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Efficient Monte Carlo modelling of individual tumour cell propagation for hypoxic head and neck cancer

Harriss-Phillips, W.; Bezak, E.; Yeoh, E.; Marcu, L.
Fonte: IOP Publishing Ltd Publicador: IOP Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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A Monte Carlo tumour model has been developed to simulate tumour cell propagation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The model aims to eventually provide a radiobiological tool for radiation oncology clinicians to plan patient treatment schedules based on properties of the individual tumour. The inclusion of an oxygen distribution amongst the tumour cells enables the model to incorporate hypoxia and other associated parameters, which affect tumour growth. The object oriented program FORTRAN 95 has been used to create the model algorithm, with Monte Carlo methods being employed to randomly assign many of the cell parameters from probability distributions. Hypoxia has been implemented through random assignment of partial oxygen pressure values to individual cells during tumour growth, based on in vivo Eppendorf probe experimental data. The accumulation of up to 10 million virtual tumour cells in 15 min of computer running time has been achieved. The stem cell percentage and the degree of hypoxia are the parameters which most influence the final tumour growth rate. For a tumour with a doubling time of 40 days, the final stem cell percentage is approximately 1% of the total cell population. The effect of hypoxia on the tumour growth rate is significant. Using a hypoxia induced cell quiescence limit which affects 50% of cells with and oxygen levels less than 1 mm Hg...

Advances in understanding of toxicities of treatment for head and neck cancer

Logan, R.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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Toxicities associated with head and neck cancer treatment are common events. Despite the fact that many side effects of cancer treatment are now well controlled, some, such as mucositis and salivary gland hypofunction, continue to be almost inevitable outcomes of cancer treatment. Furthermore, improvements in cancer treatment itself as well as new modalities, such as targeted treatments, may be associated with different toxicities. In this review, common toxicities associated with head and neck cancer treatment will be discussed including those reported to occur with targeted therapies. This review also considers the concept of toxicity clusters, risk factors for toxicity (for example genetics) and individualisation of cancer treatment.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/105/description#description; Richard M Logan

Monitoring with head-mounted displays: performance and safety in a full-scale simulator and part-task trainer

Liu, D.; Jenkins, S.; Sanderson, P.; Watson, M.; Leane, T.; Kruys, A.; Russell, W.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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BACKGROUND: Head-mounted displays (HMDs) can help anesthesiologists with intraoperative monitoring by keeping patients’ vital signs within view at all times, even while the anesthesiologist is busy performing procedures or unable to see the monitor. The anesthesia literature suggests that there are advantages of HMD use, but research into head-up displays in the cockpit suggests that HMDs may exacerbate inattentional blindness (a tendency for users to miss unexpected but salient events in the field of view) and may introduce perceptual issues relating to focal depth. We investigated these issues in two simulator-based experiments. METHODS: Experiment 1 investigated whether wearing a HMD would affect how quickly anesthesiologists detect events, and whether the focus setting of the HMD (near or far) makes any difference. Twelve anesthesiologists provided anesthesia in three naturalistic scenarios within a simulated operating theater environment. There were 24 different events that occurred either on the patient monitor or in the operating room. Experiment 2 investigated whether anesthesiologists physically constrained by performing a procedure would detect patient-related events faster with a HMD than without. Twelve anesthesiologists performed a complex simulated clinical task on a part-task endoscopic dexterity trainer while monitoring the simulated patient’s vital signs. All participants experienced four different events within each of two scenarios. RESULTS: Experiment 1 showed that neither wearing the HMD nor adjusting the focus setting reduced participants’ ability to detect events (the number of events detected and time to detect events). In general...

The emerging role of predictive assays in the management of head and neck cancer

Marcu, L.; Yeoh, E.
Fonte: The ResearchMan Publicador: The ResearchMan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Head and neck cancers, especially the advanced, unresectable ones, are difficult to manage due to their high hypoxic content and their ability to repopulate during treatment. Furthermore, the very large inter-patient variability of tumour response for the same treatment of this malignant disease necessitates a quantitative pre-treatment assessment of the tumour. Individualized treatment planning is therefore a tendency in oncology towards better management of disease. The aim of predictive assays is to enable an individual treatment protocol that is optimal for a particular patient to be chosen. Although a variety of predictive assays proposed have proved to be disappointing when trialed, a number of assays under investigation offer promise in predicting treatment outcome. The current paper presents a review of predictive assays for tumour response, in particular for head and neck carcinomas.; L. Marcu and E. Yeoh

