Página 14 dos resultados de 1996 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Acidentes escolares nos agrupamentos de escolas de Braga entre 1998 e 2003; Accidents occurring within Braga school groups from the school years 1998 to 2003

Reis, Maria Manuela Alves de Sousa
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Dissertação de mestrado em Estudos da Criança - Promoção da Saúde e Meio Ambiente.; Com o presente estudo pretendeu-se quantificar os acidentes ocorridos nos Agrupamentos de Escolas do Concelho de Braga, tanto com os alunos como com os respectivos professores e restantes agentes educativos, no último quinquénio (1998/2003), tendo em conta a tipologia, os Ciclos (1°, 2° e 3°) com maior número de casos e o local de ocorrência desses acidentes. Neste contexto e, centrado nos acidentes ocorridos com todos os agentes educativos envolvidos, foi desenvolvido um estudo, cuja metodologia privilegiou a elaboração de um inquérito dirigido aos Presidentes dos Conselhos Executivos dos Agrupamentos de Escolas de Braga ou aos responsáveis pela área da segurança, por esta ordem de preferência, em simultâneo com a recolha de dados respeitantes aos acidentes ocorridos nos mesmos Agrupamentos de Escolas. Os resultados referentes à aplicação dos questionários, sobre Saúde e Segurança no Trabalho, a cada um dos Agrupamentos demonstra que: Há necessidade de promover o acervo jurídico-normativo sobre SST; É necessário incrementar a formação no âmbito da SST; Existem dúvidas na aplicação das normas de SST. Os resultados referentes à inquirição sobre os acidentes mostram que: O Agrupamento 1 é o que apresenta maior número de acidentes...

Plataforma para a implementação de um sistema de gestão de acordo com o normativo OHSAS 18001:2007

Almeida, Vanessa Sofia Rodrigues de
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal. Escola Superior de Ciências Empresariais Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal. Escola Superior de Ciências Empresariais
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Dissertação apresentada para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Segurança e Higiene no Trabalho; A importância dos Sistemas de Gestão da SST nas organizações é reconhecida por todos os trabalhadores e partes interessadas, tendo como vantagem para a segurança e saúde dos trabalhadores a redução dos riscos de acidentes e das doenças profissionais. Para a gestão global das organizações podem-se salientar, entre outras, a redução de perdas por paragem de produção, a eliminação de sanções por incumprimento legal, melhoria da produtividade e melhoria da imagem da empresa (Nunes, 2010). O trabalho elaborado tem como objetivos contribuir para compreensão da OHSAS 18001 e dos seus requisitos, no âmbito da implementação de Sistemas de Gestão da SST numa organização, identificar as etapas para a sua implementação, e conhecer as vantagens e as limitações da sua aplicação. O método utilizado consistiu na pesquisa bibliográfica, em documentação sobre o normativo OHSAS 18001, entre outros documentos, que permitiram a interpretação da norma e das ações necessárias ao cumprimento dos requisitos. A implementação de um sistema de gestão da segurança e saúde do trabalho permite que as organizações controlem os seus riscos para a SST...

Clouds and convection in the tropics and subtropics:models, observations, and parameterizations

Cardoso, Sambingo da Silva, 1978-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Geofísicas e da Geoinformação (Meteorologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013; The GPCI (GCSS / working group on numerical experimentation Pacific Cross-section Intercomparison) project offers a new approach for the intercomparison of models, by focusing the analysis on a single cross section in the NE Pacific ocean. It is targeted at the stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and deep convection regimes, as well as the respective transitions. Three-hourly satellite observations and model simulations were prepared for GPCI for the JJA season. The seasonal mean results for variables such as total cloud cover, liquid water path, and outgoing longwave radiation show high scatter among models. Mean vertical velocity, and relative humidity, suggest good, overall, representation of the Hadley circulation. Still, differences exist between models (e.g., in the intensity of the deep convection, or humidity content in the boundary layer). The main cloud types are represented differently (e.g., too low stratocumulus clouds). The transitions between stratocumulus and shallow cumulus show two distinct behaviours (smooth versus abrupt with bimodal nature) reflecting distinct cloud parameterization approaches. None of them reproduces well the observations. Following GEPAT (Grade-based Empirical Pattern Analysis Technique)...

