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Das verdades na mídia jornalística sobre o aborto e a vida vinculadas à clandestinidade, violência sexual, drogadição, anencefalia e biotecnologias : o governo do viver/morrer

Witt, Neila Seliane Pereira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Numa sociedade voltada ao fazer viver, em que se busca a longevidade e a saúde, a crescente prevenção de riscos à saúde e ao viver coloca em ação estratégias de governo para “vitalidade”. Tais estratégias propõem-se a estimular e intensificar a “vontade” de saúde/vida/felicidade; a observação, o acompanhamento, a medicalização e o controle do corpo/saúde da mulher grávida; a promoção da saúde e da vida/morte dos não-nascidos; e o uso das tecnologias biomédicas, por exemplo. Essas questões, articuladas à temática do aborto, moveram-me a investigar as “verdades” direcionadas ao “governo" dos corpos e da vida da mulher grávida e de seu “filho”. Considerar as maneiras pelas quais a subjetividade vem se tornando objeto de certas estratégias e procedimentos de governo e também o lugar de destaque da mídia enquanto instância que integra os processos constitutivos de nossas subjetividades ao veicular “verdades” torna relevante a análise das reportagens que tratam sobre o aborto. Tomei como corpus de análise as reportagens dos jornais Zero Hora (ZH), de Porto Alegre/RS, e Folha de São Paulo, de São Paulo/SP, publicadas ao longo dos anos de 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 e 2012. A partir das vertentes pós-estruturalistas dos Estudos Culturais...

Políticas feministas do aborto

Scavone, Lucila
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas e Centro de Comunicação e Expressão Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas e Centro de Comunicação e Expressão
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 675-680
POR
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Os debates e as ações feministas em prol da liberalização do aborto no Brasil foram marcados por avanços, recuos e, sobretudo, por inúmeras negociações políticas. da omissão da palavra aborto, em meados dos anos 70, à opção política pela descriminalização e pela realização dos casos previstos por lei, observa-se uma vocação política do feminismo brasileiro para a negociação. Conclui-se que essas negociações tiveram mais êxito em nível político do que social, pois não lograram alcançar e sensibilizar camadas mais amplas da população.; The debates and feminist actions in favor of the legalization of abortion in Brazil were characterized by progresses and regressions, and above all by countless political negotiations. From the omission of the word abortion, in the mid-seventies, to the political choice of decriminalization and application of the cases foreseen by law, Brazilian feminism has been marked by the choice of negotiation. The article concludes that these negotiations have succeeded politically but failed to reach society and heighten public awareness at a large scale.

Estudo retrospectivo de neospora caninum como causa de aborto numa exploração de bovinos de leite da região da Moita do Ribatejo

Fortunato, Márcia Carina Silva
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em 07/07/2010 POR
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Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; O aborto bovino representa perdas económicas e produtivas importantes. O seu diagnóstico é complexo e difícil, compreendendo causas infecciosas e não infecciosas. A espécie Neospora caninum tem representado, desde a sua descoberta, em 1984, e a sua primeira caracterização, em 1988, uma importante causa de aborto bovino. Em Portugal, o parasita foi identificado, pela primeira vez, em 2001. Desde então, têm sido realizados alguns estudos sobre a sua prevalência no país. Este agente, pela sua frequência e impacto nas explorações, deve ser incluído, sistematicamente, no diagnóstico diferencial de aborto bovino. O presente estudo foi realizado numa exploração de bovinos de leite situada no centro de Portugal, na região da Moita. Os dados analisados corresponderam ao período compreendido entre os anos de 2007 a 2010, tendo sido registada uma alta taxa de aborto (39%), em 117 animais. Em 2008, a seroprevalência de neosporose era de 76%. Após a tomada de algumas medidas de controlo, esta percentagem diminuiu para 49%, em 2010. Neste estudo, foi apenas possível avaliar o intervalo entre partos. Nos animais seropositivos a N. caninum a média deste parâmetro correspondeu a 504 dias. Devido ao reduzido número de animais...

Os custos da interrupção legal da gravidez por opção da mulher : análise de uma realidade

Milhinhos, Cláudia Raquel Fernandes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
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Tese de Mestrado em Gestão de Serviços de Saúde; Em Portugal, a IVG foi despenalizada se realizada por opção da mulher, até 10 semanas de gravidez, pela entrada em vigor da Lei n.º 16/2007, de 17 de Abril. O conhecimento das características da ocorrência da IVG é fundamental para prevenir os riscos associados à sua realização e planear os serviços, nomeadamente os relacionados com atividades de saúde materno-infantil e planeamento familiar em contexto de escassez de recursos, no sector da saúde a nível nacional e internacional. A questão principal deste estudo é conhecer a realidade socioeconómica da IVG legal no pós 2007. O estudo é uma análise retrospetiva e descritiva. Os dados foram colhidos da análise documental dos processos clínicos das mulheres que recorreram à consulta de IVG no CHLN, de Julho de 2007 a Dezembro de 2010 e da análise de dados da ACSS, da DGS e do INE. De 1.888 IVG realizadas verificou-se que a totalidade ocorreu pelo método medicamentoso com um custo total suportado pelo SNS de 726.861,70€ e um custo total dos cuidados de saúde após a interrupção de 91.711,77€, pelo que o valor real da IVG foi de 818.572,90€. Foi ainda calculado um custo mínimo de 428,07€ e máximo de 990...

