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Three generations of experience and thought in microbiology and infection

Goldner, Morris
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Views and comments were sought from Brian Lacey, who was professionally active from the 1930s to the 1970s, Alain Dublanchet, active from the 1960s to the 2000s, and Mark Pallen, active from the 1990s to 2000 and beyond. Professor Lacey was professor of microbiology at the Westminster Medical School, University of London, United Kingdom, for many years and is now retired. Docteur Dublanchet is the long time head of the laboratory of microbiology and virology at the Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Villeneuve-Saint-Georges in the greater Paris area. Professor Pallen is currently professor of bacterial genetics at the Medical School, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); he is a keen enthusiast of genomic studies in the interest of molecular pathogenesis research. All three are medically qualified. Four questions were posed to each:

A Microbiology Information System

Peebles, James E.; Ryan, Kenneth J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/11/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
This paper describes a microbiology information system which is integrated into a general purpose laboratory information system as well as into the normal workflow of the microbiology laboratory. Data entry using “customized” terminal keyboards greatly simplify technologists interaction with the system allowing direct entry of results at each workstation. Results are reported in a user oriented format utilizing full English description of all terms.

Issues in the design of a clinical microbiology database within an integrated hospital information system.

Nussbaum, B. E.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
The LASTWORD hospital information system contains a clinical microbiology database which permits both review of patient reports and retrospective data searches using clinical and/or demographic criteria. The elements supporting this database are dictionary tables of coded phrases, a general purpose query language (Tandem ENFORM), an HL7 interface to a laboratory computer system, and long-term data storage of demographic, microbiology and other clinical data in a relational database.

Direct Comparison of the BD Phoenix System with the MicroScan WalkAway System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Organisms▿

Snyder, J. W.; Munier, G. K.; Johnson, C. L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
The Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) is designed for the rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinically significant human bacterial pathogens. We evaluated the performance of the Phoenix instrument in comparison with that of the MicroScan WalkAway system (Dade Behring, West Sacramento, CA) in the ID and AST of gram-negative clinical strains and challenge isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 150) and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB; 45 clinical isolates and 8 challenge isolates). ID discrepancies were resolved with the API 20E and API 20NE conventional biochemical ID systems (bioMerieux, Durham, NC). The standard disk diffusion method was used to resolve discordant AST results. The overall percentages of agreement between the Phoenix ID results and the MicroScan results at the genus and species levels for clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were 98.7 and 97.7%, respectively; following resolution with conventional biochemical testing, the accuracy of the Phoenix system was determined to be 100%. For NFGNB, the levels of agreement were 100 and 97.7%, respectively. Both systems incorrectly identified the majority of the uncommon nonfermentative nonpseudomonal challenge isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis patients; these isolates are not included in the databases of the respective systems. For AST of Enterobacteriaceae...

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Sputum Samples from Cystic Fibrosis Patients▿

Bosch, Alejandra; Miñán, Alejandro; Vescina, Cecilia; Degrossi, José; Gatti, Blanca; Montanaro, Patricia; Messina, Matías; Franco, Mirta; Vay, Carlos; Schmitt, Juergen; Naumann, Dieter; Yantorno, Osvaldo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
The accurate and rapid identification of bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is critical in epidemiological studies, during intrahospital outbreaks, for patient treatment, and for determination of therapeutic options. While the most common organisms isolated from sputum samples are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, in recent decades an increasing fraction of CF patients has been colonized by other nonfermenting (NF) gram-negative rods, such as Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ralstonia pickettii, Acinetobacter spp., and Achromobacter spp. In the present study, we developed a novel strategy for the rapid identification of NF rods based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in combination with artificial neural networks (ANNs). A total of 15 reference strains and 169 clinical isolates of NF gram-negative bacteria recovered from sputum samples from 150 CF patients were used in this study. The clinical isolates were identified according to the guidelines for clinical microbiology practices for respiratory tract specimens from CF patients; and particularly, BCC bacteria were further identified by recA-based PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with HaeIII...

Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology

Burdette, Steven D
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools.

Clinical microbiology in developing countries.

Archibald, L. K.; Reller, L. B.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control Publicador: Centers for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
We review the problem of limited microbiology resources in developing countries. We then demonstrate the feasibility of a cohort-based approach to integrate microbiology, epidemiology, and clinical medicine to survey emerging infections in these countries.