Variações da temperatura de superfície e produtividade oceânicas ao largo da Margem Ibérica durante os últimos 20.000 anos

Alberto, Ana Isabel
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Este trabalho teve como objectivo a reconstrução detalhada da temperatura superficial do oceano (SST) e produtividade oceânica ao largo da margem Ibérica, ao longo dos últimos 20 ka. Foram analisadas amostras de sedimento da sondagem de pistão Calypso MD01-2446 (39º03.36’N, 12º37.44’W; 3547 m) colhida na vertente sudeste do monte submarino do Tore, situada a 300 km a oeste de Portugal. Foram quantificados foraminíferos planctónicos e bênticos em 56 amostras. As variações de SST e produtividade exportada foram calculadas usando a técnica de função de transferência SIMMAX 28 de Pflaumann et al. (1996) e uma versão alargada da base de dados de Salgueiro et al. (2010). A SST reconstruída para os últimos 20 ka varia entre os 10 e os 21,7 ºC e a produtividade exportada de Verão varia entre os 31,5 e os 95,2 gC/m2/a. O Holocénico é marcado por uma SST de Verão relativamente quente, acima de 20 ºC, e pode ser dividido em 3 fases, com uma SST um pouco mais fria antes e depois de um período quente entre os 7,7 e os 3,7 ka BP. Este período quente coincidiu com os valores mínimos de produtividade exportada. Entre 13,3 e 12 ka BP ocorreu um período mais frio (mínimo de 10 ºC), com aumento dos valores de produtividade exportada (máximo de 89...

Melhoramento do cajueiro-anão-precoce: avaliação da qualidade do pedúnculo e a heterose dos seus híbridos

CRISÓSTOMO,JOÃO RIBEIRO; CAVALCANTI,JOSÉ JAIME VASCONCELOS; BARROS,LEVI DE MOURA; ALVES,RICARDO ELESBÃO; FREITAS,JALMI GUEDES; OLIVEIRA,JANSER NOBRE
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
O consumo de pedúnculo de caju "in natura" vem experimentando incremento no Brasil após o cultivo dos novos clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce lançados nos anos oitenta. Apesar desses avanços, o consumo ainda é reduzido, uma vez que não ultrapassa 1% das cerca de 1,5 milhão de toneladas anuais produzidas no Nordeste. Este baixo consumo deve-se a alguns fatores, como o teor de tanino (0,27% a 0,72%) existente nos tipos cultivados de A. occidentale L. Por isso, a Embrapa vem realizando pesquisa objetivando a melhoria dessa característica nos clones anão-precoce CP76 e CP09, via retrocruzamento, com a espécie A. microcarpum L. Neste trabalho, iniciado em 1999, avaliaram-se o tanino, a acidez total (ATT%), os sólidos solúveis totais (SST), a relação SST/ATT, o pH e a textura de pedúnculos dos genitores empregados nos retrocruzamentos e seus respectivos híbridos, com os seguintes resultados: a) confirmaram-se os baixos teores de tanino (0,14%) e de ATT (0,16%) no A. microcarpum em relação às médias dos clones CP76 e CP09 (0,33% para tanino e 0,26% para ATT); b) o A. microcarpum também foi superior quanto à relação SST/ATT (80,6%) e a textura do pedúnculo (10,75 N), sendo os valores dos clones de 47,9 e 6,9N, respectivamente; c) estes resultados confirmam a importância do A. microcarpum como pai doador no melhoramento genético; d) os genitores não diferiram quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e pH; e) os híbridos entre A. microcarpum e A. occidentale exibiram acentuado vigor híbrido com relação aos teores de tanino...

Caracterização física e físico-química de frutos de cajá-umbu (Spondias spp.)

Lira Júnior,José Severino de; Musser,Rosimar dos Santos; Melo,Enayde de Almeida; Maciel,Maria Inês Sucupira; Lederman,Ildo Eliezer; Santos,Venézio Felipe dos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Este trabalho teve como objetivo efetuar a caracterização física e físico-química de frutos de genótipos de cajá-umbu (Spondias spp.) cultivados sob as condições climáticas da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, visando identificar materiais promissores para uso comercial e para trabalhos de melhoramento genético. Frutos de cajá-umbu provenientes da coleção de germoplasma instalada na estação experimental de Itambé-Pe foram submetidos às determinações de peso de fruto (PF), peso da semente (PS), rendimento de polpa (RP), relação entre os diâmetros longitudinal e transversal do fruto (relação DL/DT), pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST), acidez total titulável (ATT) e relação SST/ATT. Constatou-se que o PF e o PS apresentaram variação significativa sem, contudo, haver diferença no RP e na relação DL/DT dos frutos. A análise dos dados revelou haver diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os valores de pH, SST, ATT e SST/ATT dos frutos dos genótipos. todos os genótipos reúnem características físicas exigidas pelas indústrias de processamento. No que se refere à relação SST/ATT, os genótipos 6; 10; 19; 21; 23 e 27 apresentaram os melhores resultados.