Influence of stem-cell cycle time on accelerated re-population during radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

Marcu, L.; Bezak, E.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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OBJECTIVES: Tumour re-population during radiotherapy was identified as an important reason for treatment failure in head and neck cancers. The process of re-population is suggested to be caused by various mechanisms, one of the most plausible one being accelerated division of stem-cells (i.e. drastic shortening of cell cycle duration). However, the literature lacks quantitative data regarding the length of tumour stem-cell cycle time during irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presented work suggests that if accelerated stem-cell division is indeed a key mechanism behind tumour re-population, the stem-cell cycle time can drop below 10 h during radiotherapy. To illustrate the possible implications, the mechanism of accelerated division was implemented into a Monte Carlo model of tumour growth and response to radiotherapy. Tumour response to radiotherapy was simulated with different stem-cell cycle times (between 2 and 10 h) after the initiation of radiotherapy. RESULTS: It was found that very short stem-cell cycle times lead to tumour re-population during treatment, which cannot be overcome by radiationinduced cell kill. Increasing the number of radiation dose fractions per week might be effective, but only for longer cell cycle times. CONCLUSION: It is of crucial importance to quantitatively assess the mechanisms responsible for tumour re-population...

Pattern of cerebrospinal immediate early gene c-fos expression in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury

Finnie, J.; Blumbergs, P.; Manavis, J.; Vink, R.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components.; J.W. Finnie, P.C. Blumbergs, J. Manavis, R. Vink

Hypoxia in head and neck cancer in theory and practice: a PET-based imaging approach

Marcu, L.G.; Harriss-Phillips, W.M.; Filip, S.M.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Hypoxia plays an important role in tumour recurrence among head and neck cancer patients. The identification and quantification of hypoxic regions are therefore an essential aspect of disease management. Several predictive assays for tumour oxygenation status have been developed in the past with varying degrees of success. To date, functional imaging techniques employing positron emission tomography (PET) have been shown to be an important tool for both pretreatment assessment and tumour response evaluation during therapy. Hypoxia-specific PET markers have been implemented in several clinics to quantify hypoxic tumour subvolumes for dose painting and personalized treatment planning and delivery. Several new radiotracers are under investigation. PET-derived functional parameters and tracer pharmacokinetics serve as valuable input data for computational models aiming at simulating or interpreting PET acquired data, for the purposes of input into treatment planning or radio/chemotherapy response prediction programs. The present paper aims to cover the current status of hypoxia imaging in head and neck cancer together with the justification for the need and the role of computer models based on PET parameters in understanding patient-specific tumour behaviour.; Loredana G. Marcu...

Plattenepithelkarzinome im Kopf-Hals-Bereich, eine retrospektive Studie zur Tumordokumentation mit Hilfe der ADT-Bögen (Version III); Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, a retrospective study about tumor-documentation with the ADT-questionnaire (Version III)

Stoll, Carola
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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In der Klinik und Poliklinik für Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie des Universitätsklinikums Tübingen wurde im Zeitraum vom 1.6.1999 bis zum 30.6.2003 insgesamt 336 Patienten mit Malignomen im Kopf-Hals-Bereich (ausschließlich Basalzellkarzinomen, Melanomen und Sarkomen) behandelt. Im Rahmen dieser retrospektiven Studie wurden davon 181 Patienten mit primären, unvorbehandelten Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Mundhöhle, der Lippen und des Oropharynx näher untersucht. Dabei lag im Rahmen dieser Dissertation das hauptsächliche Interesse in der Ätiologie und Epidemiologie, sowie in der Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge. Zur Datenerhebung wurden die Erhebungsbögen (Version III) zur Tumordokumentation der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Tumorzentren angewendet. Die Auswertung hat das Ziel eine Evaluation der durchgeführten Diagnostik und Therapie zu ermöglichen. Das Geschlechtsverhältnis zeigte bei 2,8:1 Männern zu Frauen, dass deutlich mehr Männer von dieser Krankheit betroffen sind eine Angleichung des Geschlechtsverhältnisses ist festzustellen. Der Altersgipfel lag bei unseren Patienten zwischen dem 60. und dem 65. Lebensjahr. Die Hauptrisikofaktoren regelmäßiger Alkoholkonsum und Tabakkonsum konnten in unserem Kollektiv nachgewiesen werden. Der Tumordurchmesser bzw. die T-Kategorie hatte in unserer Studie einen deutlichen Einfluss auf die Prognose. Insbesondere bei kleineren und mittelgroßen Tumoren ließ sich ein Zusammenhang zwischen zunehmendem Tumordurchmesser und schlechterer Überlebensrate feststellen Der histologische Differenzierungsgrad hat in unserem Kollektiv deutlichen Einfluss auf die 5-Jahre-Überlebensrate der Patienten. Der Lymphknotenbefall verringerte die 5-Jahres-Überlebensrate...

