Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade de Adelaide

A Universidade de Adelaide é uma instituição de ensino superior australiana fundada em 1874. É a terceira mais antiga universidade da Austrália.

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Survival of frog virus 3 in freshwater and sediment from an English lake

Munro, J.; Bayley, A.E.; McPherson, N.J.; Feist, S.W.
Fonte: Wildlife Disease Association Publicador: Wildlife Disease Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Ranaviruses can be transmitted by contaminated water and sediment but must retain infectivity for a sufficient period to reach and infect a susceptible host. To determine the risk a virus represents once it enters the environment, its persistence in that environment must be determined. We evaluated the survival of frog virus 3 (FV3) in water and sediment from an English lake at temperatures of 4, 15, 20, and 30 C over time. The virus survived in both water and sediment; however, survival times were significantly lower in sediment. The virus lost infectivity in both matrices with a rise in temperature. In water, time required for a 90% reduction in virus titer decreased from 34 d at 4 C to 5 d at 30 C. In sediment, required time for a 90% reduction decreased from 10 d at 4 C to 1 d at 30 C. These results can be used to estimate the persistence of FV3 in the environment and indicate that the virus could remain infectious in temperate locations for extended periods during winter.; James Munro, Amanda E. Bayley, Nicola J. McPherson, and Stephen W. Feist

Isotonic saline nasal irrigation is an effective adjunctive therapy to intranasal corticosteroid spray in allergic rhinitis

Nguyen, S.A.; Psaltis, A.J.; Schlosser, R.J.
Fonte: OceanSide Publications Publicador: OceanSide Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine if the addition of large-volume, low-positive pressure nasal irrigations delivered with isotonic sodium chloride (hereinafter "saline") added to intranasal corticosteroid therapy improves quality of life and objective measures of nasal breathing in patients with allergic rhinitis when compared with intranasal corticosteroid alone. METHODS: A prospective, unblinded, single-arm pilot study was performed of patients with allergic rhinitis already on intranasal corticosteroid pharmacotherapy. Patients added large-volume low-pressure saline irrigation twice daily for 8 weeks to their ongoing regiment of nasal corticosteroid. Mini-Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of life Questionnaire (mRQLQ) assessment and nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIF) were performed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. Twice-daily nasal irrigation with isotonic saline significantly (p < 0.001) reduced mRQLQ scores, from 36.7 ± 20.48 (baseline) to 14.9 ± 11.03 (4 weeks) to 10.10 ± 10.65 (8 weeks). No significant changes were seen in NPIF, pattern use of nasal steroid use, or adverse events. CONCLUSION: Large-volume, low-positive pressure nasal irrigation with isotonic saline is an effective adjunctive therapy to improve quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis already on intranasal corticosteroid therapy. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01030146 registered at clinicaltrials.gov.; Shaun A. Nguyen...

Whole‑genome QTL analysis for MAGIC

Verbyla, A.P.; George, A.W.; Cavanagh, C.R.; Verbyla, K.L.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
An efficient whole genome method of QTL analysis is presented for Multi-parent advanced generation integrated crosses. Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations have been developed for mice and several plant species and are useful for the genetic dissection of complex traits. The analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in these populations presents some additional challenges compared with traditional mapping approaches. In particular, pedigree and marker information need to be integrated and founder genetic data needs to be incorporated into the analysis. Here, we present a method for QTL analysis that utilizes the probability of inheriting founder alleles across the whole genome simultaneously, either for intervals or markers. The probabilities can be found using three-point or Hidden Markov Model (HMM) methods. This whole-genome approach is evaluated in a simulation study and it is shown to be a powerful method of analysis. The HMM probabilities lead to low rates of false positives and low bias of estimated QTL effect sizes. An implementation of the approach is available as an R package. In addition, we illustrate the approach using a bread wheat MAGIC population.; Arūnas P. Verbyla, Andrew W. George, Colin R. Cavanagh...