Development of a Cell Culture Method To Isolate and Enrich Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis from Shell Eggs for Subsequent Detection by Real-Time PCR▿

Day, J. B.; Basavanna, U.; Sharma, S. K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a major cause of nontyphoidal salmonellosis from ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked shell eggs. Current techniques used to identify Salmonella serotype Enteritidis in eggs are extremely laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a novel eukaryotic cell culture system was combined with real-time PCR analysis to rapidly identify Salmonella serotype Enteritidis in raw shell eggs. The system was compared to the standard microbiological method of the International Organization for Standardization (Anonymous, Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella, 2002). The novel technique utilizes a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) as the host for the isolation and intracellular replication of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. Exposure of macrophages to Salmonella serotype Enteritidis-contaminated eggs results in uptake and intracellular replication of the bacterium, which can subsequently be detected by real-time PCR analysis of the DNA released after disruption of infected macrophages. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to eggs contaminated with various quantities of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. As few as 10 CFU/ml was detected in cell lysates from infected macrophages after 10 h by real-time PCR using primer and probe sets specific for DNA segments located on the Salmonella serotype Enteritidis genes sefA and orgC. Salmonella serotype Enteritidis could also be distinguished from other non-serogroup D Salmonella serotypes by using the sefA- and orgC-specific primer and probe sets. Confirmatory identification of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis in eggs was also achieved by isolation of intracellular bacteria from lysates of infected macrophages on xylose lysine deoxycholate medium. This method identifies Salmonella serotype Enteritidis from eggs in less than 10 h compared to the more than 5 days required for the standard reference microbiological method of the International Organization for Standardization (Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella...

Proteomic Identification of OprL as a Seromarker for Initial Diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis▿

Rao, Aparna R.; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.; Barbieri, Joseph T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Identification of new immunogenic antigens that diagnose initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) alone or as an adjunct to microbiology is needed. In the present study, a proteomic analysis was performed to obtain a global assessment of the host immune response during the initial P. aeruginosa infection of patients with CF. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify outer membrane protein L (OprL), a non-type III secretion system (TTSS) protein, as an early immunogenic protein during the initial P. aeruginosa infection of patients with CF. Longitudinal Western blot analysis of sera from 12 of 14 patients with CF detected antibodies to OprL during the initial P. aeruginosa infection. In addition, also detected were antibodies to ExoS, ExoU, or ExoS and ExoU, the latter indicating sequential P. aeruginosa infections during initial infections. Detection of serum reactivity to OprL, along with proteins of the TTSS, and in conjunction with microbiology may diagnose initial P. aeruginosa infections in patients with CF.

Screening of Urine Samples by Flow Cytometry Reduces the Need for Culture▿

Jolkkonen, Santra; Paattiniemi, Eeva-Liisa; Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Sarkkinen, Hannu
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Urine samples constitute a large proportion of samples tested in clinical microbiology laboratories. Culturing of the samples is fairly time- and labor-consuming, and most of the samples will yield no growth or insignificant growth. We analyzed the feasibility of the flow cytometry-based UF-500i instrument (Sysmex, Japan) to screen out urine samples with no growth or insignificant growth and reduce the number of samples to be cultured. A total of 1,094 urine specimens sent to our laboratory for culture during 4 months in the spring of 2009 in Lahti, Finland, were included in the study. After culture, all samples were analyzed with the Sysmex UF-500i for bacterial and leukocyte (white blood cell [WBC]) counts. Youden index and closest (0,1) methods were used to determine the cutoff values for bacterial and WBC counts in culture-positive and -negative groups. By flow cytometry, samples considered positive for UTI in culture had bacterial and WBC values that were significantly higher than those for samples considered negative. The flow cytometric screening worked best when both bacterial counts and WBC counts were used with age- and gender-specific cutoff values for all patient groups, excluding patients with urological disease or anomaly. By use of these cutoff values...

Design and Development of a New Diagnostic Microbiology and Epidemiology Track in the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology

Walsh, Thomas J.; Rauch, Carol A.; Sautter, Robert L.; Carey, Roberta B.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%

Endodontic microbiology

Narayanan, L Lakshmi; Vaishnavi, C
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Root canal therapy has been practiced ever since 1928 and the success rate has tremendously increased over the years owing to various advancements in the field. One main reason is the complete understanding of the microbiology involved in the endodontic pathology. This has helped us to modify the conventional treatment plans and effectively combat the microorganisms. Now, studies are aiming to explore the characteristics of the “most” resistant organism and the methods to eliminate them. This article gives an insight of the microbiology involved in endodontic pathology and discusses its role in our treatment procedure. Information from original reviews listed in PubMed, published from 1995 to 2010, has been mainly included in this review.