Roles of the Surface Layer Proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in Ovine Abortion

Grogono-Thomas, R.; Dworkin, J.; Blaser, M. J.; Newell, D. G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2000 EN
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The role of the surface (S)-layer proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus has been investigated using an ovine model of abortion. Wild-type strain 23D induced abortion in up to 90% of pregnant ewes challenged subcutaneously. Isolates recovered from both dams and fetuses expressed S-layer proteins with variable molecular masses. The spontaneous S-layer-negative variant, strain 23B, neither colonized nor caused abortions in pregnant ewes. A series of isogenic sapA and recA mutants, derived from 23D, also were investigated in this model. A mutant (501 [sapA recA+]) caused abortion in one of five challenged animals and was recovered from the placenta of a second animal. Another mutant (502 [sapA recA]) with no S-layer protein expression caused no colonization or abortions in challenged animals but caused abortion when administered intraplacentally. Mutants 600(2) and 600(4), both recA, had fixed expression of 97- and 127-kDa S-layer proteins, respectively. Two of the six animals challenged with mutant 600(4) were colonized, but there were no abortions. As expected, all five strains recovered expressed a 127-kDa S-layer protein. In contrast, mutant 600(2) was recovered from the placentas of all five challenged animals and caused abortion in two. Unexpectedly...

Abortion in laboratory animals induced by Moraxella bovis.

Norman, J O; Elissalde, M H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1979 EN
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Pregnant mice, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits responded to injections of Moraxella bovis strain EPP-63(300) with abortion, death, embryo resorption, and production of small litters. The nature of response appeared to depend primarily on the number of viable cells injected and to some extent on the species of animal and stage of pregnancy. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with 3 X 10(5) viable cells induced 100% abortion and no deaths. Embryo resorption and smaller litters were induced with injection of lower doses of M. bovis. None of the rats used in this study aborted; however, resorption rates were higher in rats than mice. Bacteria-free filtrates prepared from aqueous extracts of blood agar on which M. bovis had been grown induced abortion in mice and guinea pigs, at a rate similar to that caused by viable cells. The lyophilized filtrate could be diluted to produce 100% abortion with no death of injected mice. Abortion-inducing, nonlethal doses of M. bovis and lyophilized filtrates appeared to have no effect on nonpregnant female or male mice.

Decreased type V collagen expression in human decidual tissues of spontaneous abortion during early pregnancy.

Iwahashi, M; Nakano, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1998 EN
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AIM: To provide some insight into the aetiology of spontaneous abortion, the contents of type V collagen was investigated in human decidual tissues in spontaneous abortion and normal pregnancy. METHODS: Collagens were extracted from decidual tissues in spontaneous abortion (n = 19) and normal pregnancy (n = 25). The different types of collagen alpha chains were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), stained with Coomassie brilliant blue, and measured by densitometry. The relative amounts of the alpha 1 (III) and alpha 1 (V) chains were calculated by dividing the band intensities of the alpha 1 (III) and alpha 1 (V) chains by that of the alpha 1 (I) chain. RESULTS: The ratio of the alpha 1 (V) chain to that of the alpha 1 (I) chain in decidual tissues in spontaneous abortion was significantly lower than that found in normal pregnancy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that type V collagen might play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy and that decreased expression of this collagen could be associated with spontaneous abortion.

Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

Baird, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1975 EN
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Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion.

Risk of ectopic pregnancy and previous induced abortion.

Tharaux-Deneux, C; Bouyer, J; Job-Spira, N; Coste, J; Spira, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 EN
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OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the role of prior history of induced abortion in subsequent ectopic pregnancies. METHODS: Data from two French case-control studies were used to examine the effect of induced abortion on ectopic pregnancy risk. Case patients (n = 570) were women admitted for ectopic pregnancy during the study period; controls (n = 1385) were women who delivered in the same center. RESULTS: The analysis among women with no previous ectopic pregnancy showed that, after control for the main ectopic pregnancy risk factors, prior induced abortion was associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 2.0); there was a significant trend between number of previous induced abortions and ectopic pregnancy risk (ORs = 1.4 for 1 previous induced abortion and 1.9 for 2 or more). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that induced abortion may be a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy for women with no previous ectopic pregnancy, particularly in the case of women who have had several induced abortions.