Protection from radiation-induced apoptosis by the radioprotector amifostine (WR-2721) is radiation dose dependent

Ormsby, R.J.; Lawrence, M.D.; Blyth, B.J.; Bexis, K.; Bezak, E.; Murley, J.S.; Grdina, D.J.; Sykes, P.J.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
The radioprotective agent amifostine is a free radical scavenger that can protect cells from the damaging effects of ionising radiation when administered prior to radiation exposure. However, amifostine has also been shown to protect cells from chromosomal mutations when administered after radiation exposure. As apoptosis is a common mechanism by which cells with mutations are removed from the cell population, we investigated whether amifostine stimulates apoptosis when administered after radiation exposure. We chose to study a relatively low dose which is the maximum radiation dose for radiation emergency workers (0.25 Gy) and a high dose relevant to radiotherapy exposures (6 Gy). Mice were administered 400 mg/kg amifostine 30 min before, or 3 h after, whole-body irradiation with 0.25 or 6 Gy X-rays and apoptosis was analysed 3 or 7 h later in spleen and bone marrow. We observed a significant increase in radiation-induced apoptosis in the spleen of mice when amifostine was administered before or after 0.25 Gy X-rays. In contrast, when a high dose of radiation was used (6 Gy), amifostine caused a reduction in radiation-induced apoptosis 3 h post-irradiation in spleen and bone marrow similar to previously published studies. This is the first study to investigate the effect of amifostine on radiation-induced apoptosis at a relatively low radiation dose and the first to demonstrate that while amifostine can reduce apoptosis from high doses of radiation...

Maesa tetrandra (Primulaceae) in Palau: an introduced species mistaken for a single-island endemic

Costion, C.M.; Utteridge, T.M.A.
Fonte: University of Hawai‘i Press Publicador: University of Hawai‘i Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Maesa canfieldiae Fosberg & Sachet was formerly recognized as a single- island endemic in the Palau archipelago with a potentially rare distribution warranting its listing on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable. Here we synonymize M. canfieldiae into Maesa tetrandra (Roxb.) A. DC., a more widespread species native to Indonesia and New Guinea, and discuss its likely method of recent introduction to the Palau Islands. Because this particular species favors disturbance and is now considered naturalized in the Pacific, we have included a general description of the plant to aid in its identification by nonexperts and to allow monitoring of its invasive potential. We recommend the listing of M. tetrandra as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.; Craig M. Costion and Timothy M. A. Utteridge

Computational identification and comparative analysis of miRNAs in wheat group 7 chromosomes

Deng, P.; Nie, X.; Wang, L.; Cui, L.; Liu, P.; Tong, W.; Biradar, S.S.; Edwards, D.; Berkman, P.; Šimková, H.; Doležel, J.; Luo, M.; You, F.; Batley, J.; Fleury, D.; Appels, R.; Weining, S.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of important biological elements that regulates gene expression by translational repression or transcript degradation both in plants and animals. The origin, distribution and evolution of the miRNA genes have been systematically studied in many model plants, but they are not well understood in wheat. In this study, we have systematically identified the miRNA precursors and mature miRNAs in wheat group 7 chromosomes by computational analysis in the isolated chromosome sequences. A total of 716 precursors belonging to 43 miRNA families were identified, of which 12 miRNAs families (27.91 %) were not reported in wheat. Further analysis found that there were less mature miRNAs but more miRNA precursors distributing on 7D compared to 7A and 7B, suggesting that wheat group 7 homoeologous chromosome eliminated some miRNA precursors with the potential to yield the same miRNA and formed a more precise regulatory network via the two hybridization events. The target genes of all the newly identified miRNAs were also predicted. The results of this study are beneficial to improve our understanding of the distribution of wheat miRNAs and its evolutionary role in polyploidisation.; Pingchuan Deng, Xiaojun Nie, Le Wang...

Flow-induced noise of a wall-mounted finite airfoil at low-to-moderate Reynolds number

Moreau, D.J.; Prime, Z.; Porteous, R.; Doolan, C.J.; Valeau, V.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Abstract not available; Danielle J.Moreau, Zebb Prime, Ric Porteous, Con J. Doolan, Vincent Valeau

The effect of sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis when grown on dentine as a single- and multi-species biofilm