C- and N-truncated antimicrobial peptides from LFampin 265 – 284: Biophysical versus microbiology results

Adão, Regina; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G.M.; Bastos, Margarida
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with two globular lobes, each having two domains. Since the discovery of its antimicrobial properties, efforts have been made to find peptides derived from this protein showing antimicrobial properties. Most peptides initially studied were derived from Lactoferricin B, obtained from the protein by digestion with pepsin. More recently, a new family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from Lactoferrin was discovered by Bolcher et al, and named Lactoferrampin (LFampin). The original sequence of LFampin contained residues 268 – 284 from the N1 domain of Lactoferrin. From this peptide, the Bolscher’s group synthesized a collection of peptides obtained by extension and / or truncation at the C or N-terminal sides, in order to unravel the main structural features responsible for antimicrobial action. Here, we present results for three of these peptides, namely LFampin 265 – 284, LFampin 265 — 280, and LFampin 270 – 284. The peptides were tested against bacteria (E. coli and S. sanguinis), fungi (C. albicans), and model membranes of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG), and their mixtures at a ratio of 3 : 1 (DMPC : DMPG (3 : 1)). The ability to adopt a helical conformation was followed by a circular dichroism (CD)...

Can Genetics and Genomics Nursing Competencies Be Successfully Taught in a Prenursing Microbiology Course?

Shuster, Michèle
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
In recognition of the entry into the era of personalized medicine, a new set of genetics and genomics competencies for nurses was introduced in 2006. Since then, there have been a number of reports about the critical importance of these competencies for nursing practices and about the challenges of addressing these competencies in the preservice (basic science) nursing curriculum. At least one suggestion has been made to infuse genetics and genomics throughout the basic science curriculum for prenursing students. Based on this call and a review of the competencies, this study sought to assess the impact of incorporation of genetics and genomics content into a prenursing microbiology course. Broadly, two areas that address the competencies were incorporated into the course: 1) the biological basis and implications of genetic diversity and 2) the technological aspects of assessing genetic diversity in bacteria and viruses. These areas address how genetics and genomics contribute to healthcare, including diagnostics and selection of treatment. Analysis of learning gains suggests that genetics and genomics content can be learned as effectively as microbiology content in this setting. Future studies are needed to explore the most effective ways to introduce genetics and genomics technology into the prenursing curriculum.

Identification of Mycobacteria in Solid-Culture Media by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry▿

Saleeb, Paul G.; Drake, Steven K.; Murray, Patrick R.; Zelazny, Adrian M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been introduced into the clinical microbiology laboratory as a rapid and accurate method to identify bacteria and yeasts. In this paper we describe our work on the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of mycobacterial isolates. We developed a protocol for protein extraction from mycobacteria and utilized it to construct a database containing 42 clinically relevant type and reference strains of mycobacteria. The database was used to identify 104 clinical isolates of mycobacteria. All members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were identified accurately at the complex level but could not be separated at the species level. All other organisms were identified at the species level, with the exception of one strain of M. kansasii (accurately identified but with a low spectral score) and three pairs of closely related strains: M. abscessus and M. massiliense, M. mucogenicum and M. phocaicum, and M. chimaera and M. intracellulare. These pairs of organisms can currently be identified only by multilocus gene sequence analysis. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS analysis can be incorporated into the work flow of the microbiology laboratory for rapid and accurate identification of most strains of mycobacteria isolated from solid growth media.

From Structure to Solutions: The Role of Basic Research in Developing Anthrax Countermeasures: Microbiology Graduate Program Seminar: Anthrax Toxin

Hardiman, Camille A.
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/06/2012 EN
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25.9%
Dr. John Collier traced the discoveries that elucidated the structure and function of the anthrax toxin in his talk “Anthrax Toxin,” which was part of the Microbiology Graduate Program Seminar Series at Yale School of Medicine on February 23, 2012. Dr. Collier, Professor of Microbiology and Immunobiology at Harvard University, began by noting the advantages to studying anthrax pathogenesis in a biosafety level-1 lab. This designation does not merely facilitate his research, but also reflects a larger trend of basic research being leveraged to develop translational applications. Basic research on toxin structure has led to the development of a vaccine by Dr. Collier’s group. Next-generation prophylactics also may stem from recent discoveries uncovering a role for cellular cofactors that mediate toxin function. Finally, basic research into the toxin substructure has facilitated efforts to change the receptor tropism to target dysregulated cells for therapeutic purposes. The urgency around biodefense agents makes the choice of research priorities a salient issue. As such, this author submits that basic research occupies a unique and lucrative niche driving clinical applications.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms: from Research to Routine Diagnosis