Induced abortion and spontaneous fetal loss in subsequent pregnancies.

Chung, C S; Smith, R G; Steinhoff, P G; Mi, M P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1982 EN
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The effect of induced abortion on spontaneous pregnancy loss in subsequent pregnancies was studied based on 3,416 pairs of matched data in a follow-up investigation. Pregnancy outcome was examined also in relation to abortion procedure, gestation length at time of abortion, and number of previous abortions. In general there was no significant association between prior induced abortion and risks of pregnancy loss with the relative risks of 1.10, 0.88, and 0.81 for the first to third trimester respectively. A slight increase of first-trimester spontaneous loss was noted with the D&C/Suction procedure and early induced abortion (less than 9 weeks). The D&C procedure was associated with non-significant increase of second-trimester loss with the relative risk of 1.59.

Very young adolescent women in Georgia: has abortion or contraception lowered their fertility?

Shelton, J D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1977 EN
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Despite a state law enacted in 1972 which allowed minors to obtain contraceptive services without parental consent, births to very young women in Georgia (age 14 and less) have risen in recent years. Beginning in 1974, however, this trend has reversed. Increased access to induced abortion following the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision appears to have been responsible for the decline. Supporting this assertion are: 1) the temporal relationship between increased access to abortion and the decline in births, 2) the geographic evidence that the decline in births occurred first in Atlanta where abortion utilization is the highest and then followed in areas with somewhat more limited utilization, and 3) a similar observation that the decline occurred earlier and more markedly among young white teenagers whose abortion utilization is higher. Although abortion appears to have had the most visible impact on births, most people would probably agree that efforts toward providing contraception to these young women remain worth the challenge. The ratio of young teenegers accepting contraceptives to young teenegers getting pregnant is suggested as a useful intermediator of the success of family planning programs.

Alpha-fetoprotein in Abortion

Seppälä, Markku; Ruoslahti, Erkki
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/1972 EN
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The clinical value of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a guide to the outcome of threatened abortion was assessed. After the thirteenth week of gestation, abortion occurred more frequently (10/12) in women with abnormal serum AFP levels than in those (2/12) whose AFP concentrations were within the normal range. Low levels were present in women with blighted ovum and high concentrations were associated with intrauterine fetal death. In legal first and second trimester abortions, the circulating maternal AFP levels in postabortion samples were often higher than before abortion, irrespective of whether abortion was performed instrumentally or induced with prostaglandins. Maternal serum AFP levels provide a new means for prediction of the outcome of threatened abortion.

Fertility and legal abortion in England and Wales: performance indicators for family planning services.

Clarke, M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1988 EN
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The relation between fertility rates and legal abortion rates was investigated in a sample of health authorities in England and Wales to see how these varied. Total period fertility rates and total period legal abortion rates were derived from the average number of live births or legal abortions that would be experienced per woman if women experienced the age specific rates of the year in question throughout their childbearing years. The sample of 30 health authorities was selected by taking the districts with the highest and lowest fertility rates in each English region and in Wales in 1986. Total period fertility rates varied from 1.37 in Riverside to 2.42 in Tower Hamlets, while abortion rates varied from 0.25 in East Yorkshire to 0.99 in Riverside. When the two rates were added to provide a potential fertility rate it became clear that some districts with similar potential fertility rates had very different underlying component rates. Such comparisons can be used for service monitoring, indicating the need for better abortion and family planning services in districts with high fertility rates and for better family planning services in those with high abortion rates.

Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion *

Doane, Benjamin K.; Quigley, Beverly G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1981 EN
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A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.

Before and after therapeutic abortion

Mackenzie, Paul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/10/1974 EN
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Surveys conducted after therapeutic abortion were used to evaluate contraceptive use, to assess early physical and emotional effects and to provide feedback to the hospital nurses on their counselling role. The follow-up rate was only 53%. Of those who cooperated 82.9% were using effective contraception three months after abortion. Subjective morbidity was greater than anticipated. The main emotional response was relief coupled with some guilt and depression in a significant minority. The occurrence and significance of the after effects of abortion should be explained in advance. Training workshops for abortion counsellors would be useful. The surgical termination of pregnancy is only a small part of a comprehensive abortion service.

Therapeutic abortion and its psychological implications: the Canadian experience.

Greenglass, E. R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/10/1975 EN
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Approximately 9 months after a legal therapeutic abortion, 188 Canadian women were interviewed. One half were single and the rest were married, separated or divorced. They were matched closely for a number of demographic variables with control women who had not had abortions. Neurotic disturbance in several areas of personality functioning was assessed from questionnaire responses. Out of 27 psychological scales, differences between the abortion and control groups were found on only 3: in general, women who had had abortions were more rebellious than control women, abortion tended to be associated with somewhat greater depression in married women, and single women who had had abortions scored higher on the shallow-affect scale. However, all the personality scores were well within the normal range. Perceived social support was strongly associated with favourable psychological reactions after abortion. Use of contraceptives improved greatly after the abortion, when over 90% of women reported using contraceptives regularly.