Qualidade do suco de maracujá-amarelo em diferentes épocas de colheita

Vianna-Silva,Thais; Resende,Eder Dutra de; Viana,Alexandre Pio; Pereira,Silvia Menezes de Faria; Carlos,Lanamar de Almeida; Vitorazi,Letícia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
A produção de maracujá-amarelo é sazonal e ocorre nas safras de inverno e de verão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de duas diferentes épocas de colheita sobre a qualidade do suco dos frutos de maracujá-amarelo, em sete estádios de maturação. Os experimentos foram constituídos de 2 épocas de colheita (EP 1 e EP 2) e 7 estádios de maturação, com 10 repetições. Os resultados foram avaliados pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Na EP 1, marcada por temperaturas mais amenas e menor precipitação total, os frutos apresentaram maior acidez titulável (AT), maior conteúdo de Sólidos Solúveis Totais (SST), maior conteúdo de MS e razão SST/AT, e menor pH até o estádio de amadurecimento com 65% de cor amarela, quando comparados com a EP 2. A partir deste estádio não foi encontrada diferença significativa no conteúdo de SST entre as épocas de colheita, porém o suco dos frutos totalmente maduros apresentou menores conteúdos de matéria seca e da razão SST/AT na EP 1, além de uma acidez mais elevada. Concluiu-se que os maracujás-amarelos podem ser colhidos com 65% de cor amarela da casca na época EP 1, pois não apresentam alterações químicas posteriores, mas na época EP 2 os frutos apresentaram um incremento da razão SST/AT até o estádio maduro.

Neurophysiological aspects and their relationship to clinical and functional impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Rocco,Carolina Chiusoli de Miranda; Sampaio,Luciana Maria Malosá; Stirbulov,Roberto; Corrêa,João Carlos Ferrari
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess functional (balance L-L and A-P displacement, sit-to-stand test (SST) and Tinetti scale - balance and gait) and neurophysiological aspects (patellar and Achilles reflex and strength) relating these responses to the BODE Index. INTRODUCTION: The neurophysiological alterations found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the severity of the disease. There is also involvement of peripheral muscle which, in combination with neurophysiological impairment, may further compromise the functional activity of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used. Twenty-two patients with moderate to very severe COPD (>60 years) and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers served as the control group (CG). The subjects performed spirometry and several measures of static and dynamic balance, monosynaptic reflexes, peripheral muscle strength, SST and the 6-minute walk test. RESULTS: The individuals with COPD had a reduced reflex response, 36.77±3.23 (p<0.05) and 43.54±6.60 (p<0.05), achieved a lower number repetitions on the SST 19.27±3.88 (p<0.05), exhibited lesser peripheral muscle strength on the femoral quadriceps muscle, 24.98±6.88 (p<0.05) and exhibited deficits in functional balance and gait on the Tinetti scale...

Synthesis and biological evaluation of cytotoxic analogs of somatostatin containing doxorubicin or its intensely potent derivative, 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin

Nagy, Attila; Schally, Andrew V.; Halmos, Gábor; Armatis, Patricia; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Csernus, Valér; Kovács, Magdolna; Koppán, Miklós; Szepesházi, Károly; Kahán, Zsuzsanna
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
To create cytotoxic hybrid analogs of somatostatin (SST), octapeptides RC-160 (d-Phe-Cdocumentclass[12pt]{minimal} usepackage{amsmath} usepackage{wasysym} usepackage{amsfonts} usepackage{amssymb} usepackage{amsbsy} usepackage{mathrsfs} setlength{oddsidemargin}{-69pt} egin{document} egin{equation*}overline{{mathrm{ys-Tyr- extsc{d}-Trp-;Lys-Val-Cy}}}end{equation*}end{document}s-Trp-NH2) and RC-121 (d-Phe-Cdocumentclass[12pt]{minimal} usepackage{amsmath} usepackage{wasysym} usepackage{amsfonts} usepackage{amssymb} usepackage{amsbsy} usepackage{mathrsfs} setlength{oddsidemargin}{-69pt} egin{document} egin{equation*}overline{{mathrm{ys-Tyr- extsc{d}-Trp-;Lys-Val-Cy}}}end{equation*}end{document}s-Thr-NH2) were linked to doxorubicin (DOX) or its superactive derivative, 2-pyrrolino-DOX (AN-201). The conjugation was performed by coupling N-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (N-Fmoc)-DOX-14-O-hemiglutarate or 2-pyrrolino-DOX-14-O-hemiglutarate to the amino terminus of [Lys(Fmoc)5]RC-160 yielding AN-163 and AN-258, respectively, after deprotection. The respective cytotoxic conjugates of RC-121 (AN-162 and AN-238) were prepared similarly. In vitro tests on human cancer cell lines—MKN-45 gastric cancer, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, PC-3 prostate cancer...