Magenentleerung bei variierendem Salzgehalt der Nahrung während HDT-Bedrest; Gastric emptying during long-term bed rest head-down tilt: Effects of dietary sodium

Coprian, Tina
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Magenentleerung bei variierendem Salzgehalt der Nahrung während HDT-Bedrest Langzeitaufenthalte im Weltraum, wie sie seit den frühen 70er Jahren des letzten Jahrhunderts durchgeführt werden (Skylab, Mir, ISS) resultierten in signifikantem Gewichtsverlust vieler Astronauten (bekannt als „Weltraum-Anorexie“), bislang ist jedoch wenig über die zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen bekannt. Bedrest-Studien mit 6°-Kopftieflage (HDT-Bedrest) sind ein anerkanntes Modell um die Wirkung von Schwerelosigkeit auf den menschlichen Körper zu simulieren. Wir maßen den Einfluss des HDT-Bedrests sowie die Wirkung von unterschiedlichem Salzgehalt der Nahrung auf die Magenentleerung von festen Nahrungsmitteln. METHODEN: Acht gesunde männliche Probanden (Alter 26.12 ± 3.94) nahmen an der Studie der Forschungsabteilung des Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR, Köln, Deutschland) zu zwei unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten (M1: Oktober 2005; M2 März 2006) teil. Jeder Messeinheit gingen 4 Tage für Anpassung und Basismessungen voraus, an die eine 14-tägige Phase der strengen Bettruhe und einer 3-tägigen Erholungsphase angeschlossen wurde. Während des HDT-Bedrests erhielten die Probanden bezüglich des Salzgehaltes variierende Mahlzeiten (low: 50mmol/d LSD; high: 550 mmol/d HSD)...

The role of CD44 in the development and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Assimakopoulos, D.; Kolettas, E.; Patrikakos, G.; Evangelou, A.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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CD44, the product of a single gene, exists as several isoforms generated by alternative exon splicing and posttranslational modifications, and is widely distributed in different cells and tissues including those of squamocellular origin. CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in many cellular processes acting as a receptor for cell to cell or cell to matrix adhesion, as a signal transmitter and as a growth factor-presenting molecule. Numerous studies based on immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue sections using different monoclonal antibodies to CD44 isoforms and molecular biological techniques have provided evidence that in many types of tumours there is overexpression of CD44 isoforms and aberrant processing of immature CD44 transcripts relative to nonneoplastic control tissues, suggesting a role of CD44 in tumour development and progression. In contrast to these malignancies, one or more of the CD44 splicevariant isoforms are down-regulated in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. CD44-deficient mice develop normally without giving rise to spontaneous tumours, but CD44-negative cells appear to be more susceptible to oncogenic transformation. Reduction in the expression of CD44 may confer growth advantage and malignant properties to tumour cells. The clinical significance of CD44 in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck as a tumour marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis is discussed.

Eficacia del tratamiento rehabilitador para la disfagia en pacientes adultos con cáncer de cabeza y cuello; Effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment of dysphagia in adult patients with head and neck cancer