Yap, B.; Zilm, P.S.; Briggs, N.; Rogers, A.H.; Cathro, P.C.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Enterococcus faecalis is often involved in the aetiology of apical periodontitis after endodontic treatment. This project aimed to establish, on dentine in vitro, a multi-species biofilm containing E. faecalis, and to determine if the organism had an increased resistance to sodium hypochlorite compared with an axenic biofilm. Biofilms were established on dentine discs in flow cells with either E. faecalis alone (axenic) or together with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus sanguinis. Following treatment with either 0.9% sodium hypochlorite or saline, the viability of E. faecalis was determined by serial plating and qualitative analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Viable counts indicated that 0.9% NaOCl is highly effective against E. faecalis grown alone and as part of a multi-species biofilm (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.001, respectively). No significant difference in its survival in the two biofilm types was found (P = 0.8276).; Benlee Yap, Peter S. Zilm, Nancy Briggs, Anthony H. Rogers and Peter C. Cathro

Effects of intraduodenal infusion of L-tryptophan on ad libitum eating, antropyloroduodenal motility, glycemia, insulinemia, and gut peptide secretion in healthy men

Steinert, R.E.; Luscombe-Marsh, N.D.; Little, T.J.; Standfield, S.; Otto, B.; Horowitz, M.; Feinle-Bisset, C.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
CONTEXT: Changes in gut motor and hormonal function contribute to the eating-inhibitory and glucose-lowering effects of protein. The effect of amino acids, the digestive products of protein, on gastrointestinal function, eating, and glycemia has not been investigated comprehensively. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that L-tryptophan (L-Trp) stimulates gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions, inhibits eating, and modulates glycemia. Design, Settings, Participants, and Intervention: Ten healthy, normal-weight men were studied in randomized, double-blind fashion, each receiving a 90-minute intraduodenal infusion of L-Trp at 0.075 (total 6.75 kcal) or 0.15 (total 13.5 kcal) kcal/min or saline (control). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, insulin, glucagon, blood glucose, and appetite perceptions were measured. Food intake was quantified from a buffet meal after the infusion. RESULTS: Intraduodenal L-Trp suppressed antral pressures (P < .05) and stimulated pyloric pressures (P < .01) and markedly increased cholecystokinin and glucagon (both P < .001). Glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine increased modestly (both P < .001)...

Clinician acceptance is the key factor for sustainable telehealth services

Wade, V.A.; Eliott, J.A.; Hiller, J.E.
Fonte: SAGE Publicador: SAGE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Telehealth, the delivery of health care services at a distance using information and communications technology, has been slow to be adopted and difficult to sustain. Researchers developing theories concerning the introduction of complex change into health care usually take a multifactorial approach; we intentionally sought a single point of intervention that would have maximum impact on implementation. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 36 Australian telehealth services, sampled for maximum variation, and used grounded theory methods to develop a model from which we chose the most important factor affecting the success of telehealth. We propose that clinician acceptance explains much of the variation in the uptake, expansion, and sustainability of Australian telehealth services, and that clinician acceptance could, in most circumstances, overcome low demand, technology problems, workforce pressure, and lack of resourcing. We conclude that our model offers practical advice to those seeking to implement change with limited resources.; Victoria A. Wade, Jaklin A. Eliott, and Janet E. Hiller

High-sensitivity troponin T and risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation during treatment with apixaban or warfarin

Hijazi, Z.; Wallentin, L.; Siegbahn, A.; Andersson, U.; Alexander, J.H.; Atar, D.; Gersh, B.J.; Hanna, M.; Harjola, V.P.; Horowitz, J.D.; Husted, S.; Hylek, E.M.; Lopes, R.D.; McMurray, J.J.V.; Granger, C.B.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Abstract not available; Ziad Hijazi, Lars Wallentin, Agneta Siegbahn, Ulrika Andersson, John H. Alexander, Dan Atar, Bernard J. Gersh, Michael Hanna, Veli Pekka Harjola, John D. Horowitz, Steen Husted, Elaine M. Hylek, Renato D. Lopes, John J. V. McMurray, Christopher B. Granger, on behalf of the ARISTOTLE Investigators

New potential nearest living relatives for Araucariaceae producing fossil Wollemi Pine-type pollen (Dilwynites granulatus W.K. Harris, 1965)

Macphailm, M.; Carpenter, R.J.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Mike Macphailm, Raymond J. Carpenter

A conceptual classification of parents’ attributions of the role of food advertising in children’s diets