Purification and Characterization of the Enzymes of Fructan Biosynthesis in Tubers of Helianthus tuberosus Colombia (II. Purification of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyltransferase and Reconstitution of Fructan Synthesis in Vitro with Purified Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyltransferase and Fructan:Fructan 1-Fructosyltransferase).

Koops, A. J.; Jonker, H. H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), an enzyme involved in fructan biosynthesis, was purified to homogeneity from tubers of Helianthus tuberosus that were harvested in the accumulation phase. Gel filtration under native conditions predicted a molecular mass of about 67 kD. Electrophoresis or gel filtration under denaturing conditions yielded a 27- and a 55-kD fragment. 1-SST preferentially catalyzed the conversion of sucrose into the trisaccharide 1-kestose (GF2). Other reactions catalyzed by 1-SST at a lower rate were self-transfructosylations with GF2 and 1,1-nystose (GF3) as substrates yielding GF3 and 1,1,1-fructosylnystose, respectively, as products. 1-SST also catalyzed the removal of the terminal fructosyl unit from both GF2 and GF3, which resulted in the release of sucrose and GF2, respectively, and free Fru. The purified enzyme did not display [beta]-fructosidase activity. An enzyme mixture of purified 1-SST and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase, both isolated from tubers, was able to synthesize fructans up to a degree of polymerization of at least 13 with sucrose as a sole substrate.

Somatostatin is required for masculinization of growth hormone–regulated hepatic gene expression but not of somatic growth

Low, Malcolm J.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Parlow, Albert F.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Kumar, Ujendra; Patel, Yogesh C.; Rubinstein, Marcelo
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion differs between males and females and regulates the sex-specific expression of cytochrome P450s in liver. Sex steroids influence the secretory dynamics of GH, but the neuroendocrine mechanisms have not been conclusively established. Because periventricular hypothalamic somatostatin (SST) expression is greater in males than in females, we generated knockout (Smst–/–) mice to investigate whether SST peptides are necessary for sexually differentiated GH secretion and action. Despite marked increases in nadir and median plasma GH levels in both sexes of Smst–/– compared with Smst+/+ mice, the mutant mice had growth curves identical to their sibling controls and retained a normal sexual dimorphism in weight and length. In contrast, the liver of male Smst–/– mice was feminized, resulting in an identical profile of GH-regulated hepatic mRNAs between male and female mutants. Male Smst-/- mice show higher expression of two SST receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary than do females. These data indicate that SST is required to masculinize the ultradian GH rhythm by suppressing interpulse GH levels. In the absence of SST, male and female mice exhibit similarly altered plasma GH profiles that eliminate sexually dimorphic liver function but do not affect dimorphic growth.

Intestinal transit in healthy southern Indian subjects and in patients with tropical sprue.

Jayanthi, V; Chacko, A; Gani, I K; Mathan, V I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Whole gut transit was measured in a group of 21 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with tropical sprue by radio-opaque marker technique, using mean transit time single (MTTS) and single stool transit (SST) method. Mean SST in controls was 25.8 (1.4) (SE) hours, which is considerably shorter than in controls in temperate zones. Mean SST (23.7 (0.6) h) correlated significantly with average MTTS (24.9 (1.6) h) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) confirming that SST is a valid method to measure intestinal transit in the tropics. Patients with tropical sprue had a mean SST similar to controls (24.4 (1.1) h), in spite of significantly higher faecal weights (580 (41.2) g v 252 (17.2) g; p less than 0.001).

