking pregnant rats : involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) on ontogenesis and renal function of the male offspring rats

Daniel Bueno Block
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
O ambiente em que vivemos tem grande influência no desenvolvimento e na vida adulta do feto, sendo que a alimentação ou o tabagismo vêem como hábitos e estilo de vida que estão diretamente relacionados a modificações na organogênese fetal. O tabagismo é um dos fatores de maior preocupação das autoridades em saúde pública, devido aos graves problemas à saúde causados pelo cigarro, os custos sociais e econômicos decorrentes destas afecções e, atualmente às possíveis implicações epigenéticas dada incidência do tabagismo em gestantes que pode repercutir sobre gerações futuras. Vários estudos tratam dos efeitos danosos e das repercussões do cigarro no organismo de gestantes e no desenvolvimento do feto, tais como hipertensão arterial, doenças cardiovasculares, maior prevalência de aborto espontâneo, morbidade intrauterina , retarde no crescimento fetal, entre outros. A inalação de monóxido de carbono (CO) pelas gestantes, através do cigarro, causa no feto um estado de hipóxia que pode ser, muitas vezes, fatal. Em resposta a este déficit de oxigênio alguns mecanismos fisiológicos podem ser observados, como: o aumento da expressão do hormônio endógeno eritropoietina (EPO) que regula a eritropoiese e consequentemente...

Factors associated with smoking in the elderly: a health survey in Sao Paulo (ISA-SP)

do Amaral Zaitune, Maria Paula; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Lima, Margareth Guimaraes; Galvao Cesar, Chester Luiz; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moises; Goi Porto Alves, Maria Cecilia
Fonte: Cadernos Saude Publica; Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Cadernos Saude Publica; Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
This article reports on smoking prevalence and associated factors in the elderly, based on a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage sampling including 1,954 individuals 60 years or older living in four areas of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Overall smoking prevalence was 12.2%, and higher rates were associated with male gender, age 60-69 years, not belonging to an Evangelical church, lower income, low body weight, lack of leisure-time physical activity, depression/anxiety, and hypertension. There was a high prevalence of smokers among individuals with a history of stroke, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results point to the need for effective interventions in healthcare services to promote smoking cessation among the elderly, since many are unable to stop on their own, even when they have tobacco-related illnesses. Special attention should be paid to individuals that depend on the National Health System, since smoking prevalence is higher in underprivileged socioeconomic groups.

Plano global de prevenção do tabagismo do Município de Braga; Global smoking prevention programme of Braga

Macedo, Manuel; Precioso, José
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Não obstante os seus efeitos demolidores na saúde, na sociedade, na economia e no ambiente, fumar é um comportamento muito difundido a nível nacional e mundial. Os dados do Inquérito Nacional de Saúde realizado em 1999 sobre prevalência de fumadores na população com mais de 15 anos de idade de Portugal Continental revelam que 29,3% dos homens e cerca de 7,9% das mulheres com mais de 15 anos fumavam diariamente, o que corresponde a um total de 1 626 597 fumadores (1 248 212 homens e 378 385 mulheres). Uma análise dos dados provenientes de várias fontes (inquéritos nacionais de Saúde e Eurobarómetro) mostra que a epidemia tabágica está em crescimento em ambos os sexos mas de uma forma particularmente alarmante no sexo feminino. Urge por isso tomar medidas de prevenção primária dirigidas especialmente aos jovens e às mulheres e oferecer a possibilidade de tratamento a todos os fumadores. Baseando-nos na máxima do movimento ecologista «pensar globalmente e agir localmente», defendemos a implementação de abordagens globais mas locais (a nível de municípios) para o controlo da epidemia. Neste artigo descreve-se o estado actual e a tendência evolutiva da epidemia tabágica em Portugal e o Programa Global de Prevenção do Tabagismo do Município de Braga. Este plano pretende contribuir de forma decisiva para a resolução do problema do tabagismo em Braga e servir como «balão de ensaio» para a elaboração de um plano nacional de prevenção do tabagismo.; In spite of its negative impacts on health...