Granulysin Produced by Uterine Natural Killer Cells Induces Apoptosis of Extravillous Trophoblasts in Spontaneous Abortion

Nakashima, Akitoshi; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Myojo, Subaru; Ito, Mika; Tatematsu, Mikiko; Sakai, Masatoshi; Takamori, Yasushi; Ogawa, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Kinya; Saito, Shigeru
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
Immune changes are known to occur in recurrent spontaneous abortion, but it is unclear whether either maternal natural killer (NK) cells or T cells attack fetus-derived trophoblasts. To clarify the immunological causes of spontaneous abortion, we examined the relationship between cytotoxic granule proteins in decidual lymphocytes, such as granulysin, granzyme B, and perforin, and the induction of apoptosis in extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). The number of granulysin-positive CD56bright NK cells increased significantly in the decidua basalis during spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy; however, granzyme B- and perforin-positive cells did not change. Interestingly, the expression of granulysin was also detected in the nuclei of EVTs in spontaneous abortion samples. When IL-2-stimulated CD56bright NK cells were cocultured with EVT cells (HTR-8/SV40neo), granulysin was found initially in the cytoplasm and then accumulated in the nuclei of the HTR-8/SV40neo cells. Furthermore, transfected cells expressing a GFP-granulysin fusion protein induced apoptosis in HTR-8/SV40neo cells independently of caspases. Our results suggest that granulysin-positive uterine NK cells attack EVTs; subsequently, the uNK-derived granulysin actively accumulates in the nuclei of EVTs...

Legal Barriers to Second-Trimester Abortion Provision and Public Health Consequences

Jones, Bonnie Scott; Weitz, Tracy A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 EN
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26.91%
Many women need access to abortion care in the second trimester. Most of this care is provided by a small number of specialty clinics, which are increasingly targeted by regulations including bans on so-called partial birth abortion and requirements that the clinic qualify as an ambulatory surgical center. These regulations cause physicians to change their clinical practices or reduce the maximum gestational age at which they perform abortions to avoid legal risks. Ambulatory surgical center requirements significantly increase abortion costs and reduce the availability of abortion services despite the lack of any evidence that using those facilities positively affects health outcomes. Both types of laws threaten to further reduce access to and quality of second-trimester abortion care.

A Safe Vaccine (DV-STM-07) against Salmonella Infection Prevents Abortion and Confers Protective Immunity to the Pregnant and New Born Mice

Negi, Vidya Devi; Nagarajan, Arvindhan G.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/02/2010 EN
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Pregnancy is a transient immuno-compromised condition which has evolved to avoid the immune rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The altered immune response of the pregnant female leads to increased susceptibility to invading pathogens, resulting in abortion and congenital defects of the fetus and a subnormal response to vaccination. Active vaccination during pregnancy may lead to abortion induced by heightened cell mediated immune response. In this study, we have administered the highly attenuated vaccine strain ΔpmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07) in female mice before the onset of pregnancy and followed the immune reaction against challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium in pregnant mice. Here we demonstrate that DV-STM-07 vaccine gives protection against Salmonella in pregnant mice and also prevents Salmonella induced abortion. This protection is conferred by directing the immune response towards Th2 activation and Th1 suppression. The low Th1 response prevents abortion. The use of live attenuated vaccine just before pregnancy carries the risk of transmission to the fetus. We have shown that this vaccine is safe as the vaccine strain is quickly eliminated from the mother and is not transmitted to the fetus. This vaccine also confers immunity to the new born mice of vaccinated mothers. Since there is no evidence of the vaccine candidate reaching the new born mice...

The Role of Interpersonal Communication in Preventing Unsafe Abortion in Communities: The Dialogues for Life Project in Nepal

Bingham, Allison; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gopinath, C. Y.; Kaufman, Anne; Bhattarai, Sanju
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services—such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services—remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important role in overcoming these obstacles, including as part of broad educational- and behavioral-change efforts. This article presents results from an interpersonal communication behavior change pilot intervention, Dialogues for Life, undertaken in Nepal from 2004 to 2006, after abortion was legalized in 2002. The project aimed to encourage and enable women to prevent unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and was driven by dialogue groups and select community events. The authors’ results confirm that a dialogue-based interpersonal communication intervention can help change behavior and that this method is feasible in a low-resource, low-literacy setting. Dialogue groups play a key role in addressing sensitive and stigmatizing health issues such as unsafe abortion and in empowering women to negotiate for the social support they need when making decisions about their health.