Burgués Bargues, Isabel
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
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RESUMEN: La disfagia es una alteración que afecta al proceso deglutorio y una de las principales secuelas del cáncer de cabeza y cuello. Esta revisión se realizó con el objetivo de reunir la evidencia científica existente sobre todos los tipos de tratamientos rehabilitadores más actuales para el abordaje multidisciplinar de esta patología tan primordial como es la disfagia. Para ello se realizaron búsquedas sistemáticas en PubMed y PEDro de estudios clínicos realizados en los últimos 10 años que abordasen el tratamiento rehabilitador no quirúrgico ni farmacológico de la disfagia en pacientes adultos con cáncer de cabeza y cuello, de los artículos encontrados sólo se consiguieron 7, superando todos ellos satisfactoriamente la escala PEDro y la escala CASPe. La evidencia encontrada aporta pruebas de la efectividad del tratamiento rehabilitador tanto preventivo como una vez desarrollada la disfagia. Se analizaron tratamientos de prevención como la técnica “pharyngocise” o los programas de movilizaciones para la hipomovilidad mandibular; y otros rehabilitadores como la electroestimulación, el autocuidado o el impacto del tratamiento sobre los problemas por aspiración. Esta investigación pone de manifiesto la necesidad de continuar con la búsqueda para responder a los nuevos interrogantes que surgen del análisis de los resultados obtenidos en los estudios.; ABSTRACT: 3 Dysphagia is a swallowing disorder that affects the swallowing process and it is one of the major sequelae of head and neck cancer. This review was conducted in order to gather scientific evidence on every type of most current rehabilitation treatments for multidisciplinary approach to this disease as primordial as Dysphagia. For this purpose systematic searches were done in PubMed and PEDro of clinical studies in the past 10 years that addressed the non-surgical neither drug rehabilitation treatment of dysphagia in adult patients with head and neck cancer...

HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

NUNES,Suellen Cristina Barbosa; MORONI,Raquel Borges; MENDES,Júlio; JUSTINIANO,Sílvia Cássia Brandão; MORONI,Fábio Tonissi
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
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A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

BLEEDING OF FEMORAL HEAD DURING TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY FOR OSTEOARTHROSIS

Schwartsmann,Carlos Roberto; Spinelli,Leandro de Freitas; Sotomayor,Marco Yánez; Yépez,Anthony Kerbes; Boschin,Leonardo Carbonera; Silva,Marcelo Faria
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
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Objective:To evaluate the bleeding of the femoral head on hip osteoarthritis in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty.Methods:One hundred and three hips affected by primary hip osteoarthritis were evaluated. After surgical dislocation, the femoral head was divided into four quadrants, and micro perforations were made in order to observe and assess the presence of bleeding, as early type (EB), late type (LB) or without bleeding (WB).Results:We observed early bleeding (EB) in the upper quadrant in 16 hips (15.5%), late bleeding in 14 hips (13.6%) and no bleeding (WB) in 73 hips (70.9%). The anterior quadrant showed EB in 24 hips (23.3%), LB in 7 hips (6.8%) and WB in 72 hips (69.9%). The lower quadrant presented EB in 40 hips (38.8%), LB 14 hips (13.6%) and WB in 49 hips (47.6%). The posterior quadrant showed EB in 39 hips (37.9%), LB 19 hips (18.4%) and WB in 45 hips (43.7%). Comparing BMI and gender, we found no association between these parameters (p> 0.05).Conclusions:The inferior and posterior quadrant had the highest bleeding levels, following the path of the medial circumflex artery. Level of Evidence III, Therapeutic Study.

Dermoscopic and clinical features of head and neck melanoma

Cengiz,Fatma Pelin; Cengiz,Abdurrahman Bugra; Emiroglu,Nazan; Comert,Ela; Wellenhof,Rainer Hofmann
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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AbstractBACKGROUND:The dermoscopic criteria of extrafacial melanomas are well-known.OBJECTIVE:To determine the frequency of dermatoscopic findings in head and neck melanomas (HNM) and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of facial and extrafacial melanoma.METHODS:This observational study included 108 patients with HNM (63% male, mean age 64 years). Participants underwent individual dermoscopic imaging of clinically melanoma. All lesions were excised, and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens.RESULTS:Drawing on histopathological analysis, lentigo maligna melanoma or lentigo maligna was diagnosed in 60 lesions, superficial spreading melanoma in 18, nodular in 10, desmoplastic in 8, superficial spreading melanoma in situ in 12. The most frequent location for head and neck melanoma was the cheek (60 patients, 55.6%). Eight prominent dermatoscopic features were observed in facial melanoma: annular-granular pattern (18%); rhomboidal structures (29%); pseudonetwork (29%); asymmetrical, pigmented, follicular openings (51%); obliterated hair follicles (8%); red rhomboidal structures (18%); increased density of the vascular network (32%); scar-like depigmentation (59%).CONCLUSIONS:HNM has specific dermoscopic features...