Smoking determinants by gender : a pilot study in schools of the Viseu district; Determinantes do consumo de tabaco em função do sexo : um estudo piloto realizado em escolas do distrito de Viseu

Precioso, José; Samorinha, Catarina; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo; Albuquerque, Carlos; Rosas, Manuel; Araújo, Nelson; Bonito, Jorge; Oliveira, António; Antunes, Henedina; Rebelo, Luís
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Centro de Investigação em Educação (CIEd) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Centro de Investigação em Educação (CIEd)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
According to the data of the Health Behaviour in School – Aged Children: 11 – 15 years old (HBSC), of 1997/ 98 and 2002, the smoking epidemic is growing in Portugal, particularly among the female adolescents. It seems to indicate that the preventive actions in our country are not working out, which can be an outcome of not considering important issues like gender differences. Much has been researched on the determinants of smoking but the existed data has not been conclusive or specific of Portugal. An Investigation Project is ongoing, aiming to deepen the knowledge of the adolescents’ determinants of smoking by gender and to develop more effective preventive actions. Preliminary results of the Project are here presented.; Segundo os dados do Health Behaviour in School - Aged Children: 11 - 15 anos (HBSC), de 1997 / 98 e 2002, a epidemia tabágica está em crescimento em Portugal, particularmente nas adolescentes. Este pode ser um indício de que as acções preventivas, no nosso país, não estão a ter os resultados esperados, o que pode estar relacionado com o facto de não terem em conta, entre outros factores, as diferenças de sexo. Apesar de existirem muitos estudos acerca dos determinantes do consumo de tabaco em adolescentes...

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home and smoking prevalence in the general Portuguese population--the INAsma study

Pereira, AM; Morais-Almeida, M; Sá e Sousa, A; Jacinto, T; Azevedo, LF; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Bugalho de Almeida, A; Fonseca, JA
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
BACKGROUND: We aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home in the Portuguese population; 2) estimate tobacco smoking prevalence in Portugal; 3) identify social and personal characteristics associated with smoking or exposure to ETS. METHODS: Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey. Overall, 6003 individuals completed the interview. ETS exposure at home was defined as exposure to at least one current smoker at home. A smoker was defined as someone with 15 years or older, smoking at least 1 cigarette per day during a year; a current smoker (CS) smoked in the last month. RESULTS: Exposure to ETS at home was reported by 26.6% (95%CI 25.5-27.7) of the participants. Living in households with ≥4 persons (OR=2.31; 95%CI[1.81-2.96]), being a current smoker (OR=7.29; 95%CI[5.74-9.26]) or having current asthma (OR=2.06; 95%CI[1.45-2.94]) were factors positively associated with ETS exposure. When analyzed by gender, the effect of current asthma was only relevant to females. Currently 19.0% (95%CI 18.0-20.0) of the Portuguese population smokes tobacco and 17.2% (95%CI 16.2-18.2) are ex-smokers. CS prevalence is higher in males than females (26.5%versus 12.2%, p<0,001). The odds of being a CS were higher for males...

Hormonal, metabolic and nutritional alterations in smokers: emergency for smoking abstinence

Rodrigues,Gláucia Renata Souza; Melquíades,Marcela; Leite,Maria Alvim; Louro,Maíra Barros; Perches,Carmen; Vargas,Ana Lúcia de Almeida; Luquetti,Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Nemer,Aline Silva de Aguiar
Fonte: Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biochemical and nutritional status of smokers in treatment for smoking cessation and its association with anthropometric parameters. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with convenience sample. Adult smokers were assessed at the start of treatment in the Interdisciplinary Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (CIPIT/HU-UFJF). We evaluated the body mass index (BMI), conicity index (CI); waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat (%BF), fasting glycemia, cortisol, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides (TG) and metabolic syndrome (MS). RESULTS: Most participants (52.2%) had MS and high cardiovascular risk. The fasting glycemia was abnormal in 30.4%. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and WC (r = 0.90; p = 0.0001), %BF (r = 0.79; p = 0.0001), CI (r = 0.65; p = 0.0001), glycemia (r = 0.42; p = 0.04) and TG (r = 0.47; p = 0.002). The CI presented positive correction with insulin (r = 0.60; p = 0.001), glycemia (r = 0.55; p = 0.007), TG (r = 0.54; p = 0.008) and %BF (r = 0.43; p = 0.004). Patients with longer duration of smoking had a higher risk of developing MS (OR = 9.6, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The smokers evaluated had increased risk for developing MS...