Hrabák, Jaroslav; Chudáčková, Eva; Walková, Radka
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied as an identification procedure in clinical microbiology and has been widely used in routine laboratory practice because of its economical and diagnostic benefits. The range of applications of MALDI-TOF MS has been growing constantly, from rapid species identification to labor-intensive proteomic studies of bacterial physiology. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contribution of the studies already performed with MALDI-TOF MS concerning antibiotic resistance and to analyze future perspectives in this field. We believe that current research should continue in four main directions, including the detection of antibiotic modifications by degrading enzymes, the detection of resistance mechanism determinants through proteomic studies of multiresistant bacteria, and the analysis of modifications of target sites, such as ribosomal methylation. The quantification of antibiotics is suggested as a new approach to study influx and efflux in bacterial cells. The results of the presented studies demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS is a relevant tool for the detection of antibiotic resistance and opens new avenues for both clinical and experimental microbiology.

The Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Experience Offers Opportunities Similar to the Undergraduate Research Experience†

Schalk, Kelly A.; McGinnis, J. Randy; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hendrickson, Amy; Smith, Ann C.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2009 EN
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25.9%
There has been a growing concern in higher education about our failure to produce scientifically trained workers and scientifically literate citizens. Active-learning and research-oriented activities are posited as ways to give students a deeper understanding of science. We report on an undergraduate teaching assistant (UTA) experience and suggest that students who participate as a UTA obtain benefits analogous to those who participate as an undergraduate research assistant (URA). We examined the experiences of 24 undergraduates acting as UTAs in a general microbiology course. Self-reported gains by the UTAs were supported by observational data from undergraduates in the course who were mentored by the UTAs and by the graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) with whom the UTAs worked. Specifically, data from the UTAs’ journals and self-reported Likert scales and rubrics indicated that our teaching assistants developed professional characteristics such as self-confidence and communication and leadership skills, while they acquired knowledge of microbiology content and laboratory skills. Data from the undergraduate Likert scale as well as the pre- and post-GTA rubrics further confirmed our UTA’s data interpretations. These findings are significant because they offer empirical data to support the suggestion that the UTA experience is an effective option for developing skills and knowledge in undergraduates that are essential for careers in science. The UTA experience provides a valuable alternative to the URA experience.

The Use of Personal Narrative in Classroom Case Study Analysis to Improve Long-term Knowledge Retention and Cultivate Professional Qualities in Allied Health Students

Young, Linda M.; Anderson, Rodney P.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2010 EN
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25.9%
This study evaluated the use of two different case study formats (clinically-oriented cases versus personally-oriented cases) to determine which was most effective in promoting long-term retention of clinically significant microbiology concepts, developing patient empathy, improving comprehension of patient compliance problems, and facilitating student understanding of transcultural health care concerns. The analysis was conducted in multiple sections of three different introductory microbiology classes targeting specific cohorts: nursing students, pharmacy students and other allied health students (pre-med, pre-PA, CLS, etc.). Retention of course content was determined by evaluation of multiple-choice and short answer examinations at least three weeks after completing case studies. Evaluation of patient empathy, understanding of patient compliance issues and transcultural health care concerns were determined via student surveys. The results of the study indicated that personalized cases significantly improved long-term retention of course content. In addition, student responses indicated that personalized case studies were more effective in developing patient empathy and aiding students in understanding issues patients have with complying with treatment recommendations. Finally...

Microbes in Mascara: Hypothesis-Driven Research in a Nonmajor Biology Lab †

Burleson, Kathryn M.; Martinez-Vaz, Betsy M.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
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25.9%
In this laboratory exercise, students were taught concepts of microbiology and scientific process through an everyday activity — cosmetic use. The students’ goals for the lab were to develop a hypothesis regarding microbial contamination in cosmetics, learn techniques to culture and differentiate microorganisms from cosmetics, and propose best practices in cosmetics use based on their findings. Prior to the lab, students took a pretest to assess their knowledge of scientific hypotheses, microbiology, and cosmetic safety. In the first week, students were introduced to microbiological concepts and methodologies, and cosmetic terminology and safety. Students completed a hypothesis-writing exercise before formulating and testing their own hypotheses regarding cosmetic contamination. Students provided a cosmetic of their own and, in consultation with their lab group, chose one product for testing. Samples were serially diluted and plated on a variety of selective media. In the second week, students analyzed their plates to determine the presence and diversity of microbes and if their hypotheses were supported. Students completed a worksheet of their results and were given a posttest to assess their knowledge. Average test scores improved from 5.2 (pretest) to 7.8 (posttest)...