Pettigrew, S.; Chapman, K.; Miller, C.; Thomas, S.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Background: High levels of child obesity are triggering growing concerns about the prevalence and effects of food advertising targeted at children. Efforts to address this advertising are confounded by the expanding repertoire of media and promotional techniques used to reach and attract children. The present study explored parents’ views on food marketing and the strategies parents employ when attempting to ameliorate its effects. As part of an online survey of Australian parents’ attitudes towards a range of food advertisements, respondents were invited to provide additional comment in an open-ended question. The question was optional and asked “Are there any other comments you would like to make?”. One in five of the survey respondents (18%; n = 235) elected to answer this question by discussing their views on food advertising and children’s diets. The responses were imported into NVivo10 for coding and analysis. A grounded approach was used to draw meaning from the data and develop a proposed conceptual classification of parents’ attributions relating to food advertising and its consequences. Results: The majority of responses related to the negative perceived effects of unhealthy food advertising on children’s diets...

Interaction of terbinafine (anti-fungal agent) with perhexiline: a case report

Sheikh, A.R.; Westley, I.; Sallustio, B.; Horowitz, J.D.; Beltrame, J.F.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Perhexiline is a unique anti-anginal agent that is frequently used in the treatment of chronic refractory angina. Its utility has been limited because of its complex pharmacokinetics that were only appreciated following the development of a therapeutic perhexiline assay. Perhexiline is cleared primarily via formation of mono-hydroxy metabolites (OH-perhexiline) by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Drugs that are inhibitors of CYP2D6 may therefore inhibit perhexiline metabolism, increase plasma perhexiline concentration and may consequently increase the risk of toxicity. We report a case of a rise in perhexiline plasma concentration to a toxic level following the introduction of terbinafine hydrochloride; a moderate CYP2D6 inhibiting drug.; Abdul Rauf Sheikh, Ian Westley, Benedetta Sallustio, John D Horowitz, John F Beltrame

Multilocus phylogeography of the sea snake Hydrophis curtus reveals historical vicariance and cryptic lineage diversity

Ukuwela, K.D.B.; de Silva, A.; Mumpuni; Fry, B.G.; Sanders, K.L.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
The Indo-Australian archipelago (IAA) supports the world's highest diversity of marine fish, invertebrates and reptiles. Many of the marine fish and invertebrates show congruent phylogeographic patterns, supporting a view that the region's complex geo-climatic history has played an important role in generating its exceptional biodiversity. Here, we examine population genetic structure of the viviparous sea snake, Hydrophis curtus, to assess how past and present barriers to gene flow in the IAA have contributed to genetic and species diversity in a fully marine reptile. Mitochondrial and anonymous nuclear sequences and ten microsatellite loci were used to identify patterns of historical genetic structure and population expansion, reconstruct dated genealogies and assess levels of recent gene flow. These markers revealed strong concordant geographic structure within H. curtus with a prominent genetic break between populations broadly distributed in the Indian Ocean and the West Pacific. These populations were estimated to have diverged in the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene, and microsatellite admixture analyses suggested limited recent gene flow between them despite the current lack of barriers to dispersal, indicating possible cryptic species. Subsequent divergence in the mid–late Pleistocene was detected within the West Pacific clade among the populations in the Phuket-Thailand region...

Revision of Megascogaster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Cheloninae), with a new species from Sulawesi, Indonesia

Kittel, R.N.
Fonte: Magnolia Press Publicador: Magnolia Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Megascogaster wallacei sp. n. is described from Sulawesi, Indonesia. This is the first representative south of the Philippines and is only the second species of this rare genus described since the type species, M. elongata Baker, 1926. The presence of Megascogaster in Sulawesi, a part of Wallacea, points to a broader distribution of the genus in Southeast Asia. A redescription of M. elongata and a description of the new species M. wallacei are presented along with a key to separate them.; Rebecca N. Kittel

Effects of prey metapopulation structure on the viability of black-footed ferrets in plague-impacted landscapes: a metamodelling approach