Nicotine dependence and levels of depression and anxiety in smokers in the process of smoking cessation

Pawlina,Maritza Muzzi Cardozo; Rondina,Regina De Cássia; Espinosa,Mariano Martinez; Botelho,Clóvis
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Background : Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders that are related to tobacco use and associated with dependence, the process of cessation, lapses and relapses after quitting smoking. Objective : To analyze the association of nicotine dependence with the level of anxiety and depression in patients who are in the process of smoking cessation. Methods : Cross-sectional study conducted with patients who sought the smoking cessation program in Cuiabá/MT. All the smokers enrolled from May to August 2012, participated in this study. Four instruments were applied: Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Fagerström test, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Following bivariate analysis, using the crude prevalence ratio, with level of significance lower than 5% (p < 0.05), having as variable outcome the nicotine dependence ≥ 5 (Fagerström). The associations with p < 0.20 were selected for robust Multiple Poisson Regression (RPa). Results: Associations of Fagerström ≥ 5 with the male sex (RP = 1.15 CI 95% 1.03-1.28); number of cigarettes/day (RP = 1,33; CI 95% 1.19-1.48); and moderate/severe level of depression (RP = 1.15; CI 95% 1.04-1.28) were found. In the final model (RPa)...

Smoking in Latin America: a major public health problem

Costa e Silva,Vera Luiza da; Koifman,Sergio
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Smoking has become a major public health problem in Latin America, and its scope varies from country to country. Despite difficulties in obtaining methodologically consistent data for the region, we analyzed the results from prevalence surveys in 14 Latin American countries. Smoking prevalence among men varied from 24.1% (Paraguay) to 66.3% (Dominican Republic) and among women from 5.5% (Paraguay) to 26,6% (Uruguay). By applying point prevalence data to the stage model of the tobacco epidemic in developed countries, we concluded that the Latin American countries are in stage 2, i.e., with a clearly rising prevalence among men, a prevalence for women that is beginning to increase, and mortality attributable to smoking among men still not reflecting peak prevalence. None of the countries analyzed appeared to have reached stage 3, in which one observes a downward trend in prevalence of smoking among men and peak prevalence among women, with broad impact on tobacco-related mortality. The only exception appears to be Paraguay, which is still emerging from stage 1, i.e., with low prevalence rates among men, too. Nevertheless, high lung cancer mortality rates in Uruguay and Argentina are comparable to those of the developed countries.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth defects in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Nicoletti,Dilvania; Appel,Leilane Droppa; Siedersberger Neto,Pedro; Guimarães,Gabriel Waihrich; Zhang,Linjie
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth defects in children. We performed an electronic search of observational studies in the databases ovid MEDLINE (1950 to April 2010), LILACS and SciELO. We included 188 studies with a total of 13,564,914 participants (192,655 cases). Significant positive associations were found between maternal smoking and birth defects in the following body systems: cardiovascular (OR: 1.11; 95%CI: 1.03-1.19), digestive (OR: 1.18; 95%CI: 1.07-1.30), musculoskeletal (OR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16-1.39) and face and neck (OR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.19-1.37). The strength of association between maternal smoking and birth defects measured by the OR (95%CI) is significantly related to the amount of cigarettes smoked daily (χ2 = 12.1; df = 2; p = 0.002). In conclusion, maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with congenital malformations in children and this association is dose-dependent.

Lack of an association between SNPs within the cholinergic receptor genes and smoking behavior in a Czech post-MONICA study

Hubacek,Jaroslav A.; Lanska,Vera; Adamkova,Vera
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Smoking has a significant heritable component of approximately 30-60%. Recent genome wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunits 3 (rs578776), 5 (rs16969968) and β3 (rs6474412), which are associated with nicotine dependence in Western European populations. To analyze the association in a Czech population, we genotyped 1,191 males and 1,368 females (post-MONICA study). The WHO protocol was used to examine smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. There were 32.1% current and 27.6% past smokers among the males and 22.5% current and 13.8% past smokers among the females. We have not confirmed the original results: the SNPs rs16969968 (p = 0.07), rs578776 (p = 0.16) and rs6474412 (p = 0.76) were not associated with smoking status (never-smokers vs. ever-smokers) in the entire population, if a codominant model of analysis was used. This result was valid for both the male and female subpopulations if analyzed separately and adjusted for age. Finally, in ever-smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was also independent of different genotypes, regardless of which polymorphism (and gender) was analyzed (the lowest p value was 0.49). The association between the cholinergic receptors - nicotinic subunits (-3...

Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Souza,Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira,Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa,Maria Fernanda; Proietti,Fernando Augusto
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte...

Atopy, passive smoking, respiratory infections and asthma among children from kindergarten and elementary school

Ribeiro,Sandra Aparecida; Furuyama,Tatiana; Schenkman,Simone; Jardim,José Roberto de Brito
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that children exposed to parents who smoke have more respiratory infections and asthma. OBJECTIVE: To study the association of both respiratory infections and asthma attacks with atopy, passive smoking and time spent daily at school, among children aged 4 to 9 years old from a kindergarten and elementary school in the city of São Paulo between May and July of 1996. TYPE OF STUDY: Descriptive study. SETTING: A kindergarten and elementary school with linkages to Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. PARTICIPANTS: 183 children between 4 and 9 years old. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A questionnaire consisting of 31 questions was answered by the parents of 183 children, and skin tests for inhaled antigens were performed on 88 children whose parents had given prior agreement for the procedure. RESULTS: Among the children, 51% had had respiratory infections during the preceding 3 months and 25.7% were asthmatic, of whom 52.1% had had one or more asthma attacks during the preceding 3 months. Children exposed to passive smoking did not have more respiratory infections or asthma attacks in comparison with those not exposed. We observed a significant association between atopic disorders in parents and children who were not exposed to passive smoking. There were also associations between atopic disorders in parents and asthma attacks in their infants...

Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

Sobreiro,Bernardo Passos; Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto,Fábio Firmbach; Hallak,Jorge; Athayde,Kelly Silveira; Arap,Sami
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age...

Effects of hot and cold smoking processes on organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa fillet

Franco,Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza; Viegas,Elisabete Maria Macedo; Kronka,Sérgio Nascimento; Vidotti,Rose Meire; Assano,Marcelo; Gasparino,Eliane
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The effects of hot (45-90ºC/5 hours) and cold (27-45ºC/10 hours) smoking processes on the organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa (Brycon cephalus) fillets are evaluated. No significant differences were observed for fillet yield in both non-smoked and smoked fillets. Smoking process losses were significantly higher for hot smoked (19.37%) when compared to cold smoked (17.08%). Smoking process reduced moisture (in natura = 72.91%, for hot = 58.51% and cold = 59.68%) and increased crude protein, lipid and ash contents. However, there was a significant difference only for protein level between hot smoked (28.07%) and cold smoked (27.14%). Cold smoked process resulted in better fillet appearance and color, while hot smoked presented superior flavor, salt content and general acceptance. Aroma and texture did not differ significantly among processes. Therefore, hot smoking process shows the best results for organoleptic properties and protein levels.

The impact of smoking cessation on patient quality of life

Sales,Maria Penha Uchoa; Oliveira,Maria Irenilza; Mattos,Isabela Melo; Viana,Cyntia Maria Sampaio; Pereira,Eanes Delgado Barros
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after twelve months of smoking cessation. METHODS: This was a prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program on the quality of life of 60 self-referred subjects, at a public hospital, during the period of August 2006 to December 2007. The program consisted of 2-h group sessions once a week during the first month and then every 15 days over six months, followed by monthly phone contacts for another six months. The treatment was based on behavior modification and the use of bupropion in combination with nicotinic replacement therapy. Abstinence was verified by exhaled CO measurements. Patient HRQoL was quantified using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Differences in quality of life scores between quitters and non-quitters at twelve months after the initial intervention were evaluated using analysis of covariance with baseline characteristics as covariates. RESULTS: Self-reported quality of life scores were significantly higher among the 40 quitters than among the 20 non-quitters. The following SF-36 domains were most affected: role-emotional (p = 0.008); general health (p = 0.006); vitality (p < 0.001); and mental health (p = 0.002). At twelve months after the smoking cessation intervention...

Smoking and periodontal tissues: a review

César Neto,João Batista; Rosa,Ecinele Francisca; Pannuti,Cláudio Mendes; Romito,Giuseppe Alexandre
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The impact of smoking on general health has been widely studied and is directly related to several important medical problems including cancer, low birth weight, and pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. In the past 25 years, there has also been an increasing awareness of the role of cigarette consumption in oral health problems such as periodontal disease. Smoking is considered the major risk factor in the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal diseases. This article will discuss the available evidence and provide the reader with an overview of the impact of smoking and its cessation on the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontal diseases.