An objective tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient index for studies of south Amazon dry-season climate variability and change

Good, Peter; Lowe, Jason A; Collins, Mat; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Future changes in meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the tropical Atlantic could influence Amazon dry-season precipitation by shifting the patterns of moisture convergence and vertical motion. Unlike for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, there are no standard indices for quantifying this gradient. Here we describe a method for identifying the SST gradient that is most closely associated with June–August precipitation over the south Amazon. We use an ensemble of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) integrations forced by observed SST from 1949 to 2005. A large number of tropical Atlantic SST gradient indices are generated randomly and temporal correlations are examined between these indices and June–August precipitation averaged over the Amazon Basin south of the equator. The indices correlating most strongly with June–August southern Amazon precipitation form a cluster of near-meridional orientation centred near the equator. The location of the southern component of the gradient is particularly well defined in a region off the Brazilian tropical coast, consistent with known physical mechanisms. The chosen index appears to capture much of the Atlantic SST influence on simulated southern Amazon dry-season precipitation...

Use of the Metallothionein Promoter-Human Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Mouse to Identify Regulatory Pathways that Suppress Pituitary Somatotrope Hyperplasia and Adenoma Formation due to GHRH-Receptor Hyperactivation

Luque, Raul M.; Soares, Beatriz S.; Peng, Xiao-ding; Krishnan, Sonia; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Frohman, Lawrence A.; Kineman, Rhonda D.
Fonte: The Endocrine Society Publicador: The Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Hyperactivation of the GHRH receptor or downstream signaling components is associated with hyperplasia of the pituitary somatotrope population, in which adenomas form relatively late in life, with less than 100% penetrance. Hyperplastic and adenomatous pituitaries of metallothionein promoter-human GHRH transgenic (Tg) mice (4 and > 10 months, respectively) were used to identify mechanisms that may prevent or delay adenoma formation in the presence of excess GHRH. In hyperplastic pituitaries, expression of the late G1/G2 marker Ki67 increased, whereas the proportion of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-labeled cells (S phase marker) did not differ from age-matched controls. These results indicate cell cycle progression is blocked, with further evidence suggesting that enhanced p27 activity may contribute to this process. For adenomas, formation was associated with loss of p27 activity (nuclear localization and mRNA). Increased endogenous somatostatin (SST) tone may also slow the conversion from hyperplastic to adenomatous state because mRNA levels for SST receptors, sst2 and sst5, were elevated in hyperplastic pituitaries, whereas adenomas were associated with a decline in sst1 and sst5 mRNA. Also, SST-knockout Tg pituitaries were larger and adenomas formed earlier compared with those of SST-intact Tg mice. Unexpectedly...

Effect of fiber distribution and realignment on the nonlinear and inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon under longitudinal tensile loading

Lake, Spencer P.; Miller, Kristin S.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Tendon exhibits nonlinear stress-strain behavior that may be due, in part, to movement of collagen fibers through the extracellular matrix. While a few techniques have been developed to evaluate the fiber architecture of other soft tissues, the organizational behavior of tendon under load has not been determined. The supraspinatus tendon (SST) of the rotator cuff is of particular interest for investigation due to its complex mechanical environment and corresponding inhomogeneity. In addition, SST injury occurs frequently with limited success in treatment strategies, illustrating the need for a better understanding of SST properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the inhomogeneous tensile mechanical properties, fiber organization and fiber realignment under load of human SST utilizing a novel polarized light technique. Fiber distributions were found to become more aligned under load, particularly during the low stiffness toe-region, suggesting that fiber realignment may be partly responsible for observed nonlinear behavior. Fiber alignment was found to correlate significantly with mechanical parameters, providing evidence for strong structure-function relationships in tendon. Human SST exhibits complex...

Somatostatin Inhibits Cell Migration and Reduces Cell Counts of Human Keratinocytes and Delays Epidermal Wound Healing in an Ex Vivo Wound Model

Vockel, Matthias; Pollok, Simone; Breitenbach, Ute; Ridderbusch, Ina; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Brandner, Johanna M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
The peptide hormone somatostatin (SST) and its five G protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5) were described to be present in the skin, but their cutaneous function(s) and skin-specific signalling mechanisms are widely unknown. By using receptor specific agonists we show here that the SSTRs expressed in keratinocytes are functionally coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In addition, treatment with SSTR4 and SSTR5/1 specific agonists significantly influences the MAP kinase signalling pathway. As epidermal hormone receptors in general are known to regulate re-epithelialization following skin injury, we investigated the effect of SST on cell counts and migration of human keratinocytes. Our results demonstrate a significant inhibition of cell migration and reduction of cell counts by SST. We do not observe an effect on apoptosis and necrosis. Analysis of signalling pathways showed that somatostatin inhibits cell migration independent of its effect on cAMP. Migrating keratinocytes treated with SST show altered cytoskeleton dynamics with delayed lamellipodia formation. Furthermore...