Shoemaker, K.T.; Lacy, R.C.; Verant, M.L.; Brook, B.W.; Livieri, T.M.; Miller, P.S.; Fordham, D.A.; Resit Akçakaya, H.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Species interactions have been largely ignored in extinction risk assessment. However, the black-footed ferret Mustela nigripes exemplifies a class of endangered species for which strong species interactions cannot be ignored. This species is an obligate predator of prairie dogs Cynomys spp., and sylvatic plague Yersinia pestis epizootics threaten to undermine recovery efforts by functionally eliminating the prey base. Multispecies ‘metamodelling’ techniques offer new opportunities for exploring population dynamics under strong species interdependencies and disease. To investigate ferret extinction risk in plague-affected landscapes, we simultaneously modelled plague epidemiological processes, prairie dog metapopulation dynamics and ferret demographic responses. Ferret population dynamics were investigated at an important release site (Conata Basin in South Dakota) and for 500 artificial prey landscapes spanning a wide range of realistic colony configurations (e.g. total area, # colonies, spatial clustering) and demographic characteristics. Our simulation models indicate that ferrets are unlikely to persist through episodes of plague at Conata Basin unless they can access prey resources from a wider region or unless management actions can otherwise substantially reduce plague transmission. We show that large...

Perspectives on consumer perceptions of local foods: a view from Indonesia

Arsil, P.; Li, E.; Bruwer, J.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
In many countries around the world, support for local agriculture has been a burgeoning issue involving the development of the local foods movement as an alternative marketing. This study investigated ethnic and geographic differences with respect to the consumers' perceptions of local foods in Indonesia. Semistructured interviews were conducted to examine consumers' views of local foods. “Location,” “quality,” and “price” were found to be the most salient characteristics of local foods. The idea of village was associated with the meaning of “local.” Although the respondents' levels of awareness of local foods were high, further education and dissemination of the national policy on local foods was urgently needed.; Poppy Arsil, Elton Li, Johan Bruwer

Fullerol as a potential pathway for mineralization of fullerene nanoparticles in biosolid-amended soils

Navarro, D.A.; Kookana, R.S.; Mclaughlin, M.J.; Kirby, J.K.
Fonte: ACS Publications Publicador: ACS Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Although fullerenes could reach, and potentially adversely affect, the terrestrial environment via the reuse of biosolids, their fate in soil has not been well studied. This study examined the mineralization of fullerenes with drastically different physicochemical properties (C60 and fullerol, C60-OH) in biosolid-amended soils. Using radiolabeled C60 and C60-OH, mineralization of <0.025% C60 and up to 3% C60-OH was observed in three contrasting soils after incubation for 55 days. This difference in observed mineralization highlights C60-OH’s greater bioavailability compared to that of its parent compound C60 in biosolidamended soils. Glucose-induced respiration tests on C60-/C60-OHcontaminated soils suggest that overall microbial activity was not compromised by exposure to these contaminant species. These results indicate that transformation of certain fullerenes, such as fullerol, could provide a pathway for their mineralization, but such a transformation would be expected to be slow. This study is also the first work to examine the fate of fullerol in soils.; Divina A. Navarro, Rai S. Kookana, Mike J. McLaughlin, and Jason K. Kirby

Resistant against de-depression: LTD-like plasticity in the human motor cortex induced by spaced cTBS

Goldsworthy, M.R.; Müller-Dahlhaus, F.; Ridding, M.C.; Ziemann, U.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
The long-term depression (LTD)-like changes in human primary motor cortex (M1) excitability induced by continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) are subject to reversal (i.e., de-depression) following behavioral engagement of M1, limiting its therapeutic potential under behaviorally relevant conditions. Experiments in animals suggest that the repeated, spaced application of stimulation trains may consolidate synaptic plasticity, making it resistant to reversal by physiological activity. Although there is evidence that repeated cTBS prolongs LTD-like M1 neuroplasticity in humans, whether these effects are resistant to de-depression has not been tested. We investigated whether the neuroplastic effects of paired cTBS trains were resistant to de-depression by a sustained, submaximal voluntary contraction of the hand muscles. In the absence of cTBS, voluntary contraction had no effect on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. While the LTD-like MEP depression induced by a single cTBS was abolished by subsequent voluntary contraction, paired cTBS induced MEP depression that was resistant to reversal. This MEP depression was also resistant to reversal when an experimental de-depression protocol was used instead of a voluntary contraction. Our findings suggest that repeated cTBS applications consolidate LTD-like M1 neuroplasticity...