Deterministic modelling of kinetics and radiobiology of radiation-cisplatin interaction in the treatment of head and neck cancers.

Marcu, Loredana Gabriela
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1923063 bytes; 434850 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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One of the main objectives of combining radiation treatment and chemotherapy is to obtain a therapeutic gain by an improved tumour control with less or no enhancement of normal tissue toxicity. The optimal schedule for the combined treatment of cisplatin-radiation is still under investigation. Neither the optimal time interval, nor the most adequate sequence of administration of cisplatin and radiation are known. The results of the trials are also inconclusive. Some trials showed a supra-additive effect from the administration of cisplatin before radiotherapy, others, on contrary, from the injection of drug after radiotherapy. The present work encompasses the major challenges brought by the combined modality treatment: cisplatin-radiotherapy. The major goal of this work was to investigate the optimal treatment sequencing between cisplatin and radiotherapy and also the optimal schedule for head and neck carcinomas. Therefore, a computer-based tumour model with literature-given biological parameters has been developed which has allowed the simulation of treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy has been simulated on the virtual tumour and the effects of radiotherapy on tumour regression and regrowth have been analyzed. Also...

"Efeitos da desprogramação neuromuscular da mandíbula, segundo a filosofia de Roth, sobre as posições da cabeça e da coluna cervical, em indivíduos assintomáticos com maloclusão de classe I" ; The effect of mandibular neuromuscular deprogramming, according to Roth’s philosophy, on the positions of the head and the cervical column, in asymptomatic subjetcs with Class I malocclusion

Andrighetto, Augusto Ricardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2006 PT
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O propósito do presente estudo foi determinar, radiograficamente, os efeitos da desprogramação neuromuscular, por meio do uso da placa miorrelaxante superior, na posição craniocervical. A desprogramação neuromuscular foi feita objetivando-se realizar o diagnóstico ortodôntico com a mandíbula em relação cêntrica (RC), de acordo com filosofia de Roth (1981). Foram avaliados 39 indivíduos assintomáticos, com maloclusões Classe I de Angle, separados em dois grupos, o controle, contendo 15 indivíduos, com média de idade de 26 anos, não submetidos a qualquer forma de tratamento, e o tratado, contendo 24 indivíduos, com média de idade de 23 anos e 10 meses, submetidos à desprogramação neuromuscular. De cada paciente, foram obtidas duas telerradiografias em norma lateral, na posição natural da cabeça (PNC). No grupo controle, o intervalo médio entre ambas foi 6 meses e 17 dias. No grupo tratado, a primeira telerradiografia foi realizada previamente, e a segunda, após a desprogramação neuromuscular. O tempo médio de uso da placa miorrelaxante foi de 6 meses e 7 dias. A análise cefalométrica craniocervical foi realizada avaliando-se as angulações craniovertical (SN/VER), craniocervical (OPT/SN e CVT/SN), cervicohorizontal (OPT/HOR e CVT/HOR) e o ângulo da curvatura cervical (OPT/CVT). Concluíu-se que houve extensão significativa da cabeça...

Epidemiological Aspects of Head Lice in Children Attending Day Care Centres, Urban and Rural Schools in Uberlândia, Central Brazil

Borges,Raquel; Mendes,Júlio
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2002 EN
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From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlândia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren.

Pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps for head and neck reconstruction: factors influencing occurrences of complications and the final outcome

Pinto,Fábio Roberto; Malena,Carina Rosa; Vanni,Christiana Maria Ribeiro Salles; Capelli,Fábio de Aquino; Matos,Leandro Luongo de; Kanda,Jossi Ledo
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pedicled flaps play an important role in cancer treatment centers, particularly in developing and emerging countries. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may cause complications and influence the final result from reconstructions using pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (PMMFs) for head and neck defect repair following cancer resection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Hospital de Ensino Padre Anchieta of Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (FMABC). METHODS: Data on 58 patients who underwent head and neck defect reconstruction using PMMFs were reviewed. The final result from the reconstruction (success or failure) and the complications observed were evaluated in relation to the patients' ages, area reconstructed, disease stage, previous oncological treatment and need for blood transfusion. RESULTS: There were no total flap losses. The reconstruction success rate was 93.1%. Flap-related complications occurred in 43.1% of the cases, and half of them were considered major. Most of the complications were successfully treated. Defects originating in the hypopharynx were correlated with the development of major complications (p = 0.02) and with reconstruction failure (p < 0.001). Previous oncological treatment negatively influenced the reconstruction success (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Since the risk factors for developing major complications and reconstruction failure are known...