Lamina- and cell-specific alterations in cortical somatostatin receptor 2 mRNA expression in schizophrenia

Beneyto, Monica; Morris, Harvey M.; Rovenski, Katherine C.; Lewis, David A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Disturbed cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in schizophrenia is evident from lamina- and cell type- specific alterations in presynaptic markers. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), these alterations include lower transcript expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide expressed in the Martinotti subpopulation of GABA neurons whose axons innervate the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. However, whether the alterations in SST-containing interneurons are associated with changes in post-synaptic receptors for SST has not been examined. Thus, we used in situ hybridization to quantify the mRNA expression levels of SST receptors subtype 1 (SSTR1) and subtype 2 (SSTR2) in DLPFC area 9 from 23 matched pairs of subjects with schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. We also assessed the effects of potential confounding variables within the human subjects and in brain specimens from macaque monkeys with long term exposure to antipsychotic drugs. SSTR1 mRNA levels did not differ between subject groups. In contrast, mean cortical SSTR2 mRNA levels were significantly 19% lower in the subjects with schizophrenia. Laminar and cellular level analyses revealed that lower SSTR2 mRNA levels were localized to pyramidal cells in cortical layers 5-6. Expression of SSTR2 mRNA did not differ between monkeys exposed chronically to high doses of haloperidol or olanzapine and control animals...

Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks

Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We found clear evidence of two independent physical drivers for phytoplankton abundance. The first one is the widely accepted phytoplankton blooming produced by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich deep ocean waters. The second, which explains the Bay of Bengal findings, is coastal phytoplankton blooming during high river discharges with terrestrial nutrients. Causal mechanisms should be understood when associating SST with phytoplankton and subsequent cholera outbreaks in regions where freshwater discharge are a predominant mechanism for phytoplankton production.

Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In Vitro and in Islets Transplanted to Diabetic NOD Mice In Vivo

Ludvigsen, Eva; Stridsberg, Mats; Janson, Eva T.; Sandler, Stellan
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Somatostatin acts via five receptors (sst1–5). We investigated if the changes in pancreatic islet sst expression in diabetic NOD mice compared to normoglycemic mice are a consequence of hyperglycemia or the ongoing immune reaction in the pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated from NOD mice precultured for 5 days and further cultured for 3 days at high or low glucose before examined. Islets were also isolated from NOD mice and transplanted to normal or diabetic mice in a number not sufficient to cure hyperglycemia. After three days, the transplants were removed and stained for sst1–5 and islet hormones. Overall, changes in sst islet cell expression were more common in islets cultured in high glucose concentration in vitro as compared to the islet transplantation in vivo to diabetic mice. The beta and PP cells exhibited more frequent changes in sst expression, while the alpha and delta cells were relatively unaffected by the high glucose condition. Our findings suggest that the glucose level may alter sst expressed in islets cells; however, immune mechanisms may counteract such changes in islet sst expression.

The semisolid bolus swallow test for clinical diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia: a prospective randomised study

Schultheiss, Corinna; Nusser-Müller-Busch, Ricki; Seidl, Rainer O.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.1%
Contrary to clinical experience, clinical swallow tests are predominantly performed using water (water swallow tests, WST). In this study, we examine whether swallow tests performed using a bolus of semisolid food (bolus swallow test, BST) offer benefits. In a prospective, randomised, blind study, the results of a standardised saliva swallow test (SST), WST, BST, combinations of these tests and an endoscopic swallow test (FEES) in patients with oropharyngeal swallowing disorders of neurological (NEU) and non-neurological (NNEU) origin were compared. Sensitivity, specificity, test accuracy and inter-rater reliability were analysed. 62 patients (mean age = 64.68; range = 22–84) were included in the study (NEU = 40; NNEU = 22). A sensitivity of 70.7% (NEU = 70.3%, NNEU = 71.4%) and specificity of 82.5% (NEU = 92.3%; NNEU = 100%) were determined for the WST. The BST + SST was found to have a sensitivity of 89.6% (NEU = 66.7%; NNEU = 90.9%) and a specificity of 72.7% (NEU = 87.5%; NNEU = 90.9%). Analysis of test accuracy showed a statistically significant correlation between FEES and BST + SST. Only BST + SST exhibited statistically significant inter-rater reliability. BST in combination with SST was the sensitive clinical instrument for detecting aspiration both over the patient population as a whole and over the two sub-populations. Inter-rater reliability was found to be statistically significant. The results presented here demonstrate the benefit of semisolid food in investigating clinical dysphagia.