Desarrollo y uso de sistemas de pronóstico de epidemias de la Fusariosis de la espiga de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) para identificar situaciones sinópticas y predictores meteorológicos en diferentes escalas asociados a la enfermedad en la región pampeana; Development and use of Fusarium head blight forecasting systems in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for identifying synoptic situations and meteorological predictors in different scales associated to the disease in the Pampas region

Moschini, Ricardo Carlos
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
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La fusariosis de la espiga de trigo (FET) causada por el hongo Fusarium graminearum constituye una amenaza multifacética al afectar tanto al rendimiento y calidad del trigo como a la salud humana por acción de micotoxinas. La naturaleza esporádica de la FET relacionada fuertemente al factor ambiental, estimularon el desarrollo y validación de sistemas empíricos y fundamental-empírico de pronóstico, corridos con elementos meteorológicos simples de paso diario. Ambos sistemas reconocen eventos infectivos por mojado de la espiga combinando la ocurrencia de precipitación y altos registros de humedad relativa. Sus predicciones retrospectivas de intensidad de la enfermedad en la región pampeana permitieron abordar estudios para identificar situaciones sinópticas y predictores meteorológicos de creciente escala espacio-temporal relacionados al patosistema, base de pronósticos meteorológicos específicos de corto plazo y estacionales. Para Paraná, Pergamino y Balcarce se caracterizó el campo medio de circulación (altura geopotencial en el nivel de 1000 hPa) asociado a infecciones severas y ligeras de la FET y se demostró la fuerte influencia de situaciones de acción bloqueante en el sur de Sudamérica sobre la ocurrencia de eventos infectivos. Una configuración que manifiesta un debilitamiento de los vientos patagónicos del oeste se visualizó en el mapa de anomalía media de altura geopotencial para 1000 hPa del día inicial de infecciones severas de la FET en Pergamino. En el NE-centro Este de la región pampeana se encontró que niveles mayores de enfermedad se relacionaron con valores crecientes del índice MAS (Modo Anular del Hemisferio Sur) en agosto y con dominancia de circulación meridional N-NE en setiembre. En el sur el IOS (índice de Oscilación del Sur) y variables asociadas a la ocurrencia de situaciones bloqueantes aportaron significativamente para clasificar correctamente las principales epifitias. Algunos de estos índices se incluyeron en modelos logísticos para estimar la probabilidad de ocurrencia de niveles epidémicos de la FET.; In Argentina...

Head size and intelligence, learning, nutritional status and brain development Head, IQ, learning, nutrition and brain

Díaz, Nora S.; Larraín, Cristián G.; Bosch, Enrique O.; Olivares Grohnert, Manuel Alonso; Almagiá, Atilio F.; Miller, Patricio T.; Toro, Triana D.; Perez Munoz Hernan, Armando Del Carmen; Urrutia, María Soledad C.; Leiva, Boris P.; Ivanovic Marincovi
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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Artículo de publicación ISI.; This multifactorial study investigates the interrelationships between head circumference (HC) and intellectual quotient (IQ), learning, nutritional status and brain development in Chilean school-age children graduating from high school, of both sexes and with high and low IQ and socio-economic strata (SES). The sample consisted of 96 right-handed healthy students (mean age 18.0 ± 0.9 years) born at term. HC was measured both in the children and their parents and was expressed as Z-score (Z-HC). In children, IQ was determined by means of theWechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R), scholastic achievement (SA) through the standard Spanish language and mathematics tests and the academic aptitude test (AAT) score, nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric indicators, brain development was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SES applying the Graffar modified method. Results showed that microcephalic children (Z-HC ≤ 2S.D.) had significantly lower values mainly for brain volume (BV), parental Z-HC, IQ, SA, AAT, birth length (BL) and a significantly higher incidence of undernutrition in the first year of life compared with their macrocephalic peers (Z-HC > 2 S.D.). Multiple regression analysis revealed that BV...